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Experimental Investigation of the Effect of
Hydrogen Addition on Combustion Performance
and Emissions Characteristics of a...
INTRODUCTION
 Fuel is a material that gives energy to an IC Engines.
 Fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and co...
PROBLEMS WITH FOSSIL FUELS
 The conventional fuel for the engine such as diesel and gasoline are
fossil based fuel and as...
ALTERNATE FUELS
Some of the Alternate Fuels are :
 Alcohol
 Methanol
 Ethanol
 Vegetable Oil
 Biodiesel
 Hydrogen
 ...
HYDROGEN AS A FUEL
 Hydrogen is a very good alternative as a fuel, as it can never
diminish.
 Hydrogen can be obtained f...
6
 Hydrogen have wide flammability range compared to
other gases such as gasoline and methane.
FLAMMABILITY RANGE
Fig. Fl...
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 7
Fig :Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 8
 The tests were performed on high speed single cylinder Lombardini
make LGA-340 gasoline engine....
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 9
Performance characteristics:
1. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep):
 The Bmep rises as the hy...
10
2. Brake thermal efficiency:
 Brake thermal efficiencies of the
Hydrogen enriched operation are higher
than those of t...
11
3. Volumetric efficiency :
 The maximum volumetric efficiency is
attained for pure gasoline of about 70%
at 4000 rpm c...
1212
1. Carbon monoxide (CO) emission:
 The CO emission is decreases as the
hydrogen gasoline blend percentage
increases....
13
2. Hydrocarbons (HC) emission:
 The HC emissions decrease with the
increase of hydrogen addition fraction.
 This is b...
14
3. Nitrogen oxide (NOX) emission:
 The emission of NOx is increase with the
increase of hydrogen addition fraction
 T...
ADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN
BLENDING
 Hydrogen-gasoline mixture burns early 10 times faster
compared to gasoline-air mixture.
...
DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN
BLENDING
 The handling of hydrogen is more difficult and storage
requires high capital and runn...
CONCLUSION
An experimental study aiming at investigating the effect of hydrogen
addition on improving gasoline engine perf...
Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a...
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Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a spark ignition high speed gasoline engine

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The world is presently confronted with two major issues; fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Indiscriminate extraction and high consumption of fossil fuels have led to reduction in crude oil resources. The search for an alternative fuel, which promises a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, management, efficiency, and environmental preservation, has become highly pronounced in the present context.

One approach to reduce these problems is by blending hydrogen gas with hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines.Recently, using hydrogen or hydrogen-gasoline blends as a supplement fuel for spark ignition and compression ignition engines is one of the potential solutions for improving brake thermal efficiency, reducing fuel consumption and pollution emissions from internal combustion engines.

In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of Hydrogen-Gasoline fuels in the context of combustion engines are discussed, and combustion performances and emission characteristics are experimentally investigated at various hydrogen volume fraction and graphs are plotted.

Published in: Engineering
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Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a spark ignition high speed gasoline engine

  1. 1. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Combustion Performance and Emissions Characteristics of a Spark Ignition High Speed Gasoline Engine. Presented By : Amiya Kumar Sahoo Reg. no. : 11012227648 Group : 8ME-1A A SEMINAR ON :
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Fuel is a material that gives energy to an IC Engines.  Fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal meet most of the world’s energy demand, at present time..  Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect to the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact 2
  3. 3. PROBLEMS WITH FOSSIL FUELS  The conventional fuel for the engine such as diesel and gasoline are fossil based fuel and as such is not renewable.  These conventional Fuels have low thermal efficiency.  These conventional Fuels have low flammability range.  These conventional fuels have major disadvantage with regards to their exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon dioxides (CO2) and particulate matter which are hazardous to humans and environment alike.  The greenhouse effect is also one of the aftermaths from these gaseous emissions. 3
  4. 4. ALTERNATE FUELS Some of the Alternate Fuels are :  Alcohol  Methanol  Ethanol  Vegetable Oil  Biodiesel  Hydrogen  CNG-Hydrogen blend  Methanol-Hydrogen blend  Gasoline-Hydrogen blend 4
  5. 5. HYDROGEN AS A FUEL  Hydrogen is a very good alternative as a fuel, as it can never diminish.  Hydrogen can be obtained from water and is practically carbon-free, So no greenhouse gases are generated .  Hydrogen ignition limits are much wider. So it can burn easily and give considerably higher efficiency. 5
  6. 6. 6  Hydrogen have wide flammability range compared to other gases such as gasoline and methane. FLAMMABILITY RANGE Fig. Flammability Ranges of Comparative Fuels at Atmospheric Temperature
  7. 7. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 7 Fig :Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus
  8. 8. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 8  The tests were performed on high speed single cylinder Lombardini make LGA-340 gasoline engine. Detailed engine specifications are given below : Bore (mm) Stroke (mm) Displacement (cm3) Comp. Ratio Power Rating Max Torque Max Rpm at no Load 82 64 338 8:1 9kw@4400 rpm 20.2Nm@2800 rpm 6200  The compressed hydrogen at 200 bar is supplied from the Hydrogen Cylinder, which consists of hydrogen regulator and the hydrogen flow indicator.  The tests were carried out at engine speeds of 2000 to 4000 rpm with an increment of 500 rpm. Hydrogen volume fraction on basis of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% was adjusted with the help of regulator.
  9. 9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 9 Performance characteristics: 1. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep):  The Bmep rises as the hydrogen fraction increases compared to pure gasoline operation.  But at 25% hydrogen addition fraction, Bmep drops due to improper combustion as the air content in the intake is gradually reduced.
  10. 10. 10 2. Brake thermal efficiency:  Brake thermal efficiencies of the Hydrogen enriched operation are higher than those of the pure gasoline engine operation at all engine speeds  The hydrogen–gasoline mixture have a faster burning velocity and an extended flame limit than gasoline, so it can achieve a shorter burning duration and a more complete burning. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Performance characteristics:
  11. 11. 11 3. Volumetric efficiency :  The maximum volumetric efficiency is attained for pure gasoline of about 70% at 4000 rpm compared to hydrogen gasoline operation.  The hydrogen fuel vapour can take considerably more of this space, leaving less volume for the air being pumped into the cylinder and this causes less amount of mixture density at the inlet. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Performance characteristics:
  12. 12. 1212 1. Carbon monoxide (CO) emission:  The CO emission is decreases as the hydrogen gasoline blend percentage increases.  This is due to the enhanced combustion caused by hydrogen addition and abundant oxygen available for the post- oxidation of CO emission. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Emission characteristics:
  13. 13. 13 2. Hydrocarbons (HC) emission:  The HC emissions decrease with the increase of hydrogen addition fraction.  This is because high flame speed of hydrogen reduces the combustion duration, and decreases the probability of occurrence of slow-burning and incomplete combustion cycles. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Emission characteristics:
  14. 14. 14 3. Nitrogen oxide (NOX) emission:  The emission of NOx is increase with the increase of hydrogen addition fraction  The increase in volume of hydrogen blend will lead to rise in combustion temperature and higher the combustion temperature, higher the NOx formation RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Emission characteristics:
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN BLENDING  Hydrogen-gasoline mixture burns early 10 times faster compared to gasoline-air mixture.  As the burning rate are very high it is more preferred in high speed engine.  Hydrogen-gasoline fuel generates high Power and Torque Output compared to gasoline engine.  The HC and CO emissions reduces with the increase in percentage of hydrogen. 15
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROGEN BLENDING  The handling of hydrogen is more difficult and storage requires high capital and running cost particularly for liquid H2.  Hydrogen engines have been in the danger of back fire during combustion. Therefore flame trappers are necessary in hydrogen fuelled engines.  Hydrogen fuelled engine are having low pollution level but produce toxic emission of NOx ,So NOx traps should be used with Hydrogen Engines. 16
  17. 17. CONCLUSION An experimental study aiming at investigating the effect of hydrogen addition on improving gasoline engine performance under different engine speed. The main conclusions are listed below:  The addition of hydrogen helps in improving Bmep. The maximum Bmep obtained at 20% blend of hydrogen.  The addition of hydrogen is effective on improving engine brake thermal efficiency. An increase of brake thermal efficiency was observed till a hydrogen fraction of 20%.  HC and CO emissions reduces with the increase in percentage of hydrogen. NOx emissions increase with the increase in hydrogen addition.  Overall the test results revealed that the blends up to 20% hydrogen are suitable as an engine fuel without much compromise in the performance and emission characteristics. 17

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