133835244 disease-causation

1,647 views

Published on

nursing education

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,647
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
104
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

133835244 disease-causation

  1. 1. Patho - physiologic & Psychodynamics of disease causation
  2. 2. CONCEPTS OF HEALTH • Health • Health status • Health belief • Health behavior
  3. 3. Health - Belief Model Individual perceptions Modifying factors • Perceived susceptibility • Perceived seriousness • Perceived threat • Demographic variables • Structural variables • Cues to action Likelihood of action • Perceived benefits to action – Perceived barriers to action
  4. 4. Concepts ( contd…) • Patho-physiologic • Psychodynamics
  5. 5. Homeostasis Constancy Stress Adaptation Body- A balanced state
  6. 6. Homeostasis  Physiologic homeostasis  Psycho logic homeostasis
  7. 7. Physical environment Psychological environment Psycho logic homeostasis Social environment Life experiences
  8. 8. Stress Types of stressors • Physical • Physiologic • Psycho-social
  9. 9. Physiologic Manifestations of Stress •` Interpretation of stressful stimuli by brain •Sympathetic nervous system Response •Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary response •Hypothalamic Pituitary response
  10. 10. Physiologic Manifestations of Stress (Contd.) • • • • • • • • Dilation of pupils Diaphoresis Increases heart rate Paleness of the skin Increased blood pressure Increased cardiac output Increased rate & depth of respiration Decreased urine output
  11. 11. Physiologic Manifestations of Stress (Contd.) • • • • • Dry mouth Increased peristalsis of the intestines Increased muscle tension Increased blood sugar Lethargy, Mental lassitude, inactivity
  12. 12. Psycho logic Manifestations of Stress • Anxiety- mild, moderate, sever anxiety • Fear • Anger- Hostility, Aggression, Violence • Depression
  13. 13. Cognitive Manifestations of Stress • • • • • • Problem-solving Structuring Self-control Suppression Fantasy or day-dreaming Prayer
  14. 14. Verbal & Motor Manifestations of Stress •Crying •Verbal abuse •Laughing •Screaming •Hitting or Kicking •Holding & touching
  15. 15. Unconscious ego defense mechanisms
  16. 16. Stress at cellular level Cellular injury Causes• Hypoxia • Physical Agents – Extremes of temperature, Radiation & electrical shock, Mechanical trauma • Chemical agents • Disordered immune response • Genetic disorders
  17. 17. Adaptation Modes of Adaptation •Physiologic Mode/ Biologic adaptation •Psycho logic adaptation •Socio-cultural Adaptation
  18. 18. Characteristics of Adaptive responses •All adaptive responses are attempts to maintain homeostasis. •Adaptation is a whole body or total body responses. •Adaptive responses have limits. •Adaptation requires time. •Adaptability varies from person to person. •Adaptive responses may be inadequate or excessive. •Adaptive responses are ego-centric and tiring.
  19. 19. Dimensions of Adaptation       Physical Developmental Emotional Intellectual Social Spiritual
  20. 20. Stages of Adaptation to response 1. An Alarm reaction Shock Phase Counter shock phase 2. Stage of resistance 3. Stage of exhaustion
  21. 21. General Adaptation response ALARM REACTION 1. Hypothalamus 2. Posterior pituitary Increased ADH – increased water absorption Decreased urine output
  22. 22. General Adaptation response 3. Anterior pituitary Increased ADH- Adrenal cortexIncreased Aldosterone 4. SNS & Adrenal medulla Increased epinephrine Increased nor epinephrine 5. Fight or Flight
  23. 23. General Adaptation response RESISTANCE Sterilization Hormonal levels return to normal Parasympathetic Nervous System Adaptation to stress
  24. 24. General Adaptation response EXHAUSTION Increased physiological response as in alarm reaction Decreased energy levels Decreasing physiological adaptation Death
  25. 25. Local Adaptation Syndrome •Reflex pain response •Inflammatory response
  26. 26. Inflammatory response Vascular & Exudative Reparative cellular response stage response
  27. 27. Illness Stages- 1. Transition from health to illness 2. Period of accepted illness 3. Convalescent stage
  28. 28. Illness behavior IGUN’s 11 stages of illness behavior 1. Symptom experience 2. Self-treatment or medication 3. Communication to others 4. Assessment of symptoms 5. Sick-role assumption 6. Concern
  29. 29. Illness behavior ( Contd.) 7. Efficacy of treatment 8. Selection of treatment 9. Treatment 10. Assessment of effectiveness of treatment 11. Recovery & Rehabilitation
  30. 30. Nursing Implications •Promoting healthy Life-style •Enhancing Coping strategies •Teaching relaxation exercises •Educating •Enhancing social support •Recommending support & therapy Group •Crises intervention
  31. 31. Stages of health behavior change •Pre-contemplation •Contemplation •Preparation •Action •Maintenance

×