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8.4 Synovial Joints
• Bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity
• All are diarthrotic (freely movable)
• Include almost all limb joints
• Characteristics of synovial joints
– Have six general features
– Have bursae and tendon sheaths associated with them
– Stability is influenced by three factors
– Allow several types of movements
– Classified into six different types
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
General Structure
• Synovial joints have six general features:
1. Articular cartilage: consists of hyaline
cartilage covering ends of bones
• Prevents crushing of bone ends
2. Joint (synovial) cavity: small, fluid-filled
potential space that is unique to synovial joints
3. Articular (joint) capsule: two layers thick
• External fibrous layer: dense irregular connective tissue
• Inner synovial membrane: loose connective tissue that makes synovial
fluid
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
General Structure (cont.)
4. Synovial fluid: viscous, slippery filtrate of
plasma and hyaluronic acid
• Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage
• Contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris
5. Different types of reinforcing ligaments
• Capsular: thickened part of fibrous layer
• Extracapsular: outside the capsule
• Intracapsular: deep to capsule; covered by synovial membrane
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
General Structure (cont.)
6. Nerves and blood vessels
• Nerves detect pain; monitor joint position and stretch
• Capillary beds supply filtrate for synovial fluid
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint.
Ligament
Joint cavity
(contains
synovial fluid)
Articular (hyaline)
cartilage
Fibrous
layer
Synovial
membrane
(secretes
synovial
fluid)
Periosteum
Articular
capsule
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
General Structure (cont.)
• Other features of some synovial joints:
– Fatty pads
• For cushioning between fibrous layer of capsule and synovial membrane or
bone
– Articular discs (menisci)
• Fibrocartilage separates articular surfaces to improve “fit” of bone ends,
stabilize joint, and reduce wear and tear
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
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8.4

  • 1. 8.4 Synovial Joints • Bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity • All are diarthrotic (freely movable) • Include almost all limb joints • Characteristics of synovial joints – Have six general features – Have bursae and tendon sheaths associated with them – Stability is influenced by three factors – Allow several types of movements – Classified into six different types © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. General Structure • Synovial joints have six general features: 1. Articular cartilage: consists of hyaline cartilage covering ends of bones • Prevents crushing of bone ends 2. Joint (synovial) cavity: small, fluid-filled potential space that is unique to synovial joints 3. Articular (joint) capsule: two layers thick • External fibrous layer: dense irregular connective tissue • Inner synovial membrane: loose connective tissue that makes synovial fluid © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. General Structure (cont.) 4. Synovial fluid: viscous, slippery filtrate of plasma and hyaluronic acid • Lubricates and nourishes articular cartilage • Contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris 5. Different types of reinforcing ligaments • Capsular: thickened part of fibrous layer • Extracapsular: outside the capsule • Intracapsular: deep to capsule; covered by synovial membrane © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. General Structure (cont.) 6. Nerves and blood vessels • Nerves detect pain; monitor joint position and stretch • Capillary beds supply filtrate for synovial fluid © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 5. Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint. Ligament Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Fibrous layer Synovial membrane (secretes synovial fluid) Periosteum Articular capsule © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 6. General Structure (cont.) • Other features of some synovial joints: – Fatty pads • For cushioning between fibrous layer of capsule and synovial membrane or bone – Articular discs (menisci) • Fibrocartilage separates articular surfaces to improve “fit” of bone ends, stabilize joint, and reduce wear and tear © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 7. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths • Bags of synovial fluid that act as lubricating “ball bearing” – Not strictly part of synovial joints, but closely associated • Bursae: reduce friction where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together • Tendon sheaths: elongated bursae wrapped completely around tendons subjected to friction © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 8. Figure 8.4a Bursae and tendon sheaths. Acromion of scapula Subacromial bursa Fibrous layer of articular capsule Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Articular cartilage Tendon sheath Synovial membrane Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Fibrous layer Humerus Frontal section through the right shoulder joint © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. Figure 8.4b Bursae and tendon sheaths. Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts. Humerus moving Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Factors Influencing Stability of Synovial Joints • Three factors determine stability of joints to prevent dislocations: 1. Shape of articular surface (minor role) • Shallow surfaces less stable than ball-and-socket 2. Ligament number and location (limited role) • The more ligaments, the stronger the joint 3. Muscle tone keeps tendons taut as they cross joints (most important) • Extremely important in reinforcing shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 11. Table 8.2-1 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 12. Table 8.2-2 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (continued) © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 13. Table 8.2-3 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (continued) © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 14. Table 8.2-3 Structural and Functional Characteristics of Body Joints (continued) © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints • All muscles attach to bone or connective tissue at no fewer than two points – Origin: attachment to immovable bone – Insertion: attachment to movable bone • Muscle contraction causes insertion to move toward origin • Movements occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Range of motion allowed by synovial joints – Nonaxial: slipping movements only – Uniaxial: movement in one plane – Biaxial: movement in two planes – Multiaxial: movement in or around all three planes • Three general types of movements – Gliding – Angular movements – Rotation © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Gliding movements – One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface – Examples • Intercarpal joints • Intertarsal joints • Between articular processes of vertebrae © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. Figure 8.5a Movements allowed by synovial joints. Gliding Gliding movements at the wrist © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Angular movements – Increase or decrease angle between two bones – Movement along sagittal plane – Angular movements include: • Flexion: decreases the angle of the joint • Extension: increases the angle of the joint – Hyperextension: movement beyond the anatomical position © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 20. Figure 8.5b Movements allowed by synovial joints. Hyperextension Extension Flexion Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. Figure 8.5c Movements allowed by synovial joints. Extension Hyperextension Flexion Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 22. Figure 8.5d Movements allowed by synovial joints. Flexion Hyper- extension Extension Flexion Extension Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension at the shoulder and knee © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Angular movements (cont.) – Abduction: movement along frontal plane, away from the midline – Adduction: movement along frontal plane, toward the midline – Circumduction • Involves flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction of limb • Limb describes cone in space © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. Figure 8.5e Movements allowed by synovial joints. Abduction Adduction Circumduction Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 25. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Rotation: turning of bone around its own long axis, toward midline or away from it – Medial: rotation toward midline – Lateral: rotation away from midline – Examples • Rotation between C1 and C2 vertebrae • Rotation of humerus and femur © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 26. Figure 8.5f Movements allowed by synovial joints. Rotation Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 27. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Special movements – Supination and pronation: rotation of radius and ulna • Supination: palms face anteriorly – Radius and ulna are parallel • Pronation: palms face posteriorly – Radius rotates over ulna – Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of foot • Dorsiflexion: bending foot toward shin • Plantar flexion: pointing toes © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 28. Figure 8.6a Special body movements. Pronation (radius rotates over ulna) Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) P S Pronation (P) and supination (S) © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 29. Figure 8.6b Special body movements. Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Special movements (cont.) – Inversion and eversion of foot • Inversion: sole of foot faces medially • Eversion: sole of foot faces laterally – Protraction and retraction: movement in lateral plane • Protraction: mandible juts out • Retraction: mandible is pulled toward neck © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 31. Figure 8.6c Special body movements. Inversion Eversion Inversion and eversion © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 32. Figure 8.6d Special body movements. Protraction of mandible Retraction of mandible Protraction and retraction © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 33. Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints (cont.) • Special movements (cont.) – Elevation and depression of mandible • Elevation: lifting body part superiorly – Example: shrugging shoulders • Depression: lowering body part – Example: opening jaw – Opposition: movement of thumb • Example: touching thumb to tips of other fingers on same hand or any grasping movement © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 34. Figure 8.6e Special body movements. Elevation and depression © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 35. Figure 8.6f Special body movements. Opposition Opposition © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 36. Types of Synovial Joints • There are six different types of synovial joints – Categories are based on shape of articular surface, as well as movement joint is capable of • Plane • Hinge • Pivot • Condylar • Saddle • Ball-and-socket © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 37. Focus Figure 8.1a Six types of synovial joint shapes determine the movements that can occur at a joint. Plane joint Nonaxial movement Meta- carpals Carpals Flat articular surfaces Gliding Examples: Intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, joints between vertebral articular surfaces © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 38. Focus Figure 8.1b Six types of synovial joint shapes determine the movements that can occur at a joint. Hinge joint Humerus Cylinder Trough Uniaxial movement Medial/lateral axis Ulna Flexion and extension Examples: Elbow joints, interphalangeal joints © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 39. Focus Figure 8.1c Six types of synovial joint shapes determine the movements that can occur at a joint. Pivot joint Uniaxial movement Sleeve (bone and ligament) Vertical axis Ulna Radius Axle (rounded bone) Rotation Examples: Proximal radioulnar joints, atlantoaxial joint © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 40. Focus Figure 8.1d Six types of synovial joint shapes determine the movements that can occur at a joint. Condylar joint Phalanges Medial/ lateral axis Oval articular surfaces Biaxial movement Anterior/ posterior axis Meta- carpals Flexion and extension Adduction and abduction Examples: Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints, wrist joints © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 41. Focus Figure 8.1e Six types of synovial joint shapes determine the movements that can occur at a joint. Saddle joint Anterior/ posterior axis Metacarpal I Articular surfaces are both concave and convex Biaxial movement Medial/ lateral axis Adduction and abduction Flexion and extension Trapezium Example: Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 42. Focus Figure 8.1f Six types of synovial joint shapes determine the movements that can occur at a joint. Ball-and-socket joint Multiaxial movement Anterior/posterior axis Cup (socket) Medial/lateral axis Scapula Spherical head (ball) Humerus Flexion and extension Adduction and abduction Rotation Examples: Shoulder joints and hip joints Vertical axis © 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.