Occupational Stress Experienced By Male1


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Stress in my society is very prominent in both my personal as Ill as professional life. None of my occupation is free from stress. But the occupations that I consider more stressful are medical, teaching, office work, labors and police.
The aim of this paper was to identify the sources and consequences of stress. For this purpose I select sample size of 125 in which 25 Ire doc tors, 25 Ire teachers, 25 Ire employees working in office, 25 Ire labors and 25 Ire police officers.
Doctors Ire from Shifa International hospital, Teachers Ire from Educators, Comsats, Beacon house, Employees Ire from NPSL and PEPAC and also from NPB, and police officers were from Rescue 15 and police line.
Main focus of our study is on gender, hierarchy and age.

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Occupational Stress Experienced By Male1

  1. 1. Submitted to: Ms. Sehar Zulfizqar Submitted By: Amina Mushtaq Rabail Tariq Khurram Naseem Class: MBA (Finance) 4th C 1
  2. 2. S. No Table of Content Page No 1 Introduction of the Topic 1-13 2 Introduction of the Departments 14-26 3 Literature Review 27-40 4 Problem Statement 41 5 Theoretical Frame work 42 -45 6 Hypothesis 46 7 Sampling Technique 47 8 Discussion 48 9 Questionnaires 49 - 51 10 Recommendations 52 – 54 11 Conclusion 55 12 References 56-57 13 Annexure 58-60
  3. 3. OCCUPATIONAL STRESS EXPERIENCED BY MALE & FEMALE EMPLOYEES This Research paper is submitted by Amina Mushtaq , Rabail Tariq, Khurram Naseem in department of Management Sciences of NUML under the Supervision of Madam Sehar Zulfiqar. ABSTRACT Stress in my society is very prominent in both my personal as Ill as professional life. None of my occupation is free from stress. But the occupations that I consider more stressful are medical, teaching, office work, labors and police. The aim of this paper was to identify the sources and consequences of stress. For this purpose I select sample size of 125 in which 25 Ire doc tors, 25 Ire teachers, 25 Ire employees working in office, 25 Ire labors and 25 Ire police officers. Doctors Ire from Shifa International hospital, Teachers Ire from Educators, Comsats, Beacon house, Employees Ire from NPSL and PEPAC and also from NPB, and police officers Ire from Rescue 15 and police line. Main focus of our study is on gender, hierarchy and age. Declaration
  4. 4. I declare that “Occupational stress experienced by male and female employees” is my own work and all resources we have used have been indicated and acknowledged by complete references. Acknowledgment We would like to thanks To Allah all mighty for His mercy, support and strength he gave to us And then to all those people who support us and encourage us to make this research possible. Very special thanks to: • Our parents especially our father Dr.Mushtaq Ahmad, Tariq Mahmood Mughal and Naseem Akhter who support us through out our research. • Our supervisor Madam Sehar for her input and direction • Dr. Adil who through out support us in visit of Shifa International hospital • Rescue 15 and police line for their encouragement and dedication they show us in visit of their offices • Employees of National physical and standard laboratory , PEPAC and National Bank of Pakistan for their support and assistance throughout our research • Teachers of Educators, Beacon house, Comsats and for their assistance and support they show us in their visit. Motivation for the study Internal and external factors have contributed to increase stress in almost all occupations. Changing environment, new technologies, changing policies, change from public to private organization, downsizing in organizations, increase in shifts; they are all causing stress on employees. So; I am motivated to know either male are taking more stress or females are taking more stress.
  5. 5. Aims and Objectives The research aims to answer the following questions: • What are the symptoms of stress for doctors, teachers, and employees having desk job, labors and police officers? • Does employee role in organization (Role ambiguity, Role conflict) causes stress on employee? • Does individual characteristics (individual’s level of anxiety, tolerance for ambiguity) causes stress on employee? • Is there any relationship between individual characteristics and occupational stress? • Study relationship between gender and stress? • What are the work factors that lead towards stress?
  6. 6. Introduction of the topic Stress in my society is not something that is invisible. Person whether a child, adult, men, women, employed, unemployed every one is facing stress in his/her own way. When stress was first studied in the 1950s, the term was used to denote both the causes and the experienced effects of pressures. More recently, however, the word stressor has been used for the stimulus that provokes a stress response. Currently, the disagreement among researchers concerns the definition of stress in humans and their argument is based on the following question: Is stress primarily an external response that can be measured by changes in glandular secretions, skin reactions, and other physical functions, or is it an internal interpretation of, or reaction to, a stressor; or is it both. Every person has his own definition of stress. But according to Van Wyk (in Olivier & Venter, 2003), stress is derived from the Latin word "strictus” that translates into taut, meaning stiffly strung. Oliver and Venter (2003) rely on the definition of Dr. Hans Seyle, who defined stress in physiological terms, as a non-specific or generalized bodily response. The human body has a natural chemical response to a threat or demand, commonly known as the “flight or fight” reaction, which includes the release of adrenalin. Once the threat or demand is over the body can return to its natural state. A STRESSOR is an event or set of conditions that causes a Stress response. STRESS is the body’s physiological response to the stressor, and STRAIN is the body’s longer-term reaction to chronic stress. Occupational Stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health
  7. 7. and even injury. Long term exposure to job stress has been linked to an increased risk of muscular skeletal disorders, depression and job burnout and may contribute to a range of debilitating diseases, ranging from cardiovascular disease to cancer. There are large number of occupational stressors of varying degree and nature experienced by male and female employees. At work place stressors can be poor physical condition at work place, Downsizing, Privatization, Hiring freezes, Contingent work (e.g. part-time or temporary), Shift work/Rotating schedules, Quality Programs/Worker Participation schemes, little autonomy or control over one’s Job, Non-existent career ladders, Inadequate resources to do the job, High demands, workload, time pressures, Lack of job security, Understaffing, Mandatory overtime, Violence/Harassment. Stress level changes according to Hierarchy. Lower level employees both male and female experience stress in different way as compare to upper level and middle level. Stages of Job Stress Job stress includes these stages: • The honeymoon • The awakening • Brownout • Full scale Burnout
  8. 8. The Honeymoon During the honeymoon phase your job is wonderful. You have boundless energy and enthusiasm and all things seem possible. You like the job and the job likes you. You believe it will satisfy all your needs and desires and solve all your problems. The Awakening The honeymoon phase wanes and the awakening stage starts with the realization that your initial expectations Ire unrealistic. The job is not working out the way you thought it would. It does not satisfy all your needs. As disappointment grows, you become conferred. Typically you work hard even harder to “make” your dreams come true. But working hard does not changes anything and you become tired, bored and frustrated. Brownout As brownout begins, your early enthusiasm and energy give way to chronic fatigue and irritability. You become indecisive and your productivity drops. Your work deteriorates. As this phase grows you become increasingly frustrated and angry. You are beset with depression, anxiety and physical illness. Full Scale Burnout Unless you wake up and interrupt the process or some one intervenes, brownout drifts remorselessly into full scale burnout. Despair is the dominant features of this final stage. In this stage life seems pointless and there is paralyzing, “What
  9. 9. is the wee” pessimism about the future. You talk about “Jet quitting and getting away”. You are examined physically and mentally. This reaction to stress was first described in 1936 and was coined the General Adaptive Syndrome (GAS), which includes three distinct, stages (Seyle, 1974; 1980): 1. Alarm reaction, 2. Stage of resistance, and 3. Stage of exhaustion. Alarm Reaction The alarm reaction is the immediate psycho-physiological response and at this time of the initial shock, resistance to stress is lowered. This process includes the secretion of hormones from the endocrine glands, causing for example, increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension and a decrease in maintenance functions, e.g. digestion. In cases where the stressor is continuous, the resistance phase starts where the body triggers the needed bodily system to deal with the stressor. The body is alerted and activated and stress levels are at its highest during this stage. Stage of Resistance The resistance stage is characterized by an adaptation response of the body that is manifested with “fight or flight” responses. The body endeavors to remedy the shock caused by the stress and to return the homeostasis of the body. If the stressors continue, the body will persevere in defending itself, thereby impeding any possibility of rest and repair.
  10. 10. Stage of Exhaustion In the exhaustion stage, there is a resistance to a continued stressor, and where the adaptation response and /or return to equilibrium replace the alarm reaction. If the alarm reaction is elicited too intensely or too frequently over an extended period of time, the energy required for adaptation becomes depleted, and the final stage of exhaustion, collapse or death occurs. It is during this stage that physical and mental breakdown occurs, the individual performance plummets and illness develops. Level of Stress It is important to recognize that stress is not necessarily harmful. There may be two levels of stress.  Moderate level of stress  Extreme level of stress ( Low or high)  Optimal level In fact many researchers have concluded that moderate level of stress enhances performance and health. Extreme level of stress (Low or high) can be distressful because they serve either to under stimulate or over stimulate. Optimal level of stress can be challenging and produce (Positive feelings and high involvement) rather than distress. Therefore stress must be managed so that a proper balance is created which allows for optimum functioning for individuals and organizations.
  11. 11. Occupational Stress process Stressors Strains Work outcomes Perceived stress Appraisal of situation Emotional Behavioral Physical Personal characteristics Organizational characteristics Job demands Role characteristics Interpersonal relationships Working conditions Career concerns Job dissatisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Work ineffectiveness Coping & Support Reduced job involvement
  12. 12. Sources of stress • Economic conditions • Increased levels of competition • Market changes • Technological development • Changes in production and products • New forms of organization and product development • Drive for greater cost-effectiveness • General public concern for the environment • Changes within organization • Reorganizations • Layoffs • Organizational structure • Organizational culture/climate • Mergers, acquisitions and similar changes of company ownership • Workforce diversity • Reward systems • Promotion policies • Job security • Leadership style • More training needed, etc.
  13. 13. • Poor fit between abilities and skills needed to perform job effectively • Work overload • Pressure to work longer hours • Job characteristics • Conflicting job demands • Unclear job expectations • Pressures of responsibility • Time pressures • Lack of resources to perform job • Lack of information • Lack of collaboration • Relations with subordinates, coworkers and superiors • Working conditions • Physical danger • Over or under promotion • Insufficient training • Demographic characteristics • Coping skills • Work life conflict • Family problems • Personal problems • Social problems • Financial difficulties Consequences of Stress
  14. 14. Stress produces a range of undesirable, expensive, and debilitating consequences, which affect both individuals and organizations. In organizational setting, stress is nowadays becoming a major contributor to health and performance problems of individuals, and unwanted occurrences and costs for organizations. Stress can result in • Absenteeism • Turn over • Reduced job involvement • Job dissatisfaction Its physical symptoms can be: o Headaches o Stomach problems o Eating disorders o Sleep disturbances o Fatigue o Muscle aches & pains o Chronic mild illnesses o High Blood Pressure o Heart disease o Stroke Its psychological & Behavioral symptoms can be: • Anxiety • Irritability • Low morale • Depression
  15. 15. • Burnout • Alcohol & drug • Feeling powerless • Isolation from co-workers • Musculoskeletal disorders Effect of Job Stress on work outcomes When person get stress on physic, emotion and behavior that person become looser or he escapes from working. His behavior towards work changes and ultimately the effect shows on different work outcomes. This workout comes are as under: • Performance • Productivity • Job dissatisfaction • Reduce job involvement • Absenteeism • Turnover • Work ineffectiveness • Health Managerial Costs of Job Stress Health care costs consume a growing part of the costs of doing business. Job stress has been estimated to cost American industry $ 150 billion per year in: • Absenteeism
  16. 16. • Diminished productivity • Compensation claims • Health insurance • Direct medical expenses To get some perspective, these costs are more than 15 times that of all strikes combined. For example: o 500 million work days lost each year due to illness and disability o 93 million to back problems o 23 million to cardiovascular complaints Stressed workers smoke more, eat less ,are less motivated on the job, have more trouble with co- workers and have more physical illness. Introduction of the departments Beacon house school system
  17. 17. The Beacon house School System was founded in 1975, tracing its origins to Les Anges Montessori Academy. It is the oldest and largest private school system in South Asia with presence in 26 cities across the country and student strength of 125,000. Its purpose-built campuses in various locations nationwide offer the finest facilities for teaching and learning in the country. These campuses have been equipped with the latest state-of-the-art science and computer laboratories. Beacon house has the rare distinction of being, if not the only, then certainly one of the very few educational institutions in the world that caters to the educational needs of students from the pre-nursery all the way to post graduation. With the addition of Beacon house National University in 2003, Pakistan’s first liberal arts university; my students now have the opportunity to pursue degrees till the graduate level. Beacon house Informatics provides students with internationally recognized undergraduate degrees in the field of computer science.
  18. 18. Mission Beacon house aims to provide quality education of an international standard. I aim for excellence through quality management, quality training and quality teaching bringing benefit to my students, the community, the country and the wider world. Values Beacon house Educational Services values the right of every individual to realize his or her potential through the acquisition of knowledge, skills and values in a caring and supportive environment. The Beacon house system upholds the freedom of each student to think, create and discover, whilst respecting the cultures and spiritual insights of others. I believe the human mind grows best in a spirit of freedom and co-operation. I promote equal opportunities for all my students irrespective of gender and of religious, social, ethnic or linguistic background. Rescue 15
  19. 19. The center headed by ASP/DSP operates round the clock in3 shifts. Each shift is headed by an officer of the rank of Inspector who is minimum a graduate. The Center has 12 Sections/Units and each if this is headed by an officer of the rank of ASI/SI. Following are the sections:- • VEHICAL VERIFICATION SECTION • MOBILE FORENSIC LAB • MEDICAL UNIT • ADMIN SECTION • DUTY OFFICER • HELPLINE • WIRELESS & TELECOMMUNICATION SECTION • ROAD BREAK DOWN SECTION • ARMED RESPONSE UNIT • MOTOR TRANSPORT SECTION • SECURITY ALARM SECTION
  20. 20. • MOBILE UNIT Following are the resources at the disposal of the Centre:- • MANPOIR 80 • DOCTORS 03 • PATROL CARS 03 • MOTORCYCLE 12 • AMBULANCES 02 • MOBILE FORENSIC LAB 01 • RECOVERY VEHICLE 01 • RADIO SETS 20 • COMPUTERS 03 • FAX 01 • TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS 05 • CCTV 01 The Educators The importance of quality education particularly at school level cannot be discarded. But since quality education is expensive, common masses remain deprived of such a precious and worthy facility. At this critical hour, The Educator has come up with a solution and in a small span of time has won a great deal of recognition. It aims at providing “School Operations Management” service to various investors. The service takes form of furnishing a comprehensively uniform quality education system, Ill equipped with professional teacher training programs, Ill-conceived lesson plans and Ill-
  21. 21. developed examination system. Its instantaneous and widespread acceptance speaks volumes of strength of its system and philosophy and hence success. On the other hand, being a pioneer in Pakistan, it is not only relieving the parents of cost-effective-quality-education hassle but is shouldering the responsibility of shaping and glorifying the future of my generations as Ill. Mission The Educators aims for a quality learning experience for the students and quality training for the faculty by providing excellence in education within my socio-cultural framework, bringing forth benefit to students, community and the country. Vision The Educators envisions quality education as the key resource for national development, delivered to a cross-section of my society through sustainable projects. Objective The Educators aims to develop a vast network of cost effective, quality education institutions throughout the country that offers standardized educational experience through a network alliance. The objectives are: 1. Providing quality, English medium education at an affordable cost.
  22. 22. 2. Imparting a harmonious combination of traditional and modern teaching and learning approaches. 3. Reducing the cost of education by standardizing the curriculum, textbooks, stationary items, uniforms, building structures, staff development, assessment, evaluation and monitoring systems. 4. Staying updated with the latest developments in the global schools curricula and introducing them in Pakistan. 5. Training the teachers with new and more efficient teaching techniques through professional development causes and distant-learning programs. 6. Building a network of schools penetrating deep into the social setup and providing equal opportunities in education to all. 7. Supporting the national cause of improving literacy. 8. Extending continuous and updated staff development programs to a wider cross-section of practicing professionals. 9. Ensuring sustainable profitability for the entrepreneurs. 10. Sharing expertise with strategic partners. Comsats The COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) received its Charter from the Federal Government in Augmet 2000, as a Degree Awarding Institute (DAI) in the public sector. Pursuant to the Federal Government of Pakistan’s decision, it is slated to be upgraded to the status of a university, more precisely Comsats University (CU). Being federally established institute, the CIIT currently has six campuses in Islamabad, Lahore, Wah, Abbottabad, Attock, and Sahiwal, while one more campus is coming up at Gujarat. The future plans also envisage opening of more campus in the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan, as Ill as overseas. Currently the CIIT is offering 25 different degree programs in the fields of Information and Communication Technology, Management
  23. 23. Sciences, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, Bio-sciences, Development Studies, Environmental Science, Meteorology, and Architecture and Design. The present student strength is around 10,456 with faculty strength of also nearly 1,189. The Institute in the short time has already produced high quality graduates numbering more than 3,200, who are serving the nation in the various callings. Recently, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan has ranked the CIIT at number 7 in terms of research productivity and at number 8 among the Engineering institutions of higher education in the country during 2006. NATIONAL BANK OF PAKISTAN National Bank of Pakistan is the leader and possesses an outstanding position in the local financial sector of Pakistan. National bank of Pakistan was established on November 09, 1949 vide National Bank of Pakistan Ordinance XIX of 1949. Objective The main objective of the establishment of NBP was to extend credit to the Agriculture Sector only. However, during the year 1950, the Bank’s Ordinance was amended so that it could take up Ordinary Commercial Banking Business as Ill. National Bank of Pakistan has • 29 regional offices • 1250 Domestic branches • 6 subsidiaries • 18 overseas branches • 1 joint venture with United National bank (UK) • 4 Representative offices.
  24. 24. NATIONAL PHYSICAL AND STANDARDS LABORATORY ISLAMABAD The main objective of the NPSL is to maintain primary standards of measurement and materials on internationally recognized level. The NPSL is the national custodian of all physical standards of measurements and materials. In simple terms this in fact means that NPSL is to realize, maintain & disseminate the standards of measurement. Thus NPSL by maintaining the national standards of measurements and materials acts as the focal a point for all calibration / standardization and testing needs of the country, and is the only certified link to the international measurement system. By this it is meant that NPSL is the only organization within the country which can certify whether a particular measuring instrument conforms to the permissible norms and specifications required for measuring instruments. NPSL also due to its nature carries out inter comparison of its standards with the ones held internationally so that it can be certain that any measurement made with equipment tested by NPSL conforms to the same fact the essence of the international co-operation under the SI protocol, which requires all measurement worldwide to conform to one and the same standard. Objective • Optimum utilization of indigenous raw material resources for the development of industrial processes. • Development of technologies around local resources from bench to pilot plant stages, and leasing them out for industrial exploitation leading to import substitution and export enhancement.
  25. 25. • To conduct R&D work on problems faced by the industrial sector and maintain linkages through seminars, workshops, publications, and provision of assistance to academic institutions. • To undertake cooperative research with local and foreign R&D organizations and commerce-industrial outfits on projects of national interest. • Human resource development through organized training causes and diffusive on – job grooming of manpower for industry and research centers to broaden the science & technology base in the country. PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING & ARCHITECTURAL CONSULTANTS LIMITED Pakistan Environmental Planning and Architectural Consultants Limited PEPAC established in i0th January 1974, according to company act PEPAC is a consultancy firm incorporated as private Limited company registered with SECP. Total capital is 1.1 million, 110.000 shares of 10. It is self financed company. Each and provides integrated services at all scale of the built environment. In over three decades since its birth, PEPAC has one of the foremost planning, architectural and development consultancy firm of Pakistan, with a considerable on the nation’ urban and rural scene. It has the head office in Islamabad and remaining three branches in Karachi Lahore and Peshawar. The firm is working under the ministry of environment. Designation of Tariq Mahmood Mughal is Private Secretary to Managing Director
  26. 26. MISSION STATEMENT To develop a public sector pool of professional expertise charged with the responsibility to conceive, plan and realize a comprehensive and Ill-balanced development of the physical environment relating to different categories of regional planning, land use planning and urban and rural planning, etc. To create an organization in the public sector for carrying out research activities in the field of environmental planning and in all development of architectural designing. To develop adequate trained manpower in all fields of professional activities i.e. “development planning, regional planning, development economics, landscaping and landscape architecture, environmental planning, ecological science, natural sciences, architecture, engineering, industrial design, quality surveying, management sciences. The idea behind is that a coordinated, inter-related and multi-disciplinary manpower resources pool is generated and kept Ill supplied. VISION STATEMENT I am committed to continual improvement in provision of quality Engineering Services to Country. JOB DESCRIPTION To provide Town planning and Architectural Consultancy Services for projects initiated by Govt, Semi Govt and Autonomous Bodies. To carry out Research in the field of Environmental plans and Architectural Designing. The firm’s professional expertise is marked for its diversity and extensiveness. This is illustrated by the work carried out by its professionals. Planning inputs at national, regional. Urban rural level, architectural design of the buildings, structural and environmental engineering and contact and project management services. The following mega projects have been done by PEPAC:- 1. Supreme Court of Pakistan 2. Ayub Medical Complex Abbottabod 3. Hayatabad Hospital Complex Peshawar 4. Awan-e- Iqbal Lahore 5. Shaheed-e-Millat Secretariat Islamabad 6. Major Projects of Special Education Centre all over the country. SHIFA International Hospital Islamabad
  27. 27. The hospital was incorporated on September 29, 1987 as a private limited company and converted into public limited company on October 12, 1989. The primary objectives of the hospital are two: First, to set up a primary, secondary and tertiary care hospital in federal capital, Islamabad with state-of-the-art medical technology and second, to provide the highest quality of medical care to the people of Pakistan through the extensive network of satellite hospitals and modular clinics all over the country. Literature Review Stress, in general, and occupational stress, in particular, is a fact of modern day life that seems to have been on the increase. The topic is, therefore, still popular, although it occupies academics’ and practitioners’ attention now for more than half a century. Occupational (job, work or workplace) stress has become one of the most serious health issues in the modern world, as it occurs in any job and is even more present than decades ago. (Lu et al; 2003, 479) Stress, in general, can be defined as the reaction of individuals to demands (stressors) imposed upon them. It refers to situations where the Ill-being of individuals is detrimentally
  28. 28. affected by their failure to cope with the demands of their environment. (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2006, 287) Occupational stress, in particular, is the inability to cope with the pressures in a job, (Rees, 1997) because of a poor fit between someone’s abilities and his/her work requirements and conditions. (Holmluld Rytkonen & Strandvik, 2005) It is a mental and physical condition which affects an individual’s productivity, effectiveness, personal health and quality of work. (Comish & Swindle, 1994, 26) Occupational stress has been associated with burnout, which is considered a product of long term exposure to stress. (Burke & Green glass, 1994; Mearns & Cain, 2003). It has also been strongly associated with temporary and chronic illnesses, such as headache, hypertension, reduced immune response, stomach complaints, depression and stroke. (Ashcraft, 1992; Burke & Greenglass, 1994; Guthrie, 2006; Kahn & Byosiere, 1992; Kyriacou, 2001; Kyriacou & Sutcliffe, 1997). Occupational stress has been linked to decreased job satisfaction and job commitment, absenteeism (some of it probably due to illness), turnover and reduced performance. (De Nobile & Mc Cormick, 2007; Jepson & Forrest, 2006; Kyriacou, 2001; Muchinsky, 2000; Spector, 2000) Common organizational and individual stressors could be classified into five groups: Organizational practices (performance reward systems, supervisory practices, promotion opportunities), Job/task features (workload, workplace and autonomy), Organizational culture/climate (employee value, personal growth, integrity), Interpersonal relationships (supervisors, coworkers, cmetomers), Employee personal characteristics (personality traits, family relationships, coping skills). Hurrell et al, (1998 in Murphy, 1995) Job stressors can be grouped into the following six categories: physical environment Role stressors, organizational structure and job characteristic*career development Work-family conflict. Burke (1988 in Lu et al; 2003) Six possible classes of stressors in an organizational setting are task-based stress, role based stress, stress intrinsic to behavior, stress arising from the physical environment, stress arising from the social environment, Stress within the person system. McGrath (in Tung & Koch, 1980)
  29. 29. Sources of stress at work: Factors intrinsic to the job, Management role, Relationship with others, Relationship within the organization, Career and achievement, Organizational structure and climate and home/ work interface Copper et al. (1988 in Lu et al; 2003) factors relating to organization structure and climate that are stressors include hierarchal bureaucratic structure that allow employee little participation in decision, lack of adequate communication between managerial and non managerial levels; cynicism regarding leadership and attempts by employees to further their own interest at the expense of others. Limited opportunities for advancement, insufficient performance feedback performance assessment measures being inadequate and biased control system within the organization. If there is no involvement in decision making, lack of management support and problems remained unresolved than those teachers suffers from more stress. Person’s family has a big impact on one’s stress level. A family situation either a brief crisis, such as an illness of a family member or long term strained relations with parents, spouses or children can act as a significant stressor for employees. As employees are working longer hours and bringing more work home at night, more and more pressure is being placed on work family relationships and more emphasis on the coordination of work and vacation schedules and the search for child care options has become prominent and very stressful. Transfer and promotion also leads to stress. If female employee is transferred to other city how she can leave her family and children? And if male is transferred to other city or country he can undergo cultural shock and may experience* isolation. ( Fred Luthan 10th edition organizational Behavior Stress & Conflict) More simply, point that specific conditions that make jobs stressful can be categorized either as exogenous (i.e. unfavorable occupational conditions, excessive workload, lack of collaboration, etc.) or endogenous pressures (i.e. individual personality characteristics, etc.). Antoniome et al. (2006) Causes of occupational stress can be grouped into two main groups: (1) Job related stressors, with three major subgroups Environment specific, Organization specific, Job specific stressors. (2) individual-related stressors, which can be either a consequence of individual characteristics or a consequence of individual life circumstances Consequences of occupational stress can be grouped into Organizational level, Individual level
  30. 30. On individual level there are three main subgroups of strains: Unwanted feelings and behaviors such as job dissatisfaction, lower motivation, low employee morale, less organizational commitment, lowered overall quality of work life, absenteeism, turnover, intention to leave the job, lower productivity, decreased quantity and quality of work, inability to make sound decisions, more theft, sabotage and work stoppage, occupational burnout, alienation, and increased smoking and alcohol intake, under eating/over eating , sleeplessness and tardiness. Physiological diseases (poor physical health) such as increased blood pressure and pulse rate, cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, high blood sugar, insomnia, headaches, infections, skin problems, suppressed immune system, injuries, fatigue, tension and back pain. Psychological diseases (poor emotional (mental) health) Such as psychological distress, depression, anxiousness, passiveness/aggressiveness, boredom, lose of self-confidence and self-esteem, lose of concentration, feelings of futility, impulsiveness and disregarding of social norms and values, dissatisfaction with job and live, losing of contact with reality, emotional fatigue, anger, anxiety, nervousness, irritability and boredom. On the organizational level, consequences of occupational stress can be grouped into two major subgroups: Organizational symptoms Such as discontent and poor morale among the workforce, performance/productivity losses, low quality products and services, poorer relationships with clients, suppliers, partners and regulatory authorities, losing cmetomers, bad publicity, damage to the corporate image and reputation, missed opportunities, disruption to production, high accident and mistakes rates, high labor turnover, loss of valuable staff, increased sick-leave, permanent vacancies, premature retirement, diminished cooperation, poor internal communications, more internal conflicts, and dysfunctional workplace climate. Organizational costs such as costs of reduced performance/productivity (lack of added value to product and/or service), high replacement costs in connection with labor turnover (increase in recruitment, training and retraining costs), increased sick pay, increased health-care costs and disability payments, higher grievance and litigation/compensation costs, and costs of equipment damage. (Ben-Bakr et al; 1995)
  31. 31. Consequence of stress results in a significant loss of skilled and experienced teachers through resignation and /or premature retirement from all levels of the teaching workforce. (Warren & Toll, 1993). Dealing with Occupational stress Firstly, organizations and their employees should become more aware of the degree to which stress is an unnecessary cost, and a cost which they must seek to eliminate if their organizations are to survive and grow. Naturally, this awareness must start at top management level where the estimated cost of stress is sufficient to generate organizational commitment to subsequent action. (McHug, 1993, 31) Secondly, work-related stress should become an issue which increasingly features on the agenda of efficient managers. (McHug, 1993, 18) In an increasingly competitive and fast changing business world, efficient managers should feel compelled to address the issue of work-related stress through counting the costs and taking appropriate action so as to minimize its effects. (McHug, 1993, 19). Managers should expend their efforts in reducing the significant sources of stress , as this leads to a higher employee satisfaction, increases the productivity of the workforce and reduces negative consequences of stress, which at the end results in higher profits. (Blake et al., 1996). Thirdly, training and employee assistance programs dealing with stress should be on employees’ disposal. Various workshops, seminars and conferences should increase employees’ awareness of the costs associated with employee stress, and should teach them how to cope with stressful situations and states. As training can have a positive impact on tacking stress in the workplace, as it helps employees become more resilient towards stress, enables them to tackle the root causes of any problems, and helps managers who not only need to manage their own stress levels, but are responsible for their direct reports. (Suttleworth, 2004) Exercise People of all ages are walking, jogging, swimming, and riding bicycles, playing softball, tennis in order to get some exercise to combat stress. Relaxation
  32. 32. Whether a person simply takes it easy once in a while specific relaxation techniques such as biofeedback or meditation, the intent is to eliminate the immediately stressful situation or manage a prolonged stressful situation more effectively. Behavioral self control By deliberately managing the antecedents and the consequences of their own behavioral, people can achieve self control. Cognitive therapy Besides behavioral self control techniques, a number of clinical psychologists have entered the stress field with cognitive therapy techniques. Techniques such as Ellis’s rational emotive and cognitive behavior modification have been used as an individual strategy for reducing job stress. Networking One clear finding that has come out of social psychology research over the years is that people need and will benefit from social support. Applied as a strategy to reduce job stress, this would entail forming close associations with trusted empathetic co workers and colleagues who are good listeners and confidence builders. These friends are there when needed and provide support to get the person through stressful situations. (Fred Luthans 10th edition Organizational Behavior Stress & Conflict) Considering the organizational and personal costs of high stress, there is certainly an implied payoff in training managers and employees to recognize organizational factors that contribute to stress, and to take steps to alleviate them (Chmemir & Franks, 1988) The personality variables that have been linked to stress include locus of control, self-esteem, type A behavior pattern, hardiness, and negative affectivity. (Ganster & Schaubroeck, 1991). Type A behavior style is characterized as aggressive, ambitious, hard-driving, impatient, seeking to control and expressing time urgency. It may lead to both positive (high performance), and negative (high strain and burnout) outcomes. Type A characteristics are more likely to create strain for themselves by increasing their workload, and often appraise events to be more stressful than do the Type B counterparts. Negative affectivity reflects a stable tendency to experience low self-esteem and negative emotional states; individuals have a gloomy view of the world, and may be more sensitive to stressful conditions.
  33. 33. Demographic variables that are proven to relate to someone’s job stressor/health relationships include gender, age, marital status, job tenure, job title, and hierarchical level. Women experience the greater level of stress as they are more vulnerable to the demands of work to the extent that they often have more non-work demands than men. (Ganster & Schaubroek, 1991). Lastly, staff employed at the higher job levels Ire found to be less stressed that those employed at the lower job levels. (Dua, 1994) As Ill, different levels of management influence preference for stress coping styles, specifically, as it is progressed towards the more senior levels of management, delegation and maintaining style relationships are considered the most useful forms (Kirkcaldy & Furnham, 1999). Numerome studies have established that teaching can be a stressful profession. Teacher occupational stress has been linked to absenteeism, turnover, and other negative organizational outcomes. (John J. De Nobile & John McCormick, 2007). For example; there is study on relationships betIen biographical variables and occupational stress of staff members in catholic primary school. Occupational stress has been describe as the experience of negative feelings such as frmetration, worry and anxiety perceived to arise from work related factors. (Kyriacou, 2001) There is a research that female teachers experienced significantly higher levels of occupational stress than males. Younger teachers experienced higher levels of burnout, specifically in terms of emotional exhametion and disengagement from the profession, while older teachers experienced higher levels of stress in terms of the support they feel they receive from the government. (Antonio, A-S; Polychroni, F; Vlachakis, A.-N, 2006). Research has indicate that continued stress can drastically lower job satisfaction and performance and can also damage the individual’s personal life(Kobassa 1982 a,b,1,84;Fimian and Santoro,1983).
  34. 34. The term burnout is often using to describe the effects of continual stress. Other variables associated with teacher stress and burn out are Role problems, Loss of control, Isolation, Dissatisfaction with salary, Role overload, Role ambiguity, Lack of administrative support (Fimian, 1986). A complex relationship appears to exist between occupational stress and age. Significant differences in stress among age groups, but these differed according to the stressors. For example, the youngest group of teachers (aged less than 26 years) reported greater stress from pupil behavior issues than older colleagues, while teachers aged between 26 and 30 years reported higher stress from professional recognition needs than their younger and older colleagues. In the same study the oldest group of teachers (aged over 40 years) reported higher levels of stress from curriculum demands than their younger colleagues. (Laughlin, 1984) Research identifies differing rank orders of the strengths of a set of stressors for each years of experience category. (Borg and Falzon, 1991). However, a number of studies suggest that experience has no relationship with occupational stress .In the late 1990’s the Naval services (NS), consisting of Royal Navy (RN) and the Royal marines (RM), embarked upon a program of research into occupational stress, led by G.Slaver. The program was designed to support the development of health and safety policy. (Chaplain, 1995; sepson and Forrest, 2006; Solmon and Feld, 1989). Between 1995 and 1996 NS personnel was medically downgraded, prior to medical discharge but there was no audience of high levels of anxiety and depression. Naval services have seen increasing work demands, reduction in manpower and societical and organizational changes affected the service. The years 1999-2004 Ire marked by several major conflicts (e.g. in Afghanistan and Frag) as Ill as extra work, such as the provision of cover doing the firemen and strike.( A. Shariff, G. Slaven, N. Pullinger, G. H. G. McMillan, unpublished MoD report). According to research job demand control model, strain occurs when high job demands combine with low opportunity to influence tasks and procedures, resulting in poor employee’s health and low job satisfaction. (Karasek, 1999 & 2004).
  35. 35. Social support as stress buffer, predicting that employees strain would be highest when work demands are high with low levels of work control and social support. (Karasek and Theorell). In NS personal spend much of then time at sea, separated from their families and working long hours at sea places constraints on individuals that are different to and in many ways greater then those experienced in every day life. By understanding the stressors that prevail in the work place, the appropriate steps can be undertaken to assist in the reduction of stress levels. An organization could consider the provision of skilled support, by employing a full-time counselor that could provide the needed counseling services or use employee assistance programs (EAPs). Counseling involves a set of techniques, skills and attitudes to help people manage their own problems using their own resources. Other methods of stress prevention include: training individuals in stress management techniques, managing morale and utilizing teamwork. The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Survey of Occupational injuries and Illnesses classifies Occupational stress as “neurotic reaction to stress.” There was 3,418 such illness Cases in 1997. The median absence from work for these cases was 23 days, more than four times the level of all nonfatal occupational Injuries and illnesses. And more than two-fifths of the cases resulted in 31 or more lost workdays, compared to one-fifth for all injury and illness cases. For every case of occupational stress involving a male, 1.6 cases involved a female. The opposite was true for all occupational injuries and illnesses: For each case involving a female, two cases involved a male. Stress ranged from 0.6 for managerial and professional occupations to 1.6 for technical, sales, and administrative support occupations. . (U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Summary 99-10 September 1999) Veterinary surgeons facing the act of euthanasia involving pets they have grown fond of may suffer from emotional conflict and ambivalent feelings (Arluke, 1991). Relationships with clients also represent an important source of stress. A small percentage of clients complain, and new practitioners must be highly skilled in communicating with people to maintain proper relationships with clients (Bledsoe, 1991; Rmesel, 1994; Kogan and McConnell, 2001). There is a research that only 1.7% of veterinary surgeons demonstrated severe symptoms of burnout. Elkins and Elkins (1987) presented similar results. Rejulaet al. (2003) Suicide among veterinary surgeons for example, has been used as an indicator of the high stress level in this occupation. (Jeyaretnam et al., 2000; Bartram and Baldwin, 2008), Concerning gender differences, reported that stress affects mostly young women in small animal practice (mainly because of the relationships with clients in clinical practice). (Gardner and Hini, 2006).
  36. 36. If exposure to stressors continues for a longer period of time, chronic health problems can develop, such as: Physical Conditions: High Blood Pressure, Heart disease, Stroke, Spastic colon, Immune system dysfunction, Diabetes, Asthma, Musculoskeletal disorders Psychological & Behavioral Problems: Serious depression, Suicidal behavior, Domestic violence, Alcohol abuse, Substance abuse Burnout (PEF Health and Safety Department, 2006) The CIPD Annual Survey Report (2005) also indicated that stress is a major cause for concern. In their study of 1,038 HR practitioners they found that stress and mental ill health Ire the top two causes of ill health among non-manual employees. 39% of employers reported an increase in stress related absence compared to the previous year. They found that the main reported cause of stress across all sectors was workload/volume of work experienced by individuals. Clinical work in mental health may be considered stressful for a variety of reasons. Certain stress-generating situations are also common in work with other, non-psychiatric patients. Classic examples of these kinds of demands are overwork and the limited capacity to alter the cause of certain disorders. Meanwhile, day-to-day work demands a more or less profound empathic relationship with patients over what may be a lengthy period (Pines and Maslach, 1978) (In Canada, the Women’s Health Bureau of Health Canada defines gender-based analysis as ‘‘a method of evaluation and interpretation which takes into account social and economic differences between women and men, whether applied to policy and program development, or general life activities such as work/family roles’’ (Women’s Health Bureau, 2000). In the United States, the 1993 NIH Revitalization Act was passed with the intention of promoting gender-balanced enrolment in clinical trials and the use of gender-specific analyses of data. Although compliance with such policies has not always been perfect (Ramasubbu et al., 2001; Caron, 2003). Researchers have been encouraged to explore sex differences in physiological parameters and in susceptibility to disease environmental toxins (Wizemann,2001).
  37. 37. There are two kinds of professional in this domain (clinical psychologists and psychiatrists) with an equivalent level of clinical-therapeutic responsibility who carry out their duties on the same sites. Most of the studies in the literature consist of samples of nurses or physicians and, while comparative studies amongst these groups are scarce, research comparing psychologists and physicians are practically non-existent (Alvarez y Fernandez Rios, 1991). Since the term burnout, it has mainly been used to describe a state of physical and emotional exhaustion whose characteristics have been mostly applied to human services professionals, within which health staff is included. Freedenberg (1974) However, nowadays there is a trend to consider burnout as a specific form of occupational stress or a subclass of stress effects in individuals (Shinn, Rosario, Morch and Chesnut, 1984; Moreno, Oliver y Aragoneses, 1991). According to research I consider that stress arises when an individual estimates that environmental demands override his/her own adjustment resources (Lazarme and Folk man 1984), There is a research employer that they could improve job-related mental health without sacrificing productivity. That is, organizations could reduce job strain by increasing employee control or decision latitude, without reducing actual workload. Employers could fine-tune their administrative structure in order to reduce employee stress and protect workers’ mental health – without cutting productivity (Karasek, 2003) Namely, the world of work differs considerably from the working environment of 30 years ago: longer hours at work are not unusual, frequent changes in culture and structure are often cited, as Ill as the loss of lifetime career paths which all leads to greater presence and levels of stress... (Cooper & Locke, 2000 in Fotinatos-Ventmyatos & Cooper 2005). 1 Survey of the literature on occupational stress reveals that there are a number of factors related to job, which affect the behavior of the employees and as a result of it, normal life is disturbed (McLean, 1974; Brief, Schular and Vansell, 1981). The study of (University of London, UK) says that individual perception also plays a roll in occupational stress that different employees perceive and react differently in given situation of work environment, some with high stress levels and some with low or even do not. (Michael Marmot) The major source of stress is derived from the occupational environment; proponents of this view tend to argue that role holders in certain occupation, irrespective of individual differences, are much more likely to experience stress. Here, the emphasis is on the individual demands of various jobs that have the capacity over a period of time to exhaust the physical and psychological resource of employees in the organization. (Orpen, 1991)
  38. 38. Multiple goals and managers’ job-related tension and performance suggested that job- related tension and performance deteriorate as managers pursue multiple goals although the relationship seems to be non-linear. The relative importance of goals does not appear to be important. (Emsley, 2003) Sources of occupational stress among Malaysian managers working in multi-national companies (MNCs).It was found that workloads, working conditions, and relationship at work Ire the main concern of the managers that lead to stress at the work place. The results also indicated that certain demographic variables do influence the level of stress among managers. (Manshor, Fontaine and Chong Siong Choy, 2003) Study on Role of Human-Computer Interaction Factors as Moderators of Occupational Stress and Work Exhaustion found that IT professionals have long work hours with different time zones, total team work, task to be completed on deadline with perfection as per client needs, which requires interpersonal, technical, and organizational. These characteristics lead to occupational stress. (K. S. Rajeswari and R. N. Anantharaman, 2005). In an article Burnout published in Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006 said that rapid change of the modern working life is associated with increasing demands of learning new skills, need to adopt to new types of work, pressure of higher productivity and quality of work, time pressure and hectic jobs are increasing stress among the workforce. Further he added that privatization and globalization has ignited mergers, acquisitions, and precarious employment has critically affected the domestic industry. Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress; the workload should be in line with workers’ capabilities and resources, Job design should stimulate and provide ample opportunities for workers to use their skills, Clarity in workers’ roles and responsibilities Worker’s participation in making decisions for those actions affecting their interests Improved channels of communication, Drawl of clear career development chart, Ensuring social interaction opportunities among workers Work stress may be transmitted to family members, and this may particularly be a Problem in high stress occupations such as policing, which has been ranked among the top five most stressful occupations (Dantzer, 1987). Much of the research on this occupational subgroup has centre on male officers. However, women police may experience qualitatively different sources of stress from male officers (Brown and Fielding, 1993, Thompson, Kirk-Brown and Brown, 1999). In addition, the interface between work and family is experienced differently for men and women, with women experiencing more role overload and work-family conflict Consequently, the experience of male officers, especially in terms of sources of stress and the
  39. 39. Impact of work stress on the family, cannot be directly applied to women officers. (Thompson, 1996). Police officers admitted taking out stress on their families; unfortunately they do not Report on the number of female officers in their sample making it difficult to infer the extent to which these results reflect a primarily male perspective (Alexander and Walker, 1994) Higher occupational demands experienced by men are correlated with dissatisfaction and distress in wives (Burke, Weir & Duwors, 1980), Police officers experiencing high stress are likely to be more angry, uninvolved in family matters, and have unsatisfactory marriages (Jackson & Malasch, 1982). Sample of police officers (92% male), negative effects of work demands on family (in Particular concerns about health and safety) Ire related to work attitudes and emotional Wellbeing (Burke, 1994). In physics, stress is a pressure exerted on a body. Sources of physical stress are Found in tons of rock crushing the earth, in cars smashing one another, and in stretching Rubber bands. Psychological stresses also “press,” “push,” and “pull.” People can feel “Crushed” by the need to make a life changing decision. They can feel “smashed” by a Disaster, or “stretched” to the brink of “splitting” (Steber, 1998). When most people talk about stress, it is usually in terms of pressure they are Feeling from something happening around them or to them. Students talk about being Under stress because of poor exam performance or an impending deadline for a major Paper. Parents talk about the strain of raising teenagers and the financial burdens of Running a household. Teachers talk about the pressure of maintaining professional Currency while still managing to keep on top of duties connected with the classroom Teaching. Doctors, nurses, lawyers, and therapists talk about meeting the endless demands Of their patients and clients (Rice, 1992). Studies, found that daily hassles a person experiences are more harmful to his or her health than are the significant life changes that concerned Holmes and Rahe. Lazarme believes these daily events are so damaging to health because of how frequently they occur, as compared to the major life events that Holmes and Rahe researched, which Ire usually encountered only rarely.(Richard Lazarme .984), Factors that ere derived from sources of work stress items (i.e., role, poor support, clients, future, and overload), which accounted for 70% of the total variance. In addition, 4 factors Ire derived from the items related to sources of job satisfaction (i.e., career, working with people, management, and money), accounting for 68% of the total variance. Stress from “overload” was associated with emotional exhaustion and with worse mental
  40. 40. health accounting for less “career” satisfaction (Prosser, Johnson, Kuipers, Szumukler, et. al, 199 The field of grammatology has inadvertently ignored a large segment of traumatized people: the family and other supporters of "victims." In other words, I have ignored those suffering in their own right as a result of a loved one being traumatized. This suggests that there is a kind of transmission of trauma from the victim to the supporters; this phenomenon is described as "compassion stress," and the most negative consequences of this stress result in "compassion fatigue" (Figley, 1998) In particular, conflicting, incompatible, or unclear expectations about one’s professional role within an organization have been identified as being responsible for job strain in human services areas. In addition, social workers carry a variety of inherent stressors such as: untreatable, combined problems; hard-to-reach clients; sometimes unobservable outcomes of their work; and diminishing resources. Combined with the inherent stressors of the social work profession, role stressors such as role conflict and role ambiguity in social work settings appear to have much greater impact on job strain than do role stressors in any other occupation. Hence, among many important antecedents of burnout, role stressors (role conflict or role ambiguity) have been selected as the major predictive variable of burnout (Um & Harrison, 1998).
  41. 41. Theoretical frame work Need for theoretical frame work After conducting surveys, completing a literature review and defining problem statement, one is ready to develop a theoretical frame work. A theoretical frame work is a conceptual model of how one theorizes or makes logical senses of the relationships among the several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. After theoretical frame work I develop hypothesis to examine whether the theory formulated is valid or not. The hypothesis relationships can therefore be tested through appropriate statistical analysis. Problem Statement: It is a Comparative Study on the occupational stress experienced by male and female employees and its impact on their optimal functioning. Dependent Variable: The dependent variable is the variable of primary interest to the researcher. The researcher’s goal is to understand and describe the dependent variable, or to explain its variability, or predict it. In my study dependent variable is Occupational Stress. Independent Variable:
  42. 42. This is of primary focus and area of interest. The independent variables that have a direct correlation with the dependent variable in this case are: • Physical conditions • Gender • Position • Role ambiguity Moderating Variable: The moderating variable has a contingent effect on the independent and dependent variables relationship. I have taken Organizational environment as a Moderating Variable. Intervening Variable: The intervening variable is the one that surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it. In my study Creative Synergy is intervening variable.
  43. 43. Independent Intervening Dependent Moderating variable Physical condition Gender Age Role ambiguity Creative Synergy Occupational Stress Organizationa l Environment
  44. 44. Hypothesis development Hypothesis can be defined as logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables in a form of testable statement. Hypothesis Statements: Ho: Due to increase in age, employees do not take more stress. H1: Due to increase in age, employees take more stress. Ho: Gender difference does not leads towards any type of stress. H1: Gender difference leads towards stress Ho: Physical conditions do not lead towards stress H1: Physical conditions lead towards stress Ho: Role ambiguity does not develop occupational stress in employees H1: Role ambiguity develops occupational stress in employees.
  45. 45. Methodology Introduction According to my topic “occupational stress experienced by males and females employees”, it was my need to use questionnaires, because any other tool like interview or observation was not so competent as compared to questionaire4s. I have done my date analysis on Ms. Excel. Significance I use this methodology because it was helpful in interpretations and findings of each occupation used in my study. Objectives • To compare occupational stress in following occupations • Doctor, Police, teachers, employees having desk job, labors. • To compare the level occupational stress in males and females employees of the above mentioned occupations. Sampling Techniques I use following sampling techniques in my study Data collection method I used questionnaires as data collection tools. I have floated these questionnaires in the following organizations.
  46. 46. SHIFA International Beacon House School System National Physical and Standard Laboratory Pakistan Environmental Planning and Consultants PEPAC National Bank of Pakistan Comsats University Rescue 15 Police Line Punjab Special education (Regional Branch RWP) I distributed 25 questioners in each organizations among which 12 Ire filled by females’ and 13 by males Sample size I selected sample size of 125 because it gave me more detail picture of my study. Data Analysis I have used ms excel for measurement of my result. Because it has all the formulas at one place and give me accurate and proper results
  47. 47. Discussion:  The sample consisted of 125 professionals. The majority of respondents were male N = 63 (50.4%).The majority of respondents as observed were in the age group of 21-30 years {N = 37 (29.6%)}.  According to research we found that majority of people are agreed with physical conditions causing stress. Mostly people prefer role ambiguity as cause of stress.  Despite the results of the T-Test with respect to job stress based on the gender of respondents, the results indicate that there are statistically significant deference in the stress level of employ base on the gender, with male employees experiencing, significantly lower level of stress, compared to female employees.  The reason why females’ employees experienced more stress than men may be due to the facts that there are more committed to there jobs. They have more barriers to over come and attain their position. Role ambiguity in female employees is also high, also role conflict, like a female employee’s role as manager may require her to work on Saturday, but her role as mother requires her to attend her family function.  Physical condition like noise, lighting, etc also causes stress.  Stress full situation occur within organization culture function, structure, the nature of the Management Procedure, insufficient training of employees.  Females also feel more stress because of family problems. Examples:  Female o Lady Doctor ……….. Stress because of night shifts. o Female Teacher …… School Timing are more, especially went to take class in evening. o Female Police ….. No respect in society o Labor …….Financial problem o Female Employees ……. Timing + glass ceiling.
  48. 48.  Male Doctors ……… Fatigue, overloaded work Teachers…….. Inadequate salary Police ……. No respect in society, + Role ambiguity Labor……. Financial problems, Fatigue. Employees... Timings, organizational politics
  49. 49. RECOMMENDATIONS EDGAR SCHEIN four step approach: Step 1: involves diagnosing the situation and correctly identifying the real source of problem. In this step one needs to understand whether the stress comes from work, family, personal concerns or some combination of these sources. Step 2: involves self assessment, it is essential to take (and make) the time to reflect on feelings and motives and to be familiar with “ blind spots” or other defenses that shield people from and insightful understanding of themselves. Step 3: A coping response is selected. By talking with peers, family members, friends, neighbors and community resources about problems and stresses and by establishing supportive relationships with others, one can choose an appropriate coping response. It is important to identify either external coping resources (e.g.; a confidence) or internal resources (e.g.; personal characteristics such as hardiness) so that appropriate coping response is selected. Coping response aid the person in choosing a healthy response. The chosen response may involve changing an aspect of the stressful environment, shifting one’s priorities and the meaning of the environment. Step 4: involves understanding the effect (if any) of the coping response and making adjustments when necessary.
  50. 50. Organizational Actions: Organizations have begun to develop programs to reduce the level of employee stress. As the time is passing the machinery era has clouded the whole system, so; employee problems also become of complex nature. It has become essential for the organization to give support to the employee to finish the stress from it roots. The organization can help and give support of following type, which are as under: Organizational Support Emotional Empathy, caring, trust e.g.; Boss praises your effective performance. It is the type of emotional support which can help to reduce your problem as free from stress. Instrumental It is a Behavior that directly helps person in need. e.g.; Subordinate’s improving performance relieves you of pressure. Informational It is a behavior that gives information to be used by person to cope with problem. e.g.; Co worker gives you advice on how to discipline a subordinate. Appraisal It is a way to provide feedback to a person about his/her performance. e.g.; Boss gives you constructive feedback on your most recent assignment.
  51. 51. Conclusion From my whole research I have concluded that stress plays an important role in changing the employee behavior along with organizational goals fulfillment if it used in a positive way, but it is very essential to keep the level of stress at optimal level and always to avoid negative affects of stress.
  52. 52. National university of modern languages Occupational stress experienced by male and female employees Dear Sir/Madam. Your contribution in helping me analyze “Occupational stress experienced by male and female employees” is valued highly. Completion of this information is voluntary and confidentiality id assured. No individual data will be reported. Section 1 Please tick the (√) in the appropriate space for your response. 1. Gender ( ) Male ( ) Female 2. Age Group ( ) 20yrs 0r below ( ) 21-30yrs ( ) 31-40 yrs ( ) 41-50yrs ( ) above 50yrs 3. Education ( ) PH.D ( ) Ms/M.Phil/Post Graduate ( ) Master ( ) Bachelor ( ) Intermediate ( ) Matriculation 4. Material Status ( ) single ( ) Married 5. No. Of children ( ) 1-2 ( ) 3-5 ( ) 6 0r more 6. Sector ( ) Public ( ) Private 7. Managerial level ( ) Top manager ( ) Middle manager ( ) Lower staff 8. Years of experience ( ) 1-5yrs ( ) 5-10yrs ( ) More than 10yrs 9. Working Hours ( ) less than 8 hours per day ( ) 8-9hmys per day ( ) more then 8hmys per day
  53. 53. Section 2 Factors of Occupational stress 1. Strongly disagreed 2. Disagreed 3.Neutral 4.Agreed 5. Strongly Agreed Factors Organizational Environment: 1 2 3 4 5 I feel to be over burdened with increase level of competition. I have to put more efforts to cope up with technological development. Changes in production and products create a stress on me. Organizational specific stressors: I am able to cope up with poor physical conditions. (Inadequate lightning or noise and etc). To deal with workforce diversity is much different task. I am very anxious about the job security. I feel upset when there is lack of training programs. Job specific stressors I think lack of information and collaboration are the main factors of stress. I am able to perform Ill when there is pressure to work for longer hours. Personal life stressors. I feel insecure from my coworkers. My domestic responsibilities do affect my performance at work place.
  54. 54. Section 3 Please rank the following sources of occupational stress according to your own preferences from 1-10. E.g. most preferred rank =1 No. Sources Rank 1 Inadequate salary 2 Lack of recognition 3 Lack of preparation time 4 Unavailability of child care centers in organizations 5 No time to relax 6 Role ambiguity 7 Over commitment 8 Relation ship with the superiors peers, subordinates. 9 Glass ceiling (promotions hurdles for females) 10 Personal and family problems I grate fully acknowledge your time spent on this questionnaire. Thai you!
  55. 55. References:- Occupational stress fact sheet. (2006) ME Department of labor Bureau of labor statistics. (1999) Jannie, P., (2005). Sources of occupational stress for teachers, with specific reference to the inclusive educational model in the Western Cape Iris Occupational stress, work-home interference and burnout among Belgian veterinary practitioners. (2008). Irish Veterinary Journal. Vol 61 Occupational Stress in the Construction Industry. (2006) Shaun, M, M. Taylor, M., Dunedin. & Gregory, A. L. Time budget pressure and auditor dysfunctional behavior within an occupational stress model Nig, Y., L. (2007).occupational stress, Personality and coping strategies Among air craft maintenance personnel in Hong Kong Sadri, G., & Marcoulides, G. A., (1994). The Dynamics of Occupational Stress: Proposing and Testing a Model, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 2(1), 1-19. Dan, J., B. (2000). Occupational stress in mental health counselors Thompson, B., Kirk-Brown, A, and Brown, A. Police women and their partners: Influence and outcomes of work stress in the family Lakshminarayanan, R. An over view of strategic planning to combat occupational stress- need of the hour in the present Indian context. Marc, D., Colette. D., Nicole, R., & Jean, Loiselle. (1997). Professional isolation and stress in teachers John, M. (1998).The attribution-of-responsibility for occupational stress model in a catholic
  56. 56. education system: organizational distancing Nina, P., V. & A. Bugbane. Individual differences and occupational stress perceived: a Croatian survey, International Review of Business Research Papers. (2007). Vol. 3. Pp.182-192 Goluaz, S. George, A. Marcoulides, S., G. & Marcoulides, G., A. (1994). The Dynamics of Occupational Stress: Proposing and Testing a Model, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 2(1), 1-19. Bridger, R., S. Kilminster, S. And Slaven, G. Institute of Naval Medicine, SMYCES AND MANIFESTATION OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AS REPORTED BY FULLTIME TEACHERS WORKING IN A BIA SCHOOL Boney Vance, Sean Miller, Sam Humphreys, and Francine Reynolds .
  57. 57. Annexure
  58. 58. Early warning signs of job stress Headache Short temper Sleep disturbance Job dissatisfaction