Listening & Speaking• Listening and speaking complement each other• Context: Personal, academic, professional• Communication involves conversation based on listening and speaking.• Better the listener better the speaker
Modes of Hearing• Active Passive• Conscious Subconscious• Interested Casual• Only listening While doing other things• Important Routine• Special Like any other topic• Alert/attentive not alert or attentive• Expressive Not expressing anything
Listening & Hearing• Hearing Listening• Sound heard Words listened• Casual hearing Hearing with attention• Attention divided Attention to the speaker• What we want to what the speaker says• Add our judgment No judgment added• No response Response at every stage• No interaction Asking questions at times
Types of Listening• Appreciative : for fun - Music/play/film• Listening for comprehension: Understanding, analysing, applying. In the classroom, with superiors, while receiving instructions.• Empathetic: Understand others Psychological Counselor, nurse, Social worker.
Types of Listening cont…• Critical/Analytical: Evaluate the speakers arguments, body language, hidden meaning. politician/Accused• Superficial Listening: similar to hearing and passive listening. attending lecture.• ‘You’ view point: Want to understand then understood. Respecting the other person. Encouraging him to open up.
Barriers to Listening• Knowing too much or too little• Speaker- Clarity & other paralinguistic features• Medium: Distance, noise in the channel• Outer distractions• Language repertoire:• Cultural factors: Cultural Variation• Listener : Poor/selective listener
Types of conversations• Face-to-face : Talk, debate, discussion, seminar• Telephonic : One to one, conferencing Chat : least formalTete-a-tete /teit a teit/ : Personal/intimateDialogue : Formal discussionParley/pa:li/ : Formal discussion between enemiesColloquy : Most formal meeting, discussionCommunion : profound spiritual - with God
Paralinguistic features affecting Speaking• Adjust volume• Adopt moderate pitch• Maintain average rate / speed• Avoid monotone• Realize the importance of pauses• Avoid vocalized pauses• Avoid lazy lip movements
Effective Conversation• Listening intently• Starting and ending appropriately• Involving everyone• Arousing and sustaining interest• Developing ideas adequately• Using appropriate language
Telephone Etiquette• Use polite expressions• Identify yourself• Be clear and precise• Do not shout• Do not interrupt• Listen patiently• Focus on objective• Always be prepared to take notes• Be enthusiastic and courteous• Thank the caller before ending
Dialogue• Two way conversations• Aimed at understanding and responding• May involve opposing points of view• Learn what words/ phrases to use• How to ask questions• How to convince
Writing a Dialogue• Use quotation marks• Start a new paragraph when speaker changes• Use punctuation, capitalization, spacing correctly• Use suitable speech tags• Use narrative sentences to show current acts, thoughts and perceptions• Sample dialogues : Page 149
Barriers to SpeakingPhysical: Space, lighting, audio, seatingPsychological : fear, shyness, inhibitionLinguistic: Accuracy, fluency and inadequate language repertoire.Cultural: Unfamiliar habit, customs
Confidence & Clarity in Speaking• Organize material logically• Articulate well• Adopt the correct speed• Avoid swallowing / hurrying up end words• Emphasize only necessary words/ phrases• Avoid using too many difficult / unfamiliar words• Avoid too many negative words• Practice some exercises ( for speech organs)
Types of Speaking• 1) Task Oriented :Collecting data, Eliciting information• Addressing people to motivate them.• Interviewing somebody for preparing articles/research• 2) Interpersonal: For building new relationships or to maintain the existing ones.• 3) Semi – Formal & Informal• Persuasive: Convincing the listener/s
Persuasive SpeakingCredibility: Factors : intelligence, expertise and knowledge of the subject and sincerity, trustworthiness and concern for the audience. Here are few guidelines: Develop interest in the topic Refer to recent magazines, books, journals, newspapers etc. . Tell your audience the benefit they are going to reap Adapt yourself to your audience by giving examples related to their life.
Persuasive Speaking cont…• Evidence : Supporting materials : examples, statistics, definitions, testimonies, and/o r analogies. Use evidence from credible source Use novel and interesting evidence that the audience can relate well to
Persuasive Speaking (ends)• Reasoning: through specific instances / examples• Emotional Appeal: appeal to listener’s emotions such as fear, compassion, pride, anger, guilt, and reverence.
Public Speaking 1• Public speaking need not necessarily mean the speech we deliver in front of a large number of people.a) Clarity of purpose: know whether you want to inform, persuade, or entertain the audience.b) Audience awareness; Find about who will be your audience.c) Familiarity with location: Know where you need to deliver the speech.d) Collection and selection of content.e) Outlining: Frame topics and subtopics for your speech
Public Speaking 2Organizing Content: Introduction, main body, conclusion.g. Selection of suitable mode of delivery: Extempore, reading from text, speaking from memory. Start on time.h. Effective use of body language, voice and visual aids.j. Objectivity: present a balanced point of view.k. Planning and Preparation: Rehearse before presenting.l. Answering questions: Clarify if the questions are invited.
Public Speaking - 3.Edit for smooth flow., Check the impact.• Highlight important words or phrases. Practicing & control your neuvousness:• Check whether your speech is delivered in time.• Check if energy and enthusiasm are retained.• Check the use of appropriate words and phrases.• ---------------X --------------