Pottery• Both functional and decorative art form.• Made from clay and fired at high temperatures.
Ceramics• From the Greek word “keramikos” = potter• Has wider applications and includes objects for industrial use.
Brief History• Archaeological masterpieces of pottery that attest to the high level of artistic skills that ancient Filipinos possessed• Sites include Palawan, Kulaman Plateau, Sorsogon, Samar, Calatagan, Batangas, Kalinga and many more.
Kulaman Plateau Manunggul Jar Bankaw - Samarhttp://philippinehistory.ph/tag/samar-archeological-and-cultural-museum/
Brief History• Pottery presents an excellent material for archaeological studies.• These studies gave birth to the various Philippine pottery traditions.• These are: a. Sa – hyunh Kalanay Pottery b. Novaliches Tradition c. Bau – Malay Tradition
Sa – hyunh Kalanay Pottery• Traced back its origin after 2000 BC.• Term came from Kalanay Cave, nothwest of Masbate.• Identification decorative incisions, impressions, carvings, paintings, applications and modelings Common patterns include chain of triangles, scrolls, spirals, zigzags, variation of vertical and diagonal lines bounded by horizontal border, rectangles, chevrons, etc. Common forms include rounded, flat bottom, ring foot, four applied feet, and bottomless hollow vessel.
4 Subdivisions of Sa – hyunh Kalanay Pottery1. Kalanay Complex - Have plain surfaces and round bodies with plain, flared rims. - Incisions are in a horizontal or diagonal – line series bounded by straight aor wavy lines. - Absence of cord – marked pottery. - Can be found in Cotabato and Batangas.
4 Subdivisions of Sa – hyunh Kalanay Pottery2. Tabon Complex - Named after various cave sites in western Palawan. - Distinctive for its cord – marked pottery in earlier sites and for its simplicity in later sites. - 2000 BC! - Commonly have round bottoms with bodies of various shapes such as round, ellipsoidal and spheroidal
4 Subdivisions of Sa – hyunh Kalanay Pottery3. Bagupanto Complex - Classified with the Kalanay complex as 17 of its vessels were unearthed at the Kalanay Cave site. - Have superior quality, material and artistry. - Large, circular or square burial jars with huge flanges. - Incisions are rare. - Unusual forms: test tube – like vessel, ordinary looking pot but uniquely perforated through its bottom and sides, and a bottomless cylinder with opening larger than the diameter of the top rim.
4 Subdivisions of Sa – hyunh Kalanay Pottery4. Asin Complex - Freehand painted patterns - Cave sites are in Davao del Sur - Include horizontal series or curvilinear scrolls.
Novaliches Tradition• Named after Novaliches cave site north of Manila but its remnants can be found in northwest Palawan and Calamianes Island.• 250 – 4th century years old.• Well – polished bow with a stand decorated profusely with geometric figures.
Bau – Malay Tradition• Also known as geometric pottery of south China.• Named after a cave site in Sarawak, Malaysia.• Can be found in Mindanao, Bohol, northern Palawan, and Calamianes Islands.• Since 10th century.• Have simple, round shapes with impressions: - small rosettes, triangles and floral patterns.• Some Tinguian Pottery are classified here.
Unclassified Pottery• May have been earlier than Kalanay.• Ritual vessel unearthed at Cagayan and is believed to be the earliest specimen of Pottery.• Polished ritual vessels of Leta – Leta; and eight earthen ware from Ngipe’t Duldug, one of which has impressions of triangles and circles.• The last two are found in Palawan Cave sites.
Ceramic Industry• Development came from 1960’s• Because of the many and abundant sources of clay, this effort was made viable.Establishment of a number of ceramic factories that produced plates, cups, saucers and other houseware in large quantities!
The name given tohand-made, one-of-a-kind pieces made by ceramic artists
Earthenware or Terracotta• Earthenware is one of the oldest materials used in pottery. After firing the body is porous and opaque, and depending on the raw materials used will be colored from white to buff to red.• Earthenware clay is highly plastic, and is the most commonly used type of clay.
• Composition: ` – Made from surface shales and clay (Common clay) – 25% ball clay, 28% kaolin, 32% quartz and 15% feldspar.• Clay color ranges from red to light grey• Temperature range: – Fired at a low temperature – Between 1840° and 2030°F
• Compose most of the products by small-scale pottery manufacturers in the country.• Used for many different items, which includes all shapes and sizes of jars, cooking stoves, pots, serving plates and trays. Today, it is also used for toys, flower pots, tiles, toys and cooking utensils. Manunggul jar Kamot jars
Stoneware• Stoneware clays are plastic and are often grey when moist. Their fired colors range through light grey and buff, to medium grey and brown. Their colors vary depending on how they were fired.• Has smooth, imp ermeable surface.• Usually glazed
• Composition: – Finer clay than earthenware clay – Formulations for stoneware vary considerably, although the vast majority will conform to a mix of 0- 100% plastic fire clays, 0-25% ball clays, 0-18% feldspar and chamotte – highly impure with iron, calcium and feldspar, due to which they require a higher hardening temperature.
• Temperature range: – Higher than Sagada plate earthenware – 2130°F to 2300°F• Often used for decorative purposes and foodware.
Burnay Jars of IlocosBurnay – High temperature pottery made in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.
Porcelainware• Brought to the Philippines from China• Porcelain clays have lower plasticity than many other clays• Usually fashioned into high-grade dinnerware. 14th century plate
• Composition: – Clay used for porcelain is mostly kaolin with a little feldspar. It is soft and white• Temperature Range – Fired at a very high temperature – 2,192 °F - 2,552 °F Excavated porcelain container
• Cut-off wires – for cutting clay •Ribs and Scrappers - For smoothing clay while it is on the wheel
• Wooden ModelingTools- Can be used fortrimming and makingdesigns on clay • Loop, wire and ribbon tools - Used for cutting, shaping and trimming and hollowing
• Potter’s needles-Can also be used forcutting and makingdesigns on clay, especiallyif you want to make finedesigns.-Used for scoring andslipping – making slits ontwo slabs of clay that youwant to join together- The most versatile tool inpottery and has manyother uses
Sponges – used for transferring water to away from clayBrushes – for carrying water, glazing and decorating
Calipers – for measuring theinner and outer dimensions ofpots where they will meetwith other parts of a workingset. For example, they areespecially useful whenmeasuring lids for jars,measuring the base of a cupto match with the depressionin the center of a saucer, or tomeasure the base of a pitcherthat is matched with a theinterior floor of a basin.
Preparation of Materials• The clay can be dry mixed in a large plastic bucket or plastic barrel adding enough water to cover the clay. Allow the clay enough time to absorb the water completely to the bottom of the container. You can stir the clay water mixture by hand.• Allow the clay mass to air and dry further.• If the edges begin to get hard, cover loosely still allowing the clay to breathe.
Wedging• Compress the clay by walking on it, pushing the air bubbles out.• Start by compressing the clay downward on your wedging table. Using a rocking motion continue compressing the top of the clay inward.• Using a wire, cut your clay in the center checking for air bubbles and clay consistency.
Slab Making• Spread the clay on a flat surface until it is patted effectively and smoothened.• The edges are cut into a rectangular shape or square depending on the size desired for the pot.• Dry the clay to make it harder and steady.• Slice a crisscross pattern on the edges where the cut clays will be joined.• Place the edges together and smudge the corners with the help of water to combine the cut clays.
Coiling• Squeeze the clay and roll into a flat surface or between two hands back and forth.• Stack the coils on top of another.• Force the clay together inside of the structure.• Use your finger to smoothen the coils on top of the other evenly and create the shape and texture desired.
Turn Modelling/Throwing• Place the clay on top of the wheel.• Wet the clay slightly to let it shape (The Ilocanos sprinkle even sand on the surface of the wheel so the clay would not stick on it).• Spin the wheel and shape the clay to form a pot. Use your fingers and palm for the space within and the curves of the pot outside.• With big jars, the upper part and the lower part are done separately.• Afterwards, subjected to firing.