Fa 28 weaving report


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  • Traditionally takes 10 days One strand at a time
  • Pangasinan baskets: known for durability and artistry
  • Color is only secondary since it can fade due to wear and tear and use of the basket
  • Fa 28 weaving report

    1. 1. Mendoza | Pantaleon | Rana | Sebastian | Villarica
    2. 2.  Process of passing threads or strands of material under and over each other to produce textiles May be plain or decorated by dyes, embroidery, and applique Photo from: http://www.ironwulf.net/wp/wp- content/uploads/2007/10/yakan_weaver_03.jpg
    3. 3.  Abel Binangonmag-abi Mun’obol Habe Habol Hablon Havil Maghablon Photo from http://www.cityofpines.com/easterschool06.jpg
    4. 4.  Warpthreads = vertical  From warp beam to the breast or cloth beam Weft threads = horizontal  Attached to shuttle that crosses horizontally Heddle rod  Raises/lowers odd and even warp threads  Makes space for shuttle Photo from: http://www.kipas.nl/Textiles/JPG/Backstraploom1.JPG
    5. 5.  Oldest and simplest type of loom Still used in Southeast Asia Photo from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_pVwyz2RGX9s/TKUH4Qg770I/AAA AAAAAANw/z1EdOG3zCNs/s1600/ifugao+hand+loom.jpeg
    6. 6.  Leather backstrap Ifugao weaver Woven matting or wood attached to the breast by string or rope Outstretched feet support warp beam Breast beam on lap and backstrap passing back Weaver shifts weight forward and backward to control tension of warp yarns Photo from http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/comp/Y2/019/657283.j pg
    7. 7. For manageability:Width of backstrap loom falls within arm span ofweaverLength of cloth determined by length of warpthreadsTo create large blankets and malong(tubularskirts), two or three separately woven pieces arestitched together
    8. 8. Frame Loom Other backstraplooms  Warp beam secured to tree or house post  Warp beam slotted in upright door frame Frame looms  Bigger and more complicated structure  No longer dependent on body tension Photo from http://www.goodwoodlooms.com/images/fl6cropped.jpg
    9. 9.  Use of backstrap loom Organized interfacing of warp and weft threads Leaning back against backstrap controls tension on warp Passing of shuttle  Facilitates weft thread Pressing of new weft evenly  Using beater
    10. 10. Pre-colonial influences:Southeast Asian Malay animistIndian Hindu BuddhistsChineseArabic-Islamic strainsAncient cultural sources: Oceanic cultures of thePolynesian South Pacific
    11. 11.  Since Philippine Iron Age (200 BC) Malayans brought art of weaving on backstrap loom (400 BC) Earliest example in the Philippines: Banton, Romblon  13thcentury piece of ikat-dyed abaca cloth Photo from http://www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph/nationalmuseumbeta/Coll ections/Archaeo/banton.png
    12. 12. Spanish Times:Before: pounded tree barks fibrous bark cloth (tapa)Early Spanish occupation:Filipinos in bark and wovenfibersHand-weaving hampered byinflux of cheap ChinesegoodsLocals have strongpreference for locallymanufactured textiles Photo from http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2486/3922321372_d309a6b9
    13. 13. American Regime: Japanese Period:Specialization per region Many handlooms  Ilocos = cotton and silk destroyed by war  Panay = jusi1903: 18.8 % of total After War:population = weavers or Government support forspinners weavingSuccessful in localmarket, unable to competeinternationally
    14. 14.  Work of women  Shows their role in their society as weavers  Indicates position as respected figure  Female weavers respected as male warriors are Photo from http://images.fanpop.com/images/image_uploads/Tradition al-weaving-the-philippines-488962_594_449.jpg
    15. 15. ABACA (ah bachah)Also called Manila hempFrom stalks of bananarelativeValued for its natural lookAbsorbs dye unevenlyEx. T’bolit’nalak Photo from http://ecokaila.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/abaca- fibers.jpg
    16. 16. BACBACSoftened strips of abacabarkFor basket making in thePhilippinesBAMBOOForm strips of stalkAbsorbs dye unevenlyUsually completely hand-woven Photo by Maria Jesus Magdalena Mendoza
    17. 17. BUNTALFrom large stemsbetween the trunk andleaf of the CoryphapalmLong, tough fiber  veryattractive and durableOriginally used instead ofbamboo in hand wovenhats, bags and mats Photo from http://image.ec21.com/image/gikatharel/oimg_GC05128984_ CA05129001/Philippine_Buntal_Handbag.jpg
    18. 18. COTTONMajor crop in Cordilleras,Ilocos regions, andVisayas Photo from http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Ci_cb2_xSlw/S0awqZ6HI6I/AAAAAAA AE0I/GUJkYPiYdaI/s400/Cotton.PNGJUTE (also called saluyot)Jute was used for ropeand sackcloth Strong anddurable, but dyesunevenly Photo from http://images03.olx.com.ph/ui/20/56/02/133477398 7_209655402_1-Pictures-of--Jute-Sack-for-sale.jpg
    19. 19. NITO FOREST VINEThin-stemmed vineOuter skin usually wovenwithout curing or dryingNatural colors vary fromgreen to light brown toblack Photo from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- wmuaQRfIzzA/TiNMdum1f2I/AAAAAAAAAus/2vFma803Xls/s160 0/Nito+cup.jpg
    20. 20. PANDAN (also known as sabutan or karagumoy)Grows wild on the seacoastPandan shrub also called “screw pine”  Pineapple-like leaves in a corkscrew patternDries unevenly used in irregular weaves  Uneven dyeing  color variations
    21. 21. PINA“Queen of Local Fabrics”Not indigenous toPhilippinesSoft, fine, flexible, strong,white, lustrousMade into embroideredhandkerchiefs and altar Photo from http://www.ecouterre.com/wp- content/uploads/2009/10/layered-pina-cloth.jpgcloth
    22. 22.  Iloilo, Panay = used to be center of pina weaving  Before: 60,000 looms in Iloilo Merging of technology of Spanish experience in embroidery + European taste + native Photo from expertise in weaving http://www.flickr.com/photos/quingobillos/4127635585/
    23. 23. RATTANEasily bent and holds shapewhen dryUsed for baskets andfurnitureRAMIEShrub which yields a tough,white, and lustrous fiberfrom its stemsWoven commercially intable linen primarily incentral Philippines Photo from http://www.thekerrgallery.com/files/gimgs/201_ifguao- rattan-backpack-2.jpg
    24. 24.  Decorative dyeing techniques  Preconceived design  bound fibers  dye  weave  Weave  wax/embroidery  dye  Both are resist-dyeing techniques
    25. 25.  mengikat (Indonesian) meaning “to bind or knot” Decorative dyeing technique Pattern of fabric is determined before weaving begins Photo from http://www.kipas.nl/Textiles/JPG/IfuIkatDetail.JPG
    26. 26.  Known art of Ifugao  Bundles of thread Dominant method by knotted at carefully highland groups of determined points, Eastern Mindanao bound areas resist (Tboli, Bagobo, vegetable dye Tagakaolo, Mandaya,  Dyed threads arranged Bilaan, Ubo, Kalagan) on loom  Colored areas form desired pattern
    27. 27.  Attention to detail and ability to visualize Can be warp, weft, or double ikat Ex. t’nalak of T’boli Ex. dagmay of Mandaya in Mindanao = colored abaca cloth with intricate figures and Photo from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_q7NZPEVICy4/SqhV69cyEhI/AAAAAAAAA patterns CQ/tlY-eH8GUt8/s320/dagmay4.JPG
    28. 28.  Embedding design on thread by dyeing tied threads (tied sections resist dye) Yellow from wild ginger, red from narra shavings, black from mud with high- iron content Addition of antique glass or ceramic beads Photo from (particularly among the http://images.peabody.yale.edu/emu/235/676/235676.jpg Bagobo)
    29. 29.  Dye-resistant technique Embroidery dyeing  removal of the embroidery to reveal the undyed section Ex. Bagobosawal (trousers) http://www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph/nationalmuseumb eta/Collections/Ethno/Trouser.html
    30. 30.  Decorative weaving techniques  Design comes from weaving process (not dyeing)  Warp and weft threads are interlaced together  Use of different colored threads to make strips and plaids  Warp-faced, weft-faced, or balanced weave Photo from http://collections.burkemuseum.org/ethnology/WebImages /Burke/large/0000265685.jpg
    31. 31.  Decorative weaving Produces complex mosaic designs Weft threads in many colors, do not pass through entire area of warp Symmetrical design Usually with central design bordered by smaller areas Photo from http://www.kipas.nl/Textiles/JPG/Langkit3.JPG
    32. 32.  Supplementary Thread Techniques  Special threads inserted into the weft but are made to float over a section of warp threads to form patterns of color and texture contrasting with the ground  Ex. Tingguian blanket Photo from http://matsysdesign.com/studios/compositebodies/wp- content/uploads/2010/01/tinggian21.jpg
    33. 33.  Checkered Striped patterns Geometric patterns Colors:  Red  Black  Blue  Yellow Photo from http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_9usVSmMBZys/THZPIOpCNJI/AA AAAAAAAbE/2PhH7ShvJHQ/s1600/Cordilleras+166a.jpg
    34. 34.  Gaddang  Close winding lines that simulate pattern of python’s skin  Addition of tiny beads
    35. 35. Photo from http://www.tribaltextiles.info/community/viewtopic.php?t=1539&view=next&sid=ce90688259ca95e087016cb186e77195
    36. 36.  Tingguian  Different motifs of rivers (zigzag pattern), horse, deer, proud men and twins  Present-day motifs are bigger
    37. 37. Photo from Photo from http://matsysdesign.com/studios/compositebodies/wp-http://matsysdesign.com/studios/compositebo content/uploads/2010/01/tinggian41.jpgdies/wp-
    38. 38.  T’boli  Zigzag forming triangles  From ancient tumpal motif of Dongson culture  Crab, python, mythical bird, frog, shield, man in house, geometric motifs Photo from http://matsysdesign.com/studios/compositebodies/wp- content/uploads/2010/01/iates9811.jpg
    40. 40.  T’boli  Bangala design  Hexagons with man with symmetrical arms and legs  Means that “man is secure within his own home” Photo from http://s2.hubimg.com/u/3113577_f520.jpg
    41. 41.  Bilaan  Man, animals, geometric  Human and crocodile figures  so stylized that crocodile-human representation seems to merge  Tumpal = elongated triangles in a row
    42. 42.  Mandaya  Traditional dagmay textile has human figure or that of crocodile  Realistic figures found in ikatfabric, while the more abstract and geometric representations are embroidered on textiles
    43. 43. “Process of making cloth by means of interlacing a series of parallel longitudinal threads called the warp, at the right angles with another series of lateral threads, called the weft or woof.”“ Traditionally, the entire process of weaving cloth, for daily use or for ritual, has been the work of women.”
    44. 44.  Major weaving towns:  Santa Maria, Santiago, and Vigan in Ilocos Sur  Sarrat and Paoay in Ilocos Norte  Bangar in La Union
    45. 45.  Pinilian (meaning chosen) blanket  Itneg/Tinguian blanket  Supplementary weft technique  Red, white, and yellow with startlike motif Photo from http://philippine- made.blogspot.com/2010/08/pinilian-blanket.html
    46. 46.  Binacol  Itneg blanket  Mathematically precise supplementary weft woven cloths  Tradition of optical illusion, achieving a pulsating three- dimensionality two- dimensionally Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/father05/2445252920/
    47. 47.  Ilokano Blanket  Woven blanket possessed by Igorot chieftain = symbol of wealth and prestige Photo from: http://www.reflectionsofasia.com/_borders/Igorot_Bla nket___Large_small.jpg
    48. 48.  Tapis  Wraparound cloth for skirt  Standard wear for women  Ifugao, Bontoc, Kankanay, Ibaloy, Tinguian, Isneg, and Gaddang Photo from http://collections.burkemuseum.org/ethnology/WebImages/Burke/large/000 0265685.jpg
    49. 49.  G-string Loincloth  Standard wear for men Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/ayeona/1157387835/
    50. 50.  Piña Cloth  Leaves of pineapple plant  Suffered decline until discovered by haute couture  Cloth for tailoring, handkerchiefs, napkins, altar linen Photo from http://www.divamanila.se/sites/default/files/images /pina/Pineapple-fiber-extraction.jpg
    51. 51.  Pinukpok cloth  Similar to Piña cloth  Woven from banana fiber  Pounded to make more pliant
    52. 52.  Hablon  Miagao, Iloilo  Means ‘weave’  Silk + cotton  Produces a gloss smooth textile for clothing
    53. 53.  Cotton Patadyong  Miagao, Iloilo  Less ornate and shorter than Maranaomalong  With stripes of contrasting color  Complemented with kimona
    54. 54. OTHER WOVEN ITEMS Blankets  Workmanship well-known in Carcar, Cebu  Woven on frame looms called habol Pillowcases Mosquito nets
    55. 55.  Malong  Woven by Maranao and Maguindanao  Large wrap-around cloth  Sewn together lengthwise along the edges to form squares  Cotton or silk
    56. 56.  Malong  Versatile garment  For men and women  tubular garment Maguindanaomalong  recurring designs, sometimes with supplementary weft  Every day wear: usually plaids or stripes
    57. 57.  Malong  Simple malong= simple bands of alternating colors  Special occasions= silk and decorated with gold thread to form stylized tree of life designs
    58. 58.  Malong  Women: tie it around upper chest or knot it around one shoulder  Men: knot around waist
    59. 59.  Purposes of Malong  Shields body for rituals  Childcare  Hammock for injured  “Umbrella”  Blanket  Sack for food  Curtain
    60. 60. TYPES: Landapmalong  Used for ceremonial occasions  one solid color or two alternating colors
    61. 61.  Landapmalong  Langkit = band separately woven in tapestry weave Lakban Tobiran
    62. 62.  Andonmalong  Ikatmotifs in warp and weft techniques  Geometric motifs (stars, circles, etc.) between checks or stripes Babalodan  Rare kind of malong  Floral geometric designs  Kepala = central area of babalodan
    63. 63. OTHER GROUPS: Yakan  Multicolored scarves and belts T’boli Mandaya Bagobo Tausug  Kandit =colorful waistcloth  Pis = headcloth
    64. 64.  Spanish Occupation  New traditions of clothing and tailoring textiles  Bordadoras (embroiderers) emerged in Malate and provinces
    65. 65.  Barong Tagalog Maria Clara  Use of fine transparent material like jusi or piña
    66. 66.  Calado  Fine open-work combined with solid areas of design Photo from http://www.artesdelasfilipinas.com/archives.php? page_id=40
    67. 67. “…the art of fashioning containers by weaving,plaiting or braiding organic materials from leaves,vines, midribs, and holes into hollow three-dimensional shapes that fuse design andfunction.” “…reflects its social matrix, the tropicalenvironment, and the occupations of the folk that draw from the resources of land, river, and sea.”
    68. 68.  Mediates man and nature Motifs symbolize man as a part of nature and someone who shares the common vitality of all living forms Found in many lowland provinces Pangasinan – “province of basket-weavers” Other places: Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Zambales in Luzon; Islands of Samar and Romblon in Visayas; Maranao and Maguindanao in Mindanao
    69. 69.  Bamboo  Gathered from dense groves  Cut and split into strips for weaving  Outer skin acquires a yellow sheen as it ages  “has a finesse and purity, combined with resilience and strength Taken from http://world.mongabay.com/tagalog/travel/files/p7275p.html on August 20,2012
    70. 70.  Coconut midribs  Strong structure  Used to reinforce other materials Taken from http://shootandscootph.blogspot.com/2012/01/10th-national- coconut-festival.html on August 20, 2012
    71. 71. Buri palm and anahaw on August 20, 2012 wimage/45516/ http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/sho Taken from  Large leaves  Dried and flattened to make the basket taken from http://www.neda.gov.ph/knowledge- emporium/default.asp?offset=360 on August 20, 2012
    72. 72.  Vines  Dark nito and reddish sigid  Valued for strength and decorative potential  Dark tones are contrasted with lighter taken from http://dipologcity.com/nitoweavinginsert.htm on August 20, 2012 toned materials taken from http://www.alibaba.com/countrysearch/PH/all- kinds-of-vines.html on August 20, 2012
    73. 73.  Rattan and Pandanus leaf Other materials: banban plant, silong-pugo taken from http://www.thepinoywarrior.com/2011/01/rattan- pinoy-warriors-vine.html on August 21, 2012 taken from http://www.mypandan.com/ on August 21, 2012
    74. 74.  Alternating inner and outer skin (for light and dark contrast) Use of different materials Use of geometric designs Use of natural dyes by the Maranao and the Maguindanao
    75. 75.  Carrying Storing Trapping
    76. 76.  Bilao  carrying basket for winnowing rice taken from taken from http://www.flickr.com/photos/elmer_ng_pat http://markg87.net/my-heart-is- eros/1572658387/ being-crashed/ on August 21, 2012 on August 21, 2012
    77. 77.  Pasiking taken from  Cordillera backpack http://www.richardgervaiscollection.com/collection/details/ 41/2/basketry/bontoc-backpack-basket.html on August 21, 2012 on August 21, 2012 pasiking/ http://365greatpinoystuff.wordpress.com/2010/01/27/27- taken from
    78. 78.  Labba taken from http://www.reflectionsofasia.com/ladies_labba.htm  Ilocano basket on August 21, 2012 Koppit  Bontoc basket  Contains several close- fitting sections on August 21, 2012 m http://davisblair.tripod.com/id87.ht taken from taken from http://pages.morethanmccoy.com/8731/ PictPage/1922615199.html on August 21, 2012
    79. 79. Salakab on August 21, 2012 ehousekeeper/3697274387/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/th taken from  used to catch fish in rice paddies  made of bamboo stakes curving out from a single taken from http://halamanansahalang.blog node of bamboo spot.com/2008/10/salakab.ht ml on August 21, 2012
    80. 80.  Agawen  Ifugao basket  Used for trapping snails taken from http://www.spurlock.illinois.edu/search/index.php? q=2007.15&Search=Search on August 21, 2012
    81. 81.  Tiruray baskets from Cotabato  Geometric motifs with contrasting colors  Motifs could also include human figuresThese images were taken from http://class.csueastbay.edu/anthropologymuseum/virtmus/Philippines/Crafts/Tiruray_basketry.htmon August 21, 2012
    82. 82.  Bagobo baskets  Simple and functional  Personal bags often have tiny bells and multicolored beads taken from taken from http://www.richardgervaiscollection.com http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Cynthi /collection/details/320/2/basketry/bag a/Mindanao/ethnolingusticgroups.htm obo-tribe-basket.html on August 21, 2012 on August 21, 2012
    83. 83. “The art of weaving or plaiting strips of organic fibers into mats.”“Our mat tradition will attest to the artistry and the superb skills required to accomplish the intricacy evident in this woven works of art.”
    84. 84.  Sleeping mats Drying grain or copra Floor mats or rugs Tablecloths & placematsAdvantages: cool, light, portable, space-savers
    85. 85.  Used to be a medium of exchange & barter More ornate mats are made for wedding rituals & other festive occasions Southern weavers make them for prayer mats or household decor
    86. 86.  Traditionally woven by women Process can take several weeks to accomplish Example: pandan plant
    87. 87.  19th – 20th Century  Made to order by families and individuals  Used as gifts at special occasions (weddings, birthdays ect)  Commemorative mats bore letters & names, often with floral or geometric borders 21st Century  Mats easily bought at native stores & itinerant woman vendors
    88. 88.  Work of women Ornate Mats = status symbols / decadent gifts  Often given during special occasions for high value of mats (ex. value of Tinalak = house)  Occupy special place in home (ex. altar, wall hangings, etc. )
    89. 89.  White buri mats  Lacelike design on the edges  Used during weddings; newlyweds dance on the mat while relatives try to pin money on their clothes Taken from gutenberg.org on August 22, 2012
    90. 90.  Made from tikog sedge &buri palm Bright colors Embroidered flowers, peacocks, imaginary scenes May carry the image and name of maker Taken from members.virtualtourist.com if commissioned on August 22, 2012
    91. 91. Photo from http://gerryruiz.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/70711baseymatweaversw-7045.jpg
    92. 92. Photo from http://callezaragosa.com/gerryruizphotoblog/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/70711BaseyMatWeaversE2W-7059.jpg
    93. 93.  Sesed mats  Done in stripes and plaids  Use an instrument called agita to flatten and smooth Taken from ourrestlessfeet.com on August 22, 2012 sisid leaf Taken from buyantiquesandarts.weebly.com on Aug 23, 2012 Taken from bohol.ph on August 22, 2012
    94. 94.  Noted for workmanship& production of uniform strand Taken from homeworks-edsci.blogspot.com on August 22, 2012  Plain brown mats woven over with beige geometric decorations Taken from article.wn.com on August 22, 2012
    95. 95.  Displays bolder and freer use of color and concepts Taken from ironwulf.net on Aug 23, 2012  Plain, soft-brown in color  Commonly used in ManilaTaken from bahay-kubo.orgon Aug 23, 2012
    96. 96.  More restrained and disciplined approach to design Technically excellent Highly pliable Uniform strand length Durable due to tight weave Taken from colloidfarl.blogspot.com on Aug 23, 2012
    97. 97.  Oho mats  Used for rituals outside house Taken from bohol.ph on August 22, 2012 Intricate geometric designs Double ply (coarse undecorated base and fine colored surfacing Taken from digitaleducation.net on Aug 23, 2012
    98. 98.  Multicolored stripes/squares, zigzag pattern, or two-color checks Have exceptional pliability, fineness, smoothness & sheen Serve as wall hangings Taken from pacificbasinservices.com Aug 23, 2012