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Chapter 16
Evidence of Evolution
Section 16.2
© Cengage Learning 2015
16.2 What Is Natural Selection?
• 19th century naturalists tried to explain evidence that life
on Earth had changed over time
• George Cuvier
– Assumed Earth to be in the thousands, not billions, of years
– Proposed theory of catastrophism
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.)
• Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
– Believed that a species gradually improved over generations
due to a drive towards perfection
– Proposed that environmental pressures cause an internal need
for change
• Resulting change is inherited by offspring
– Thought about the processes that drive evolution
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.)
• Charles Lyell
– Theory of uniformity
• Over great spans of time, gradual, everyday geologic processes such
as erosion could have sculpted Earth
– Challenged idea that Earth is 6,000 years old
• Calculated that Earth is millions of years old
– Provided Darwin with insights
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.)
• Evolution
– Lamarck was the first to think about lineage, a line of descent
– Involves the idea that a species gradually improves over
generations
© Cengage Learning 2015
What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.)
• Charles Darwin
– Naturalist aboard the Beagle
– Circumnavigated the globe over a period of five years
– Made detailed observations of geology, fossils, plants, and
animals

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16.2

  • 1. Chapter 16 Evidence of Evolution Section 16.2
  • 2. © Cengage Learning 2015 16.2 What Is Natural Selection? • 19th century naturalists tried to explain evidence that life on Earth had changed over time • George Cuvier – Assumed Earth to be in the thousands, not billions, of years – Proposed theory of catastrophism
  • 3. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck – Believed that a species gradually improved over generations due to a drive towards perfection – Proposed that environmental pressures cause an internal need for change • Resulting change is inherited by offspring – Thought about the processes that drive evolution
  • 4. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Charles Lyell – Theory of uniformity • Over great spans of time, gradual, everyday geologic processes such as erosion could have sculpted Earth – Challenged idea that Earth is 6,000 years old • Calculated that Earth is millions of years old – Provided Darwin with insights
  • 5. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Evolution – Lamarck was the first to think about lineage, a line of descent – Involves the idea that a species gradually improves over generations
  • 6. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Charles Darwin – Naturalist aboard the Beagle – Circumnavigated the globe over a period of five years – Made detailed observations of geology, fossils, plants, and animals
  • 7. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Charles Darwin (cont’d.) – Collected specimens like fossil glyptodonts • Noticed that Glyptodons and modern armadillos share traits, and therefore, that they possibly share an ancestor – Helped Darwin develop a theory of evolution by natural selection
  • 8. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Thomas Malthus – Correlated increases in the size of human populations with episodes of disease, famine and war – Proposed idea that humans can run out of resources • Human reproduction can exceed capacity of environment to sustain them – Influenced Darwin’s ideas of natural selection
  • 9. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) A B Figure 16.5 Ancient relatives: glyptodon and armadillo. Though widely separated in time, these animals share a restricted distribution and unusual traits, including a shell and helmet of keratin-covered bony plates—a material similar to crocodile and lizard skin. (The fossil in A is missing its helmet.) A Fossil of a glyptodon, an automobile-sized mammal that existed from 2 million to 15,000 years ago. B A modern armadillo, about a foot long.
  • 10. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Darwin (cont’d.) – Realized some individuals have traits that make them better suited to their environment than others • Those traits might enhance the individual’s fitness. or the ability to survive and reproduce • Adaptations – a trait that imparts greater fitness to an individual would become more common in a population over generations, compared with less competitive forms
  • 11. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.) • Darwin (cont’d.) – Called the process in which environmental pressures result in the differential survival and reproduction of individuals of a population natural selection – Published On the Origin of Species • Laid out the theory of evolution by natural selection
  • 12. © Cengage Learning 2015 What Is Natural Selection? (cont’d.)

Editor's Notes

  1. Figure 16.5 Ancient relatives: glyptodon and armadillo. Though widely separated in time, these animals share a restricted distribution and unusual traits, including a shell and helmet of keratin-covered bony plates—a material similar to crocodile and lizard skin. (The fossil in A is missing its helmet.) A Fossil of a glyptodon, an automobile-sized mammal that existed from 2 million to 15,000 years ago. B A modern armadillo, about a foot long.
  2. Table 16.1 Principles of Natural Selection, in modern terms