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  1. 1. GEOG 1: “MAPS” thCARTOGRAPHY: the art, science & technology of making 18 century – maps were less decorative and moremaps, together with their study as scientific documents & accurate and improved method of measuring earthworks of art. It includes all types of maps, plans, charts, distancessections, 3D models, and globes representing the earth or thany celestial body at any scale. 19 century – introduction of metric system and invention of lithography and color-printing CARTOGRAPHY is a discipline as old as humankind th and as young as today’s newspaper. 20 century – advances in electronic technology have led The oldest known maps are preserved on Babylonian to a new revolution in cartography clay tablets from about 2300 B.C. Cartography Includes invention of photography, automation and In around 6200 BC in Catal Hyuk in Anatolia, a wall computer application painting was made depicting positions of the streets During this period, there was rapid population increase, and houses of the town together with some topographic expansion of urban centers, environmental protection features and conservation Medieval ‘T in O’ maps depicting the tripartite division of the world. MAPS geographer’s greatest ally, they often present enormous amounts of information very effectively through visual, numerical & conceptual form. it is an abstraction of reality used for analyzing, storing, & communicating information about the locations, attributes & interrelationships of physical & social phenomena that are distributed over the earth’s surface. Value of Maps: 1. A way of recording & storing information; 2. A means of analyzing locational distributions & spatial patterns: (a) tool for visualizing spatial relationship; & (b) tool for analyzing conditions, processes or observations on the earth’s surface; and 3. As a method of storing & presenting information: maps are only as good as the information you store & present th15 century – discovery and distribution of Ptolemy’s in it.writings and maps Characteristics of Maps: th16 century – interest in the outside world. 1. Maps are drawn on a predetermined scale. • Dutch cartography flourished with focus on balanced • Scale is a defined dimensional relationship between composition, expressive symbolism, good topographic reality & map. and reference maps • Scale sets a limit on: a. the info that can be included b. manner that the info can be delineated/presented 2. Maps are selective. Show only features which are important for the purpose of the map Retain as many of the helpful features as can be without crowding the map. 3. Maps emphasize certain of the selected features. This is done through: a. large symbols b. heavy lines c. prominent colors (black, red) The ultimate map for navigation of the world, as first d. inscriptions/ labels devised by Mercator (1569). On this projection, all straight e. pointing arrows lines are true bearings. 4. Maps are symbolized th17 century – development of accuracy and scientificmethod----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2. 2. GEOG 1: “MAPS”5. Maps are generalized. This consists of achieving a level shows spatial association of a selection of diverseof detail appropriate for the purpose of a map. A map geographical phenomena shown ( roads, coastlines,should be useful & recognizable representation of the real bodies of water).world yet does not overwhelm the viewer w/ excessive Example: Topographic map, atlas, Political Map, Roaddetails. Map6. Maps are lettered, titled, labeled. THEMATIC MAPS(SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS): Achieves a level of details appropriate for the purpose demonstrates particular features A map should be useful & recognizable representation represents spatial dimensions of a particular of the real world yet does not overwhelm the viewer conditions, processes or events. with excessive details. shows a particular theme Example: Land Use Map, Climate Map, Soil Map,7. Maps involve transformations of various kind. Population Density Map Distortion is inevitable, no map can perfectly represent reality Types of Thematic Maps: Any map you look at could have been made in 1. DOT MAPS – uses dots or other symbol to represent a countless different ways, sometimes drastically altering specified number of occurrences of some particular event your perception of what you see. or phenomena. “All maps lie flat, and all flat maps lie.” 2. PROPORTIONAL (GRADUATED) SYMBOL MAP – uses polygons or other pre-assigned shapes that are in proportion to the frequency of occurrence of phenomena atFactors that affected the growth of Cartography: a given location. 1. Two World Wars 2. Invention of Photography 3. CHOROPLETH MAPS – tonal shadings are graduated to 3. Invention of Airplanes reflect area variations in number, frequency or density. 4. Rapidly increasing population & urbanization 5. Automation & Computer Application 4. ISOPLETH MAPS – uses isolines which connects places of equal data value to portray spatial information.KINDS OF MAPS Other Map Types: 1. Cadastral Maps – geographic relationship among the various parcels of land, records property & boundaries. 2. Plan – Detailed map showing buildings, roadways etc. 3. Flow Line Map – uses variation in line width to represent variation in the amount of traffic or movement. 4. Aerial Photo 5. Charts – serves purposes of navigators, both nautical & aeronauticalMENTAL MAPS: 6. Topographic Map – elevation map, designed to Cognitive maps. Maps in the head. represent the form of the earth’s surface and to show Psychological representations of locations that are permanent features such as buildings, mountains etc. made up from people’s individual ideas & impressions of these locations. 7. Picture Maps It is the spatial representation that arises in memory. Most mental maps are based on experience, however, ESSENTIAL PARTS OF A MAP: many are still based from pre-existing tangible maps. 1. Title 5. Grid: Latitude & Longitude Mental maps exhibit distortion, biases & emotions. 2. Legend 6. Source of Information 3. Scale 7. Creator/ PublisherTANGIBLE MAPS: the typical map, aka paper maps. They 4. North Arrow/Direction 8. Date of Publicationare the maps that we know, make & use. Other Parts:REFERENCE MAPS (GENERAL PURPOSE MAPS): 1. Series & Sheet Number 4. Declination Diagram displays objects & features of a given area (e.g. 2. Index to Adjoining Sheet 5. Edition Note boundaries, land forms, rivers, etc) 3. Index Map 6. Coverage Diagram----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  3. 3. GEOG 1: “MAPS”SCALE: dimensional relationship between reality & the PROPERTIES OF MAP PROJECTIONS:map. It links the measurement in the map to the actual 1. AREA: all areas are in proper relative size although theydistance in the field. can be much out of shape. Projection results to equal-area Scale = (Map distance) / (ground distance) or equivalent maps (area is constant, shape is distorted: square can be rectangle but with the same area).CLASSIFICATION (According to Robinson):1. Small Scale (1:500,000 or more) 2. SHAPE: accurately portrays the shapes of small areas- it covers wide areas such as countries & continents. by preserving correct, angular relationships (ex: MercatorShows less detail and gives generalized info on the areas Projection). Results are called Conformal Maps (maps withcovered. true shapes for small distances).2. Medium Scale (between 1:50,000 and 1:500,000)3. Large Scale (1:50,000 or less): shows restricted area in Note: a map cannot be both equivalent or conformal.greater detail 3. DISTANCE: maintains true distances in one direction orNote: there is no general consensus on the quantitative along certain selected lines. Results are called Equidistantlimits on the term small, medium & large. The term is projections.relative. The smaller the scale, the more generalizations,more abstract & less accurate is the map. 4. DIRECTION: enables the user to measure correctly the directions from a single point to any other point, howeverREPRESENTATIONS OF MAP SCALES: directions between all points cannot be shown without1. Word Statement: ex: 10 cm to 1 km distortion. Azimuthal Maps. Advantage: can relate map distance on a recognizable distance on the ground. METHODS OF PROJECTIONS: Disadvantage: not convenient for measuring purposes. 1. Geometric – use of developable surface such as cone, cylinder or plane2. Representative Fraction 2. Mathematical – use of mathematical formula Ex: 1:10,000 or 1 / 10,000 1: 250,000 or 1/ 250,000 TYPES OF PROJECTION: Advantage: Accurate scale statements & is easily 1. PLANAR PROJECTION: constructed by placing a plane understood surface tangent to the globe at a given point. The point of Disadvantage: Needs Conversion tangency or contact (aspect) becomes the central point in the map. Point of contact may be North & South Pole,3. Graphical Representation (most useful…daw) points along the equator, or any points in between.Advantage: convenient for measuring distances. It is easyto measure actual distances. When map shrinks orexpands, graphic scale expands or shrinks accordingly.MAP PROJECTION: a systematic drawing of linesrepresenting meridians of parallels on a plane surface,either for the whole earth or some portions of it. Itdetermines the set of rules for transforming 3-D to 2-Dimages. Common planar projections: a. Gnomonic ProjectionsConcepts: b. Stereographic Projection Non-developable surface: cannot be developed or c. Orthographic Projection flattened without distorting. Distortions are inevitable. 2. CONIC PROJECTION: a cone is laid over a sphere, The projection to be used will depend on the purpose of touching it in a small circle of latitude (standard parallel). As the map. the height of the cone increases, the standard parallel gets Mapping Surfaces: Plane surface (e.g. cones & closer to the equator. Standard Parallel is true to scale. The cylinders) more important & useful conical projections are based on mathematical projections. There is no perfect projection. It depends on which country or region you want to project.----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  4. 4. GEOG 1: “MAPS” GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present all types of geographically referenced data; integrated, spatial, data-handling programs which will collect, store, and retrieve spatial data from the real world; powerful tool in decision-making as they can incorporate co-ordinated dataCommon Conic Projections: a. Alber’s Equal-Area Projection b. Polyconic Projection c. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection3. CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION: similar to the cone,cylinders can be developed into a plane. Benefits of Computer Cartography 1) Level of output of maps has increased 2) It is cost-effective 3) The computer has relieved the cartographers from tedious tasks 4) The computer has allowed cartographers to set up a design loop Main Types of Spatial Data: POINT – used to represent a specific location e.g. house,Common Cylindrical Projection: a. Mercator Projection – commonly used for navigation. church, traffic accident It is a projection of the earth on a cylinder tangent at the LINE – represents linear features e.g. roads, streams, equator. It is a mathematical projection in order to be conformal. and boundary b. Transverse Mercator – An ordinary Mercator POLYGON – an enclosed area such as parcels of lands, projection turned through a 90° angle so that it is related to a central meridian the same way the nations, fields, districts mercator is related to the equator.4. Other projection: projections can be developedmathematically to show the world or portion of it in anyshape that is desired: ovals, trapezoid, etc.Why the need to understand maps? a sense of the layout of features in a place: knowing what is where an awareness of an area or a place: what type of place this is and what variety there might be in it the capacity to give/follow routes: finding the way understanding spatial patterns: understanding effect of what is where planning for the future: appreciating the impact of change----------------------------------------------------------------------------