Governance and anticorruption assignemnt admin 425


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Governance and anticorruption assignemnt admin 425

  1. 1. LECTURER:DRASAMOAH STUDENTS:ADMIN425GOUP4 2010/2011 GOVERNANCEAND ANTICORRUPTION . Whenevil triestotriumphovergood,the divine comesagainandagain ineveryepochto protectthe good andpunishthe evil.There isnow international recognitionthatcorruptionimpedeseconomic development,underminesstabilityanderodestrustinpublic institutions.The perniciouseffectsof corruption — the lackorpoor qualityof essentialpublicinfrastructure andservices — are borne by those the leastable todo so: the poor.This isthe focus of GOOD GOVERNANCEANDANTICORRUPTION GROUP 4 PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ADMIN 425 2010/2011
  2. 2. 2 ADMIN 425 GROUP FOUR NAME: INDEX NO. Elliott Ocloo-Hackmann 10212751 Mingle Nathenniel 10249887 Sampson Tingbani 10251800 Daniel Ladzagla 10174750 Gabriel Adotey 10245564
  3. 3. 3 Winnifred Badu Boatemaa 10253381 AMOAH DANIEL KOMLA 10267894 GOVERNANCE AND ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY INSTRUMENTS. THE NEW ROLE OF GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS IN PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, PARLIAMENT, CABINET, JUDICIARY, CIVIL SERVICE, CIVIL SERVANTS, NGOS, PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, AUDITOR GENERAL ETC. Governance and anti-anticorruption involves the day-to-day administration of an organization or body paying particular attention to transparency, accountability and probity in the dispensation of duties. Corruption is dishonest exploitation of power for personal gain. Corruption can also be seen as wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust. The term is commonly applied to self- benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service. Some causes of corruption include:  Personal Motivations: People develop the desire to posses’ goods and services and more often to have it in abundance. They also wish to have unfair advantage over others; to pay lower taxes, to get an appointment or promotion, to win a contract or get something done easily.
  4. 4. 4  Bad systems: This happens when systems do not work well hence the rise of bad incentives. A clear opportunity, such as the envelope of cash sitting and unattended in an office. This kind of opportunity in the government could be a government-run mining company with no competitors, or a long list of licenses and fees required for shipping goods into or out of the country.  Little chance of getting caught: This lack of accountability comes primarily from a lack of transparency, for example, when public officials do not inform about or explain what they are doing, including a declaration of their wealth, houses, and cars.  Attitudes or circumstances: that makes average people disregard the law. People may try to get around laws of a government they consider illegitimate (for example, not paying taxes to the apartheid government in South Africa). Poverty or scarcity of goods (such as medicine) may also push people to live outside the law. Anti-corruption is now recognized to be one of the world’s greatest challenges. It is a major hindrance to sustainable development with a disproportionate impact on poor communities and is corrosive on the very fabric of society. According to the Oxford Dictionary, Governance means the act or manner of governing, of exercising control or authority over the actions or subjects, a system of regulations. Particularly, good governance is a process by which governments and people identify shared values need and challenges, set priorities and develop programmes to address those needs and challenges and jointly manage the implementation of those programmes and the available resources, through a transparent and accountable process with shared responsibility and outcomes that are responsive, gender sensitive and broad based. Features of good governance  Accountability  Transparency  Responsibility  Predictability
  5. 5. 5  Participation Corruption defeats the idea behind good governance. Corruption in any field is wrong and should be frowned against. Even in the ethical case, corruption is inherently wrong. It is misuse of power and position and has a disproportionate impact on the poor and disadvantaged. It undermines the integrity of all involved and damages the fabric of organizations to which they belong. Corruption is a global phenomenon which occurs in developed and developing countries alike and has existed at all times and in virtually every society, albeit to varying degrees. Corruption is a serious threat to the rule of law, the stability and security of societies. It jeopardizes the fair distribution of resources since it undermines fundamental democratic values and institutions and impedes social, economic and political development and the enjoyment of human rights. Links between corruption and other forms of crime, particularly organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, money laundering and other economic crime at both national and international level are very disturbing. Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting red tape, an emerging consensus holds that the availability of bribes induces officials to contrive new rules and delays. In recent years there has been a growth in the need of openness, with more pressure being put on political institutions to be more accountable in their action. The legislative branch, as the essential law-maker and source of oversight procedures, has received most of this social pressure to improve good governance methods associated with liability, responsibility and answerability. The study of anti-corruption introduces us to topics that have taken center stage in modern times, Transparency and Accountability. The various instruments of government such as public service management; Parliament, Cabinet, Judiciary, Civil Service, Civil Servants, NGOs, Public service Commission, Auditor-general etc are key to rigorously disinfect the system of this vice. Transparency is introduced as a means of holding public officials accountable and fighting corruption. When budgets and financial statements are reviewed, when laws, rules and decision are opened to discussion, they are seen as transparent and there is less opportunities for the authorities to abuse the system in their own interest. Integrity, accountability and transparency of the political system and the civil service are a fundamental requirement for trust, credibility and authority of government in a modern and democratic society.
  6. 6. 6 Accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions and policies, including the administration, governance and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report explain and be answerable for resulting consequences. Parliaments, in discharging the functions provided for in national constitutions, namely, legislating, overseeing the Government and representing the people, have a pre-eminent role to play in the global drive to curb corruption. Parliament is empowered to establish the legal framework for the organization and management of public affairs and society. They vote appropriate anti-corruption legislation that criminalizes corruption and provides for appropriate punishment and other deterrent measures. They also enforce integrity legislation for members of parliaments and other public officials, including members of government and other government officials and see to it that this legislation is enforced. Another important role parliament plays in governance and anti-corruption is Lobby their governments to sign and/or ratify relevant international instruments and see to it that the provisions of these instruments are written into national legislation and enforced. This in turn promotes the passage of freedom of information legislation that allows for the disclosure by government of information considered necessary for the conduct of parliamentary business, especial in investigating cases of corruption. Streamline and ensure the equity of laws and regulations on government procurement procedures, taxation, the administration of justice, etc. The parliament in Ghana continually works towards the achievement of such measures to tackle the challenge of corruption. Inasmuch as some parliamentarians are sometimes suspected to be corrupt, the ultimate aim is focusing on the universal success of these measures because corruption starts individually but affects universally. Aiding the Parliament in its oversight duties is the Auditor-General. The Auditor-General of Ghana is the head of the Ghana Audit Service. The Ghana Audit Service is established on a legal base as the supreme audit institution of the Confederation bound only by the constitution and the law. The public accounts of Ghana and of all public offices or organization established by an Act of Parliament shall be audited and reported on by the Auditor-General. For this purposes the Auditor-General or any person authorized or appointed for the purpose by the Auditor-General shall have access to all books, records, returns and other documents relating to or relevant to those accounts. The Auditor-General shall, upon receipt of the annual statement of public accounts required, under sections 40 and 41 of the Financial Administration Decree, 1979
  7. 7. 7 (S.M.C.D. 221), to be made by the Controller and Accountant-General, examine the statement and certify whether in his opinion the statements present fairly financial information on the accounts in accordance with accounting policies of the Government and consistent with statements of the proceeding year in accordance with best international practices, and may state such reservation or comment that he considers necessary. In recent years the issue of corruption and the search for strategies to combat its corrosive effects has grown in importance as a topic of public debate and a criterion by which evaluates leadership. For many emerging democracies, Ghana not being an exception, formerly characterized by their leaders' economic predation, the decentralization of authority, privatization of property and reform of administrative structures demonstrate the value of alternative approaches to governance and political culture. While these changes are invariably accompanied by uncertainty and sometimes by abusive opportunism, they present an expanding range of opportunities for political initiative in a law-based society. As citizens are exposed to these alternatives, they discover they can demand accountability from their leaders. Various commissions came out to probe into various instances that have occurred in Ghana. The National Reconciliation Council was set up to look into atrocities meted out to Ghanaians during the coup years. Another commission was set up to put under the microscope, Ghana’s Golden Jubilee Celebrations. The onus of these activities or probes is meant to fight corruption and promote justice. Governments and parastatal agencies have been forced to respond to citizen aspirations with more efficient and responsive services. They have even begun to promote an administrative ethos that is intended to serve the citizenry rather than the self-interests of politicians and bureaucrats. This has become of cardinal concern to the cabinet. Even before one is eligible to be on the cabinet in any country, he should have a “clean sheet” or near one in to possess credibility in the opinion of the citizenry. When a cabinet is perceived to be corrupt, it becomes unpopular and there is a general atmosphere of civil strife. Many African and South American countries suffer such cabinets and these cabinets are often overthrown along with the government and replaced with ones perceived to be better. In the public arena such as the civil service and public service, governance whilst avoiding much corruption is undertaken through various means. There should be a reform in this sector
  8. 8. 8 and such reform should include examples such as open bidding for contracts, proper and open recruitment policies and fair distribution of resources among a few to be mentioned. In search for better performing modes of governance and public administration, countries continue to undertake substantive work in restructuring, reforming, and reconfiguring their governance systems and institutions to make them more participative, decentralized and responsive to local, regional and global needs. An effective public service is indispensable to the overall struggle for strengthening the rule of law and sustainable development, principally because the public service is central to the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and programmes that are directly related to the reduction of poverty. Many countries are embarking on revamping the image of the public service to enable it to attract and retain the best talent to sustain its effectiveness. African countries adopted the 23rd of June as Public Service Day, and the United Nations followed suit by adopting the same date as Public Service Day to be observed worldwide. The introduction of the United Nations Public Service Awards is also one of the efforts to uplift the image of the public service (UN Public Service Day). There is a need for sustained effort to diagnose and analyze the forces and factors that have led to the erosion of the image of the public service in almost every country these past years, and to find remedies that would re-establish the values, status, and prestige in serving the public. The role of government in anti-corruption cannot be over emphasized. We need to continue polishing our operations and enhance service to our nation. Corruption as it is has no defined starting point and should always be checked. REFERENCE: ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENCIES (ACAs), Office of Democracy and Governance Anti- corruption Program Brief. USAID CORRUPTION & INTEGRITY IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Microsoft Student Encarta 2009 Encyclopedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suit. 2008
  9. 9. 9 UNPAN - United Nations Public Administration Network(2008-2010) 4th Global Forum on Combatting Corruption: From Words to Deeds Anti-Corruption, June 2005, Brasilia, Brazil: Workshop on e-Government: Improving Visibility Workshop on Local Level - Controlling from a Distance: Challenges and Solutions Workshop on Conflicts-of-Interest: Sample Presentation Forum for a Global Integrity Alliance Presentation at SessionI: Organizational ethics: a value based approach to promoting integrity, democratic governance and the fight against corruption, and Balancing a value-driven approach with a compliance-driven approach to promote organizational integrity, March 2004, Istanbul, Turkey Council on Government Ethics Laws 2002 Conference: Presentation on Public Sector Ethics in the Developing World, October 2003, Ottawa, Canada 11th IACC: Workshop on Depoliticizing the Civil Service, May 2003, Seoul, Republic of Korea