Greek civilisation


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Greek civilisation

  1. 1. “Civilisation is the total sum of the material and cultural achievements of a group of people.”
  2. 2. Greek civilisation ,,,,,,,,,,,,A study
  3. 3. Introduction & OriginTimelineRepresentation of human body in Ancient GreeceArchitecturePotteryAgricultureMedicinesSources of Entertainment : DramaGreek AthleticsTechnology
  4. 4. culture and identity.Much of what we esteem in our own culture derives from them:democracy, epic poetry, lyric poetry, tragedy, history writing, philosophy, aesthetictaste, all of these andmany other features ofcultural life enter the West from Greece. The oracle of Apollo at Delphi had inscribed
  5. 5.  The Greek religion was heavily mystical, andprehistoric in origin. Each city had its local gods andother deities, & there were many local cults, with theirattendant myths, oracles, and rituals (including ritualhuman or animalsacrice). There was no concept of SIN. The Greeks admired, amongst other things— Competition (games, sport, etc), in the right spirit (cf. 1st Olympiad in 776 BC- which ran every 4 yrs until 385AD; to be revived again 1896 AD) Courage and Enterprise Music (cf. the Orphic cult beginning 7th Century BC) Learning and Wisdom (cf Apollonian cult) Mystic Insight (this is seen in many aspects of Greek life & legend)
  6. 6. ancient Greeks grew up around the Aegean Sea &“ORIGIN OF GREEK CIVILISATION” Greek spread through the mainland. At its height it extended to Sicily & Italy on the west, & through Asia Minor & around the end of the Mediterranean Sea to the east & south. The Greek world, called Hellas by the Greeks, was united culturally, but never politically. It was not brought under a
  7. 7. Located in southeastern Europe, Greece is defined by a series of mountains andsurrounded on all sides except the north by water.
  8. 8. Greek civilization developed later than that of theEuphrates and Nile valleys, but earlier than thatof Rome. Ancient Greece reached its highestpoint of achievement in the fifth and fourthcenturies B.C., but its influence remained strongthroughout the era of Roman supremacy.
  9. 9. Four major TYPES OF GOVERNMENT evolved in ancientGreece: Monarchy (rule of a king) limited by an aristocratic council and a popular assembly. Oligarchy (rule of the few) arising when the aristocratic council ousted the king and abolished the assembly. Tyranny (rule by one who ruled without legal authority) riding to power on the discontent of the lower classes. Democracy (rule of the people), the outstanding political achievement of the Greeks.
  10. 10. Archaic period: 750—500 BCClassical Period: 500-336 BCHellenistic Period: 336-146 BC
  11. 11. Archaic • development of the city-state (polis) • rise of the aristocraciesperiod: 750— • Greek colonization of southern Italy 500 BC • development of natural human form in art • full development of democratic system of government Classical • building of the Parthenon on the AcropolisPeriod: 500- • founding of the philosophical schools of Socrates and Plato 336 BC • creation of the tragedies of Sophocles • Greek culture and power extended through the known Hellenistic worldPeriod: 336- • Philip of Macedon and Alexander the Great rule Greece and take over the Persian Empire 146 BC • Aristotle practicing in Athens
  12. 12. REPRESENTATION OF THE HUMAN BODY IN ANCIENT GREECE Evolution from a symbolic view of the body to a more realistic one Seeking perfection: the Classic era When anatomy meets emotion: the Hellenistic era Pottery and medical knowledge
  13. 13. • Except for tholos shrines; Greek temples wererectangular and organized on a rigid set of geometricprinciples.• Temples built with post and lintel system• Pediments, which projected over the tops of columns,contained sculptures representing the heroic deeds ofthe gods or goddesses housed inside.• A cornice separated the upper and lower parts of aGreek temple• Doors set back from facade, so that little light couldenter. This increased the sense of mystery about theinterior
  14. 14. The Acropolis of Athens Erechtheion Erechtheum King’sPinakotheke Shrine Theater of Parthenon Dionysius Stoa of Odeum of Herodes Eumenes Sanctuary of Atticus (Roman) Asclepius
  15. 15. The Archaic Period• The Greek temple Temple of Hera Iwas the house of Paestum, Italy ca.the God or 550BCEGoddess, not of hisor her followers.These templeswere not places ofworship, but ratherplaces for theworshipped.• Most of the • This temple is a prime example of early Greek efforts at Dorictemples would templecontain figural designsculpture that •. The entire area of the temple is 80 ft by 170 feet.would embellish • Most of the frieze, pediment, and all of the roof , havethe God’s shrine as vanished.well as to tell • The columns contained pronounced entasis or swelling of thesomething about column at the middle.the deity • This bulky and less elegant architecture is result from thesymbolized within lacking architectural knowledge of the Archaic Greeks
  16. 16. West pediment from the Temple of Artemis Corfu, Greece ca. 600 - 580 BCE• Corfu is an island off the western coast ofGreece• This temple was lavishly embellished with sculptureincluding metopes that were decorated with reliefsculptures and both pediments were filled with hugesculptures •In mythology, anyone gazing at Medusa would be turned into stone
  17. 17. The Archaic PeriodGigantomachy, detail from the north frieze of the SiphnianTreasuryDelphi, Greece ca. 530 BCE • Much more detailed version of this story than the one on the pediment at Corfu. • Depicts Artemis and Apollo chasing a giant while the lion pulling a goddess’s chariot attacks another giant. • This was originally embellished with color that has worn away over time.
  18. 18. Aegina, Greece ca. 500-490 B.C.E. marbleapproximately 5 ft. 8 in. high at center
  19. 19. The Tholos temple, Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, Delphi, GreeceEpidauros. The column Plan of theTholos at
  20. 20. • Earliestpots during the Geometric period werelargely composed of horizontal lines with minimalfigures• In Orientalizing, an influence from Egyptian andMesoptamia art so more floral motifs and animals• Archaic Period- black figure painting- largefigures drawn in black on the red surface- at endof Archaic period used red figure also backgroundpainted black and natural red of theclay detailed forms• In Classical and Hellenistic periods, contrapposwas used
  21. 21. amphora • Detail from an Athenian black-figure François Vase, Created by Kleitas and Ergotimos.Chiusi, Italy ca. 570 BCE
  22. 22. How Did the Social Issues of Greece & Rome Influence Their Art?Ancient Greek and Roman art was heavilyinfluenced by the social and political issues ofthis time period (400s B.C. to 300s A.D.),particularly by the individuals changing role insociety as Ancient Greeces glorification of thegods gave way to conquerer Romes exaltationof the stateGreeces Golden Age: 450 to 400 B.C.The height of Greek arts classical period, or itsGolden Age, was heavily influenced by theaesthetic ideal of human beings as a perfectexpression of the divine, an ideal integral tothe culture of this time period that was furtherdeveloped by great minds such as Sophocles,Euripides and the young Socrates. Art fromthis era depicted the idealized individual, astyle best reflected in the temple sculptures ofthe Athenian Acropolis.
  23. 23. Only 20-30% of ancient Greece’s land was arable. The most important crops were olives, grapes, and barley.
  24. 24. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS were those of a simple, self-sufficient agricultural system.CROPS: The Greeks used OLIVES for eating and to make olive oil, used for cooking and as a lubricant.They made wine from GRAPES. The common drink of everyone was amixture of wine and water. Even children drank it. Dionysius, themythological god of the vine, oversaw and blessed everythinghaving to do with growing grapes and making wine.BARLEY was used to make bread and was a staple part of the Greek diet. Demeter was the mythological goddess of grain.LIVESTOCK: The ancient Greeks kept CHICKENS,PIGS, SHEEP, and GOATS (for milk and meat).They would only eat the meat of animals who hadbeen sacrificed in the name of a god.Generally, they did not eat a lot of meat, but instead dependedupon FISH and LEGUMES (beans, chickpeas, and lentils) forprotein.
  25. 25. Greek Medicine  Hippocrates = Father of Scientific Medicine  Four “humors” (fluids) in the human body: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile  Physician should base his knowledge on careful observation of patients and their response to remedies
  26. 26. ART & CULTURE
  27. 27. The Origins Of DramaThe dithyrambs celebrating Dionysus soon evolved into dramas.The story goes: Thespis, a popular writer of Dithyrambs, is said to have invented drama when he asked one “performer” to stand outside the chorus to engage in some “call and response.”
  28. 28. Three Main Portionsof Greek Theatre:•Skene – Portion ofstage where actorsperformed (included1-3 doors in and out)•Orchestra – “DancingPlace” where chorussang to the audience•Theatron – Seatingfor audience
  29. 29. Stages
  30. 30. Where and how were the dramas performed? …In an amphitheatre …With a chorus who described most of the action. …With masks …With all the fighting and movement going on off stage. ….With tragedy first, then comedy later.
  31. 31. Dramatist Born WroteAeschylus 524 B.C. Seven Against ThebesSophocles 496 B.C. Antigone OedipusEuripides 480 B.C. Medea
  32. 32. The Chorus  Because of the dithyrambic origins of Greek drama, the plays featured Choruses.  The chorus danced and either sung or chanted their lines.
  33. 33. TheTheatreofDionysus The first plays were performed in the Theatre of Dionysus, built in the shadow of the Acropolis in Athens at the beginning of the 5th century, These theatres proved to be so popular they soon spread all over Greece.
  34. 34. Amphitheatres  Plays were performed out-of-doors.  The side of the mountain was scooped out into a bowl shape, something like our amphitheatres today, and tiers of stone seats in concentric semi-circles were built on the hill.  These theatres often seated as many as 20,000 spectators, with a special first row being reserved for dignitaries.
  35. 35. Theatron The theatron ("viewing-place") is where the spectators sat. The theatron was usually part of hillside overlooking the orchestra, and often wrapped around a large portion of the orchestra.
  36. 36. Orchestra The orchestra (literally, "dancing space") was normally circular. It was a level spacewhere the choruswould dance, sing,and interact withthe actors who were on the stage (called theProskenion) in front of the skene. In the center of theorchestra there was often an altar.
  37. 37. Skene The skene (literally, "tent") was the building directly in back of the stage, and was usually decorated as a palace, temple, or other building, depending on the needs of the play. It had at least one set of doors, and actors could make entrances and exits through them.
  38. 38. Parados The parodoi ("passageways") are the paths by which the chorus and some actors (such as those representing messengers or people returning from abroad) made their entrances and exits.
  39. 39. The Actors All of the actors were men. Women were not allowed to participate. The actors played multiple roles, so a wooden, cork, or linen mask was used to show the change in character or mood. If playing a female role, the male actor in want of a female appearance wore the prosternida before the chest and the progastrida before the belly
  40. 40. MASKSComediesTragedies
  41. 41. Costumes Consisted of standard Greek attire Chiton: a sleeveless tunic belted below the breast the himation: draped around the right shoulder the chlamys, or short cloak, worn over the left shoulder elaborately embroidered patterns
  42. 42. Important Playwrights  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides  Aristophanes  Menander
  43. 43. The Significance of Greek Athletics  Origins of the Olympic Games  Importance of sportsmanship at the games  Individual, not national competition and the nature of training  Classical Greek Olympic Events
  44. 44. Greek Athletics (cont.)  Determining a winner  Prizes for victors and the keeping of Olympic records --The significance of the pentathlon  No women allowed; athletes performed in the nude  Later history of the Olympics before the modern era
  45. 45. The Legacy of Ancient Greece See the Greeks realistically The primacy of freedom --eleutheria Glorification of the mind and body Dignity of the individual Key words traced back to Greek civilization Notion of democracy Rich philosophical foundation Fullest development of the human potential --paidea = everyone must sculpt their own statue
  46. 46. Difference Between Greek Classical & Hellenistic Art The Classical period of Greek history lasted from the late sixth to late fourth centuries B.C., ending with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Following Alexanders death, his empire fragmented into competing kingdoms ruled by his generals and their heirs. This period is known as the Hellenistic period and lasted until the middle of the second century B.C. Art from these two periods has many similarities, but also many differences.Trends The art of the Hellenistic period developed from the art of the Classical period, and therefore some similarities are inevitable. For the most part, the dominant artistic forms remained monumental sculpture and architecture. Many of the techniques developed during the Classical period remained in use in the Hellenistic period. In some ways, the Hellenistic period continued the trends that had made the Classical period different from the Archaic period, with looser, more individual sculpture.Differences There are several major differences between the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The first is in fluidity of pose. Classical art tends to show figures in simple, relatively static poses, while Hellenistic art is more fluid. Another difference is in subject matter. Classical art often focused on the gods or scenes from mythology, while Hellenistic art, which was often displayed in the home, also addressed everyday scenes and depicted common people. The final major difference is of scale. Advances in construction techniques meant that Hellenistic sculptures and buildings were often much larger than Classical ones.
  47. 47. Technology…
  48. 48. Technology results from necessity. Since Greek coastal cities weresandwiched between the ocean and the sea, they developed an excellent navy for trading and fighting.
  49. 49. All cities need fresh water. This is a Greek aqueduct, basically abrick water pipe. The first aqueduct was Assyrian, but most ancient societies had them.
  50. 50. The Greeks invented the crane.
  51. 51. Greek Military catapult. It couldthrow 300 pound stones at wallsand buildings.
  52. 52. It’s believed the first AncientGreek civilisations wereformed nearly 4,000 yearsago (approximately 1600 BC)by the mighty Mycenaeansof Crete (a Greek Island).The Ancient Greek Empirespread from Greece throughEurope and, in 800 BC, theGreeks started to split theirland into city-states, eachwith its own laws, customsand rulers.
  53. 53. The Ancient Greeks had lots ofstories to help them learn abouttheir world. The gods featuredheavily in these tales, and so didmythological monsters – likeCerberus, a three-headed dog thatguarded the gates to theunderworld; Medusa, a slitherysorceress whose look could turnpeople to stone; and the Cyclopswho had one eye in the middle ofits forehead. Yikes!
  54. 54. Events at the Greek’s Olympicsincluded wrestling, boxing, longjump, javelin, discus and chariotracing. But those taking part inthe wrestling event had to be thetoughest, as there were hardlyany rules – and they had tocompete naked. Eek!
  55. 55. Most Ancient Greeks wore a chiton, which was a long T-shirt madefrom one large piece of cotton. The poor slaves, however, had tomake do with a loincloth (a small strip of cloth wrapped around thewaist)!The Greeks put statues of their gods inside temples, the mostfamous of which is the Parthenon. This temple in Athens was builtfor the goddess Athena, the protector of the city.
  56. 56. A famous legend tells how, in1180 BC, the cunning Greeksconquered the city of Troy –by hiding inside a giantwooden horse! The horsewas left outside the city’swalls and, thinking it a gift,the people of Troy wheeled itinside... only for the sneakyGreek soldiers inside to creepout and seize the city!
  57. 57. Did you know that the AncientGreeks invented the theatre? Theyloved watching plays, and mostcities had a theatre – some bigenough to hold 15,000 people!Only men and boys were allowedto be actors, and they woremasks, which showed theaudience whether their characterwas happy or sad. Some of themasks had two sides, so the actorcould turn them around to changethe mood for each scene.
  58. 58. The Ancient Greeks held many festivals in honour of their gods. To celebrate the god Zeus, forexample, the first Greek Olympics were held in the city of Olympia in 776 BC and are thoughtto have inspired our own Olympic Games! The winners of each event were given a wreath ofleaves, and when they returned home, they would be given free meals and the best seats inthe theatre!The city-states were often at war, but just before the Olympics, a truce would be called so thateveryone could travel to Olympia safely.
  59. 59. Winston Churchill once said "those who fail to learn from historyare doomed to repeat it." Unfortunately, the world seems to berepeating the mistakes of history. While some people have broughtup the similarities between Ancient Rome and the United States,or even the age of Hitler and Mussolini to our time, I havent heardanybody bring up the similarities between Ancient Greece and theworld today. Ancient Greece had many problems. The statesfought among themselves. All of this weakened the country,leaving them vulnerable to attack from Phillip II. Alexander theGreat then took the Greeks into the rest of the world, but he diedshortly after conquering most of the known western world.The people couldnt support themselves, and relied on wealthybenefactors to save them. Piracy ran rampant, much like terrorismdoes today. Although their influence spread widely, domesticproblems made life uncertain and perilous.