Objectives of the Lesson• The purpose/objectives and characteristics of Technical Communication. (TC)• The Constituents/components of TC.• Levels of TC• Flow of Communication in an organization• Communication Network modules and their functions/role• Use of audio- visual aids in Communication
General Vs Technical• General TechnicalGeneral message Technical MessageInformal in style Formal StyleNo set pattern A set formal patternMostly Oral Mostly writtenNo specific audience For a specific audience No technical words Jargons used
Process of CommunicationThe transmission and interchange of ideas, facts, feelings or courses of action is known as the process of communication.All the activities an organization undertake have communication at their centre.An employee should have good communication skills along with the subject knowledge
Objectives of the TC• To provide organized information that aids in quick decision- making.• To make the working smooth.• To invite corporate joint ventures.• To share knowledge in oral & written forms.
Characteristics of TC• Technical communication has to be correct, accurate, clear, appropriate and to the point.• Correct information is objective information.
Communication Environment (CE)Communication Environment includes:1.Sender2.Receiver3)Message4) Barriers5) In short a well defined Set -up
Communication Cycle1. Formulation: wherein the sender forms the content of the message to be sent. ( the content once formed, is called the message.)2. Encoding: Sender encodes the message.3. Transmission: After proper encoding message is delivered through appropriate channel /s
Communication Cycle cont…. Decoding: Receiver decodes the message and act on it.5. Noise : Breakdown or interference in the message is called Noise. It affects the decoding part of the communication.6. Feedback: The receivers response to the sender is called feedback. The communication cycle is complete and effective only when there is a desired responses from the receiver
Effective communication• Effective communication takes place in a well-defined set-up. This is called communication environment . The essentials of effective communication are:• A well-defined communication environment• Cooperation between sender and the receiver• Selection of an appropriate channel• Correct encoding and decoding of the message• Feedback
Levels of Communication• Extra-personal: Communication between human beings and non-human entities is extra personal, where only the human side transmits the msg. Human to animals.• Intrapersonal: within an individual analysing, weighing, planning etc.
Levels of Communication cont…• Interpersonal: Between and among humans – face to face so there’s an immediate feedback.• Organizational:- Internal-operational: Takes place in the process/ functions of organization.- External-operational: Work-related communication with people outside the organization
Levels of Communication cont…• Mass-communication: Meant for large audiences/masses. No particular audience. Transmitted through mass media such as news papers, TV, Radio etc. Ma- Large reach: reach audience scattered over a wide geographical area., without the constraints of time.- Impersonality: Largely impersonal, the sender and receiver are not know to each other a great challenge to be effective• - Gate Keeper – A watch keeper for mass communication.
Vertical Communication Downward & Upward• Vertical: follows each hierarchical levels of command. Bureaucratic• Downward Communication: From superiors to subordinates - Instructions, new policies, procedures, clarifications, feedback)• Upward Communication: Subordinates to superiors ( submission of information, reports, input.
Flow of Communication cont…• Horizontal Communication: sharing info with the peers bypassing the vertical chain, informal, verbal• Diagonal Communication (DC): flows in all directions and cuts across the various levels in an organization. Ex: A marketing guy directly communicating the marketing need to a reporter not an editor. Increased use of E-mails promotes DC
Hierarchical V/s other types Formal InformalMails, Memos, OralCentraized DecentralizedFull proof Gaps likelky Time taking QuickHeld up, delayed ImmediateInformation in one information sharedhand
Communication Networks• A variety of patterns emerge when vertical, horizontal and diagonal channels combine• . These patterns are termed as communication networks.• Formal Network Models: In formal communication five common communication networks exists – chain, Y, wheel, circle and all-channel.
Communication network cont…• Chain Network: A vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow only in upward or downward.• Y Network : A multi-level hierarchy and a combination of horizontal and vertical flow of communication.• Wheel Network: Several subordinates reporting to a superior. This is a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication.• Circle Network: Employees interact with adjacent members but no further.
Communication Network cont…• All Channel Network: Least structured, enables each employee to communicate freely with all the others.For effective use of communication networks, we need to remember the following : No single network is suitable for all occasions. The wheel and all-channel networks are preferred if speed of communication is a priority. The chain, Y, and wheel networks serve best when accuracy is crucial.
Informal Network ModelsGrapevine : This type of communication is very active in almost every organization. Patterns : Single Stand: The message is passed from one person to another along a single stand. Gossip: One person passes information to all others. Probability: Each person tells others at random. Cluster: Some people tells something to a select few.
Grapevine cont…• Effective use of grapevine• Not ignore information received through the grapevine.• Use this channel to supplement the formal channel.• Identify but not threaten the main sources of information.• Try to understand the human relationships involved in grapevine.• MBWA – Management by walking around adopted by Walt Disney’s Chairman Michael Eisner for improving the performance.
Merits and Demerits of Grapevine communication• Merits Demerits• Quick, interesting, Damaging at times• Resolution without Not authentic• conflict Not reliable• Self – motivating Irresponsible• A gateway to Thrives on opinion• Anxieties, anger not facts• Mirror of reality Colours the facts
Visual Aids In Technical Communication• Visual aids complement verbal communication.• Concepts: Depicts conceptual things using boxes and circles connected with lines.• Objects: Photographs, drawings, diagrams, and schematics are the types of graphics that show objects.• Numbers: Used for presenting data and statistics in the form of bar charts, pie charts, or line graphs.• Words: Graphics are also used to depict words like when, why and how.
Types of Visual aids• Tables: Systematic arrangement of numbers, words, or phrases in row an columns, used to depict original numerical data as well as deserved statistics.• Graphs: Axis Labels: in bar graphs and line graphs indicate the categories and values, respectively, represented by the x and y axis. Legend: Bar graphs, and pie graphs often use special colour, shading or line style.
Types of Visual Aids cont…. Graph title: a numbered title. Cross-reference: Brief explanation of what is going on in the graphic, how to interpret it, what its basic trends are and so on. Documentation: Source of any information that is borrowed in order to create a graphic must be cited along with the graphic. The standard format should be used to indicate the source.
Graph title: a numbered title. Cross-reference: Brief explanation of what is going on in the graphic, how to interpret it, what its basic trends are and so on. Documentation: Source of any information that is borrowed in order to create a graphic must be cited along with the graphic.
Pictograms/pictorial graphs: similar to bar graphs, with figures or small pictures plotted instead of bars. Area graphs: show how something changes over time. The x axis represents the time period and the y axis represents the variable being measured.
Charts• Organizational charts: used to illustrate the various positions or functions of an organization. It is also used to depict instructions given to subordinates or for different decisions.• Flow Charts: present sequence of activities from start to finish. Used to illustrate processes, procedures and relationships.
Drawings and DiagramsUsed to depict the objects, processes, circuits etc that are being described & to show the normal, sectional, or cut-away view of an object.Photographs: used in feasibility, recommendation and evaluation reports.Maps: represent spatial relationships on plsnr surface. -------------X---------------