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  1. 1. What is MEMORY ? <ul><li>Memory – internal record of some prior event or experience; a set of mental processes that receives, encodes, stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information over time </li></ul>
  2. 2. Video <ul><li>Remembering </li></ul><ul><li>and Forgetting… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ Phil Zimbardo  from the “ Discovering Psychology ” series </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Three Stages of Memory <ul><li>Stage 1 - Sensory Memory is a brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the sensory system </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM) is working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited capacity (7 items) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration is about 30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM) is large capacity and long duration </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of Memory Model
  5. 5. Integrated Model Concepts <ul><li>Encoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – the process of retaining neural coded info over time </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage </li></ul>
  6. 6. Integrated Model of Memory
  7. 7. Overview of LTM
  8. 8. Varieties of LTM <ul><li>Two types of LTM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory refers to factual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic memory refers to autobiographical information as to where and when an event happened </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Organization of LTM <ul><li>Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ziegarnik Effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Memory Measures <ul><li>Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM </li></ul><ul><li>Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory </li></ul><ul><li>Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker to learn material 2 nd time </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Flashbulb Memories <ul><li>Where were you when you first heard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That The WTC had been crashed into? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That the federal building had been bombed in Oklahoma City? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Princess Diana had been killed in a car wreck? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Anatomy of Memory Bilateral damage to the hippocampus results in anterograde amnesia (Patient H.M.)
  13. 13. Anatomy of Memory Amygdala : emotional memory and memory consolidation Basal ganglia & cerebellum : memory for skills, habits and CC responses Hippocampus : memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, laying down new declarative long-term memories Thalamus , formation of new memories and working memories Cortical Areas : encoding of factual memories, storage of episodic and semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
  14. 14. Forgetting <ul><li>Forgetting is the inability to recall previously learned information </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting rate is steep just after learning and then becomes a gradual loss of recall </li></ul>
  15. 15. Serial Position Effect Recall immediately after learning Recall several hours after learning Recall from Recall from LTM STM LTM Primacy effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middle Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle
  16. 16. Study Strategies <ul><li>Distributed practice refers to spacing learning periods in contrast to massed practice in which learning is “crammed” into a single session </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed practice leads to better retention </li></ul>
  17. 17. Theories of Forgetting <ul><li>Proactive interference : old information interferes with recall of new information </li></ul><ul><li>Retroactive interference : new information interferes with recall of old information </li></ul><ul><li>Decay theory : memory trace fades with time </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated forgetting : involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval failure : the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organization of LTM <ul><li>Tip-of the tongue phenomenon : person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Amnesia <ul><li>Amnesia is forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information prior to a trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information after a trauma </li></ul></ul>Point of Trauma Retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia
  20. 20. Issues in Memory <ul><li>Reasons for inaccuracy of memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source amnesia : attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeper effect : a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misinformation effect : we incorporate outside information into our own memories </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Memory Strategies <ul><li>Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory by organizing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of Loci : ideas are associated with a place or part of a building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peg-Word system : peg words are associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Associations : verbal associations are created for items to be learned </li></ul></ul>