SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Chapter18

bio 102

1 of 28
Download to read offline
© Cengage Learning 2015
Biology
Concepts and Applications | 9e
Starr | Evers | Starr
© Cengage Learning 2015
Chapter 18Chapter 18
Life’s Origin and Early EvolutionLife’s Origin and Early Evolution
© Cengage Learning 2015
18.1 What Was The Building Material For
Earth’s First Life?
• Conditions on early Earth
– Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago
– Early atmosphere contained little or no
oxygen
– Presence of water
– Volcanic eruptions were common
– Constant hail of meteorites
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Was The Building Material For
Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.)
• Formation of simple organic compounds
– All life consists of:
• Amino acids
• Fatty acids
• Nucleotides
• Simple sugars
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Was The Building Material For
Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.)
• Where did the subunits of the first life
come from?
• There are several possibilities:
– Lightning-fueled atmospheric reactions
– Reactions at deep-sea hydrothermal vents
– Meteorites from space
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Was The Building Material For
Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.)
• Miller-Urey experiment
– 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey showed
that reactions in Earth’s early atmosphere
could have produced building blocks for the
first life
– Indirect evidence that organic compounds
self-assemble spontaneously under
conditions like those in Earth’s early
atmosphere
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Was The Building Material For
Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.)
• Hydrothermal vents
– Deep underwater openings in ocean where
mineral-rich water heated by geothermal
energy streams out
• Reactions in the hot, mineral-rich water near deep-
sea hydrothermal vents also produce organic
building blocks
• Simulated experiments combining hot water with
carbon monoxide (CO), potassium cyanide (KCN),
and metal ions formed amino acids

Recommended

chemical evolution and biological origin of life
chemical evolution and biological origin of lifechemical evolution and biological origin of life
chemical evolution and biological origin of lifeUTTARAN MODHUKALYA
 
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.2 origin of life
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.2 origin of lifeB.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.2 origin of life
B.sc.(micro) i em unit 1.2 origin of lifeRai University
 
The+Beginnings+Of+Life
The+Beginnings+Of+LifeThe+Beginnings+Of+Life
The+Beginnings+Of+Lifesusiataiji
 
D.1 origin-of-life-on-earth
D.1 origin-of-life-on-earthD.1 origin-of-life-on-earth
D.1 origin-of-life-on-earthMAlbert23
 
Origin of Life on Earth
Origin of Life on EarthOrigin of Life on Earth
Origin of Life on EarthAarti Patel
 

More Related Content

What's hot

What is the definition of life
What is the definition of lifeWhat is the definition of life
What is the definition of lifeNelson Correia
 
BOTANY LECTURE 2
BOTANY LECTURE 2BOTANY LECTURE 2
BOTANY LECTURE 2Sharl Cureg
 
The Origin Of Life Dual Origin Hypothesis
The Origin Of Life  Dual Origin HypothesisThe Origin Of Life  Dual Origin Hypothesis
The Origin Of Life Dual Origin HypothesisHeather Jordan
 
The Origin Of Life Key
The Origin Of Life KeyThe Origin Of Life Key
The Origin Of Life Keykevinkaraca
 
IB Biology Option D.1: Origin of life
IB Biology Option D.1: Origin of lifeIB Biology Option D.1: Origin of life
IB Biology Option D.1: Origin of lifeJason de Nys
 
IB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and Water
IB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and WaterIB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and Water
IB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and WaterJason de Nys
 
Eh2 unit checks questions
Eh2 unit checks questionsEh2 unit checks questions
Eh2 unit checks questionsRobin Seamon
 
Earth History 2: Changes in Atmosphere
Earth History 2: Changes in AtmosphereEarth History 2: Changes in Atmosphere
Earth History 2: Changes in AtmosphereRobin Seamon
 
Earth History 1: unit checks questions
Earth History 1: unit checks questionsEarth History 1: unit checks questions
Earth History 1: unit checks questionsRobin Seamon
 
Module 5b earth_space_science
Module 5b earth_space_scienceModule 5b earth_space_science
Module 5b earth_space_sciencemelanielayttu
 

What's hot (20)

What is the definition of life
What is the definition of lifeWhat is the definition of life
What is the definition of life
 
BOTANY LECTURE 2
BOTANY LECTURE 2BOTANY LECTURE 2
BOTANY LECTURE 2
 
The Origin Of Life Dual Origin Hypothesis
The Origin Of Life  Dual Origin HypothesisThe Origin Of Life  Dual Origin Hypothesis
The Origin Of Life Dual Origin Hypothesis
 
History Life APBioCh17
History Life APBioCh17History Life APBioCh17
History Life APBioCh17
 
ORIGIN OF LIFE
ORIGIN OF LIFE ORIGIN OF LIFE
ORIGIN OF LIFE
 
The Origin Of Life Key
The Origin Of Life KeyThe Origin Of Life Key
The Origin Of Life Key
 
IB Biology Option D.1: Origin of life
IB Biology Option D.1: Origin of lifeIB Biology Option D.1: Origin of life
IB Biology Option D.1: Origin of life
 
EVOLUTION
EVOLUTION EVOLUTION
EVOLUTION
 
IB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and Water
IB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and WaterIB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and Water
IB Biology Core 3.1: Chemical Elements and Water
 
14 systems concept
14 systems concept14 systems concept
14 systems concept
 
Eh2 unit checks questions
Eh2 unit checks questionsEh2 unit checks questions
Eh2 unit checks questions
 
Jing laplana 3
Jing laplana 3Jing laplana 3
Jing laplana 3
 
Earth history 2
Earth history 2Earth history 2
Earth history 2
 
Earth History 2: Changes in Atmosphere
Earth History 2: Changes in AtmosphereEarth History 2: Changes in Atmosphere
Earth History 2: Changes in Atmosphere
 
SFDC article 2
SFDC article 2SFDC article 2
SFDC article 2
 
Chapter 3
Chapter 3Chapter 3
Chapter 3
 
Miller Urey Experiment
Miller   Urey ExperimentMiller   Urey Experiment
Miller Urey Experiment
 
Earth History 1: unit checks questions
Earth History 1: unit checks questionsEarth History 1: unit checks questions
Earth History 1: unit checks questions
 
Biophotosynthesis
BiophotosynthesisBiophotosynthesis
Biophotosynthesis
 
Module 5b earth_space_science
Module 5b earth_space_scienceModule 5b earth_space_science
Module 5b earth_space_science
 

Viewers also liked

Chapter5 sections+1 4
Chapter5 sections+1 4Chapter5 sections+1 4
Chapter5 sections+1 4bigdanny
 
Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)
Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)
Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)mam04130
 
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jcLect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jcJunior Umeh
 
Molecules of life intro
Molecules of life introMolecules of life intro
Molecules of life introeruder
 
Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...
Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...
Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...Jorge Pinto
 
Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15
Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15
Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15raegan_witt-malandruccolo
 
Introduction to biological molecules
Introduction to biological moleculesIntroduction to biological molecules
Introduction to biological moleculesstvb2170
 
Biomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlier
Biomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlierBiomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlier
Biomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlierVedpal Yadav
 
Ch 4: Carbon and Diversity
Ch 4: Carbon and DiversityCh 4: Carbon and Diversity
Ch 4: Carbon and Diversityveneethmathew
 
Biology in Focus Chapter 3
Biology in Focus Chapter 3Biology in Focus Chapter 3
Biology in Focus Chapter 3mpattani
 
Ch 3: Water and Life
Ch 3: Water and LifeCh 3: Water and Life
Ch 3: Water and Lifeveneethmathew
 
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological MoleculesCh 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Moleculesveneethmathew
 
Biology Midterm Review
Biology Midterm ReviewBiology Midterm Review
Biology Midterm Reviewteachingmike
 
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & Vitamins
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & VitaminsChem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & Vitamins
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & VitaminsShaina Mavreen Villaroza
 

Viewers also liked (20)

11.1
11.111.1
11.1
 
Chapter5 sections+1 4
Chapter5 sections+1 4Chapter5 sections+1 4
Chapter5 sections+1 4
 
Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)
Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)
Ch 3 molecules_of_cells_lecture_presentation (1)
 
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jcLect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc
 
Molecules of life intro
Molecules of life introMolecules of life intro
Molecules of life intro
 
Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...
Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...
Biological molecules (Water and Proteins) and Transport in plants recap AS Bi...
 
Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15
Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15
Core Content Coaching Grade 8 Life Cycle of a Star 14-15
 
Chapter 2
Chapter 2Chapter 2
Chapter 2
 
Introduction to biological molecules
Introduction to biological moleculesIntroduction to biological molecules
Introduction to biological molecules
 
Biomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlier
Biomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlierBiomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlier
Biomolecules including structured notes to be taught earlier
 
Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPoint
Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPointAp Bio Ch3 PowerPoint
Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPoint
 
Ch 4: Carbon and Diversity
Ch 4: Carbon and DiversityCh 4: Carbon and Diversity
Ch 4: Carbon and Diversity
 
Biology in Focus Chapter 3
Biology in Focus Chapter 3Biology in Focus Chapter 3
Biology in Focus Chapter 3
 
Ch 3: Water and Life
Ch 3: Water and LifeCh 3: Water and Life
Ch 3: Water and Life
 
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Carbohydrates
Chem 45 Biochemistry: CarbohydratesChem 45 Biochemistry: Carbohydrates
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Carbohydrates
 
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological MoleculesCh 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Ch 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
 
Biology Midterm Review
Biology Midterm ReviewBiology Midterm Review
Biology Midterm Review
 
03 Lecture Ppt
03 Lecture Ppt03 Lecture Ppt
03 Lecture Ppt
 
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & Vitamins
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & VitaminsChem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & Vitamins
Chem 45 Biochemistry: Stoker Chapter 21 Enzymes & Vitamins
 
04 Lecture Ppt
04 Lecture Ppt04 Lecture Ppt
04 Lecture Ppt
 

Similar to Chapter18

B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsB.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsRai University
 
ORIGIN OF LIFE.pptx
ORIGIN OF LIFE.pptxORIGIN OF LIFE.pptx
ORIGIN OF LIFE.pptxKuki Boruah
 
Lecture 9
Lecture 9Lecture 9
Lecture 9RayF42
 
Lecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earth
Lecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earthLecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earth
Lecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earthKristen DeAngelis
 
IB Topic 1.5 Cell Origins
IB Topic 1.5 Cell OriginsIB Topic 1.5 Cell Origins
IB Topic 1.5 Cell OriginsEran Earland
 
Origin of life-where did life come from
Origin of life-where did life come fromOrigin of life-where did life come from
Origin of life-where did life come fromArosek Padhi
 
Endogenous evolution.pptx
Endogenous evolution.pptxEndogenous evolution.pptx
Endogenous evolution.pptxDilipPaytm
 
1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt
1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt
1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.pptssuserdac492
 
Origin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip Saha
Origin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip SahaOrigin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip Saha
Origin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip SahaRatnodip Saha
 
bacteria-200515105516.pdf
bacteria-200515105516.pdfbacteria-200515105516.pdf
bacteria-200515105516.pdfDawitGetahun6
 
Origin of biomolecules.. sairam
Origin of biomolecules.. sairamOrigin of biomolecules.. sairam
Origin of biomolecules.. sairamSai Ram
 
15 lecture presentation0
15 lecture presentation015 lecture presentation0
15 lecture presentation0Uconn Stamford
 

Similar to Chapter18 (20)

B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsB.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
B.Sc. Biotech Biochem II BM Unit-1.3 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
 
ORIGIN OF LIFE.pptx
ORIGIN OF LIFE.pptxORIGIN OF LIFE.pptx
ORIGIN OF LIFE.pptx
 
Lecture 9
Lecture 9Lecture 9
Lecture 9
 
origin of life
origin of lifeorigin of life
origin of life
 
Lecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earth
Lecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earthLecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earth
Lecture 03 (2 09-2021) early earth
 
IB Topic 1.5 Cell Origins
IB Topic 1.5 Cell OriginsIB Topic 1.5 Cell Origins
IB Topic 1.5 Cell Origins
 
Origin of life-where did life come from
Origin of life-where did life come fromOrigin of life-where did life come from
Origin of life-where did life come from
 
1.Origin Of Life.pptx
1.Origin Of Life.pptx1.Origin Of Life.pptx
1.Origin Of Life.pptx
 
origin of life.pptx
origin of life.pptxorigin of life.pptx
origin of life.pptx
 
7.1 and7.2
7.1 and7.27.1 and7.2
7.1 and7.2
 
Endogenous evolution.pptx
Endogenous evolution.pptxEndogenous evolution.pptx
Endogenous evolution.pptx
 
lifeshort.ppt
lifeshort.pptlifeshort.ppt
lifeshort.ppt
 
lifeshort.ppt
lifeshort.pptlifeshort.ppt
lifeshort.ppt
 
1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt
1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt
1603278403-foundation-of-biochemistry.ppt
 
Origin of life
Origin of life Origin of life
Origin of life
 
Origin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip Saha
Origin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip SahaOrigin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip Saha
Origin and Evolution of Life by Ratnodip Saha
 
Bacteria
BacteriaBacteria
Bacteria
 
bacteria-200515105516.pdf
bacteria-200515105516.pdfbacteria-200515105516.pdf
bacteria-200515105516.pdf
 
Origin of biomolecules.. sairam
Origin of biomolecules.. sairamOrigin of biomolecules.. sairam
Origin of biomolecules.. sairam
 
15 lecture presentation0
15 lecture presentation015 lecture presentation0
15 lecture presentation0
 

More from Amo Oliverio (20)

liters to quarts conversion.pptx
liters to quarts conversion.pptxliters to quarts conversion.pptx
liters to quarts conversion.pptx
 
GSC109 01 lecture outline
GSC109 01 lecture outlineGSC109 01 lecture outline
GSC109 01 lecture outline
 
Chapter 17 blood q and q part 2
Chapter 17 blood q and q part 2Chapter 17 blood q and q part 2
Chapter 17 blood q and q part 2
 
Chapter 17 blood q and a part 1
Chapter 17 blood q and a part 1Chapter 17 blood q and a part 1
Chapter 17 blood q and a part 1
 
8.6
8.68.6
8.6
 
8.4
8.48.4
8.4
 
8.3
8.38.3
8.3
 
8.2
8.28.2
8.2
 
8.1
8.18.1
8.1
 
8.5 no vids
8.5 no vids8.5 no vids
8.5 no vids
 
8.5
8.58.5
8.5
 
8.4
8.48.4
8.4
 
6.7
6.76.7
6.7
 
6.6
6.66.6
6.6
 
6.5
6.56.5
6.5
 
6.4
6.46.4
6.4
 
6.8
6.86.8
6.8
 
6.3
6.36.3
6.3
 
6.2
6.26.2
6.2
 
6.1
6.16.1
6.1
 

Recently uploaded

Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...
Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...
Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...Sue Beckingham
 
BBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptx
BBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptxBBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptx
BBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptxProf. Kanchan Kumari
 
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...MohonDas
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Rabiya Husain
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleCeline George
 
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika    -  The story of the queenNzinga Kika    -  The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queenDeanAmory1
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptxGroup_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptxPooja Bhuva
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docx
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docxACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docx
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docxMaria Lucia Céspedes
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...Katherine Villaluna
 
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaDecision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaPrince Armah, PhD
 
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEDISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...
Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...
Digital Footprints to Career Pathways - Building a Strong Professional Online...
 
Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer
 
BBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptx
BBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptxBBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptx
BBA 603 FUNDAMENTAL OF E- COMMERCE UNIT 1.pptx
 
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 5-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptxfirst section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
 
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
Barrow Motor Ability Test - TEST, MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN PHYSICAL EDUC...
 
ThinkTech 2024 Prelims- U25 BizTech Quiz by Pragya
ThinkTech 2024 Prelims- U25 BizTech Quiz by PragyaThinkTech 2024 Prelims- U25 BizTech Quiz by Pragya
ThinkTech 2024 Prelims- U25 BizTech Quiz by Pragya
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
 
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika    -  The story of the queenNzinga Kika    -  The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
 
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptxGroup_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
Group_Presentation_Gun_Island_Amitav_Ghosh.pptx
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docx
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docxACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docx
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 sopa de letras.docx
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 2-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
 
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
GIÁO ÁN TIẾNG ANH GLOBAL SUCCESS LỚP 11 (CẢ NĂM) THEO CÔNG VĂN 5512 (2 CỘT) N...
 
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
Practical Research 1, Lesson 5: DESIGNING A RESEARCH PROJECT RELATED TO DAILY...
 
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaDecision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
 
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEDISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
 

Chapter18

  • 1. © Cengage Learning 2015 Biology Concepts and Applications | 9e Starr | Evers | Starr © Cengage Learning 2015 Chapter 18Chapter 18 Life’s Origin and Early EvolutionLife’s Origin and Early Evolution
  • 2. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.1 What Was The Building Material For Earth’s First Life? • Conditions on early Earth – Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago – Early atmosphere contained little or no oxygen – Presence of water – Volcanic eruptions were common – Constant hail of meteorites
  • 3. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Was The Building Material For Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.) • Formation of simple organic compounds – All life consists of: • Amino acids • Fatty acids • Nucleotides • Simple sugars
  • 4. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Was The Building Material For Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.) • Where did the subunits of the first life come from? • There are several possibilities: – Lightning-fueled atmospheric reactions – Reactions at deep-sea hydrothermal vents – Meteorites from space
  • 5. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Was The Building Material For Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.) • Miller-Urey experiment – 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey showed that reactions in Earth’s early atmosphere could have produced building blocks for the first life – Indirect evidence that organic compounds self-assemble spontaneously under conditions like those in Earth’s early atmosphere
  • 6. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Was The Building Material For Earth’s First Life? (cont’d.) • Hydrothermal vents – Deep underwater openings in ocean where mineral-rich water heated by geothermal energy streams out • Reactions in the hot, mineral-rich water near deep- sea hydrothermal vents also produce organic building blocks • Simulated experiments combining hot water with carbon monoxide (CO), potassium cyanide (KCN), and metal ions formed amino acids
  • 7. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.2 What Steps Led to the Formation of the First Cells? • Similarities in structure, metabolism, and replication among all life indicate descent from a common cellular ancestor – Experiments demonstrate how traits and processes seen in all living cells could have begun with physical and chemical reactions among non-living collections of molecules
  • 8. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Steps Led to the Formation of the First Cells? (cont’d.) • Origin of metabolism – Proteins that speed metabolic reactions might have first formed when amino acids stuck to clay, then bonded under the heat of the sun – Metabolism may have begun in rocks near deep-sea hydrothermal vents when iron sulfide in the rocks donated electrons to dissolved carbon monoxide
  • 9. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Steps Led to the Formation of the First Cells? (cont’d.)
  • 10. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Steps Led to the Formation of the First Cells? (cont’d.) • Protocells – May have preceded cells – Membrane-like structures and vesicles form when proteins or lipids are mixed with water – Membranous sacs that contain interacting organic molecules; hypothesized to have formed prior to the earliest life forms – Origin of the cell membrane
  • 11. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Steps Led to the Formation of the First Cells? (cont’d.) A B C
  • 12. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Steps Led to the Formation of the First Cells? (cont’d.) • Origin of the genome – All modern cells have a genome of DNA – Protein synthesis depends on DNA, which is built by proteins – How did this cycle begin? • An RNA world, a time in which RNA was the genetic material, may have preceded DNA-based systems • Ribozymes: RNA functions as an enzyme
  • 13. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.3 What Do We Know About Early Cells? • Early divergence separated bacteria from ancestors of archaeans and eukaryotes – An oxygen-releasing, noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis evolved in one bacterial lineage, cyanobacteria – 2.5 billion years ago, oxygen released by cyanobacteria began to accumulate in Earth’s sea and air – Cyanobacteria changed Earth’s atmosphere
  • 14. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Do We Know About Early Cells? (cont’d.) A B
  • 15. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Do We Know About Early Cells? (cont’d.) • Stromatolite – Dome-shaped structures composed of layers of bacterial cells and sediments – Each layer formed when a mat of living cells trapped sediments – Descendant cells grew over the sediment layer, then trapped more sediment, forming the next layer
  • 16. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Do We Know About Early Cells? (cont’d.)
  • 17. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.4 How Did Increasing Oxygen Affect Early Life? • Evidence of early eukaryotes – Biomarker • Molecule produced only by a specific type of cell • A molecular signature – Oldest widely accepted eukaryote microfossils date to about 1.8 billion years ago
  • 18. © Cengage Learning 2015 How Did Increasing Oxygen Affect Early Life? (cont’d.) • Effects of increasing oxygen – Interferes with self-assembly of complex organic compounds – Prevented evolution of new life from non-living molecules – Presence of oxygen gave organisms that thrived in aerobic conditions an advantage – Formation of an ozone layer in the upper atmosphere protected Earth’s surface from high levels of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation
  • 19. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.5 How Did Eukaryotic Organelles Arise? • Scientists study modern cells to test hypotheses about how organelles evolved in the past – By one hypothesis, internal membranes typical of eukaryotic cells may have evolved through infoldings of plasma membrane of prokaryotic ancestors – Existence of some bacteria with internal membranes supports this hypothesis
  • 20. © Cengage Learning 2015 ANIMATION: Eukaryotic evolution To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
  • 21. © Cengage Learning 2015 How Did Eukaryotic Organelles Arise? (cont’d.) • Origin of the nucleus – Internal membranes can be advantageous • Can increase surface area • Hold more enzymes • Protect a genome from physical or biological threats
  • 22. © Cengage Learning 2015 How Did Eukaryotic Organelles Arise? (cont’d.)
  • 23. © Cengage Learning 2015 How Did Eukaryotic Organelles Arise? (cont’d.) • Origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts – Endosymbiont hypothesis • Mitochondria and chloroplasts resemble bacteria • One species lives and reproduces inside another • Over generations, host and guest cells come to depend upon one another for essential metabolic processes
  • 24. © Cengage Learning 2015 How Did Eukaryotic Organelles Arise? (cont’d.)
  • 25. © Cengage Learning 2015 How Did Eukaryotic Organelles Arise? (cont’d.) • Evidence for endosymbiosis – Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic bacterium that infects human cells • Like mitochondria, these bacteria take up pyruvate from the cytoplasm and break it down by aerobic respiration • Microbiologist Kwang Jeon grew amoebas infected by a rod-shaped bacterium – eventually, the amoebas came to rely on the bacteria for some life-sustaining function
  • 26. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.6 What Happened During the Precambrian? • Precambrian – Encompasses almost all of Earth’s history – From 4.6 billion years ago to Cambrian (542 mya) – Life arose and diversified – By the close of this period, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes lived in the sea
  • 27. © Cengage Learning 2015 18.7 Life in Extreme Habitats • Astrobiologists study properties of the ancient Earth that allowed life to arise, survive, and diversify – Astrobiology • The scientific study of life’s origin and distribution in the universe • Presence of cells in deserts and deep below Earth’s surface suggests life may exist in similar settings on other planets
  • 28. © Cengage Learning 2015 Life in Extreme Habitats (cont’d.)

Editor's Notes

  1. Figure 18.3 Cell-sized chambers in iron-sulfide-rich rocks formed by simulations of conditions near hydrothermal vents. Similar chambers could have served as protected environments in which the first metabolic reactions took place.
  2. Figure 18.4 Protocells. Scientists test hypotheses about protocell formation through laboratory simulations and field experiments A Computer model of a protocell with a bilayer membrane of fatty acids around strands of RNA. B Laboratory-formed protocell consisting of RNA-coated clay (red) surrounded by fatty acids and alcohols. C Field-testing a hypothesis about protocell formation. David Deamer pours a mix of small organic molecules and phosphates into a hot acidic pool in Russia.
  3. Figure 18.5 Possible microfossils from western Australia A Micrograph of a filament that may be a 3.5-billion-year-old fossilized chain of photosynthetic bacteria. B Micrograph showing structures that may be fossilized 3.4-billion-year-old sulfur-reducing bacteria.
  4. Figure 18.6 Fossil stromatolite. It consists of layered remains of countless photosynthetic bacteria and sediment they captured.
  5. Figure 18.8 {Animated} One hypothesis for the steps in organelle evolution. Membrane in-folding produced the endomembrane system. Then, an early endosymbiosis produced mitochondria, which occur in almost all eukaryotes. Later, photosynthetic bacteria entered a eukaryotic cell and, over many generations, evolved into chloroplasts.
  6. Figure 18.9 Nucleus-like structure in a prokaryote. The DNA of Gemmata obscuriglobus, a species of bacteria, is enclosed by a double lipid bilayer membrane (indicated by the arrow).
  7. Figure 18.10 Modern relatives of mitochondria Rickettsias are tiny bacteria that invade eukaryotic cells and replicate inside them. The species shown here, Rickettsia prowazeki, is of special interest to scientists for two reasons. First, it causes typhus, a deadly human disease spread by lice and fleas. Second, its genome is very similar to that of a mitochondrion. R. prowazeki is one of the closest living relatives of mitochondria. Some free-living bacteria that float in the ocean’s surface waters are also genetically similar to both rickettsias and mitochondria. We do not know exactly how these modern groups are related, but by one hypothesis, all three—mitochondria, rickettsias, and the modern marine bacteria—descended from an ancient free-living marine species.
  8. Figure 18.12 The Mars-like landscape of Chile’s Atacama Desert. Scientist Jay Quade, visible in the distance at the right, was a member of a team that found bacteria living beneath this desert soil.