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Software project scheduling

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Software project scheduling

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Software project scheduling

  1. 1. Is an important part of project planning activity. It involves deciding which tasks would be taken up when.
  2. 2. The majority of projects are 'completed' late, if at all. A project schedule is required to ensure that required project commitments are met. A schedule is required to track progress toward achieving these commitments.
  3. 3. An unrealistic deadline Changing but unpredicted customer requirements Underestimation of efforts needed Risks not considered at the project start Unforeseen technical difficulties Unforeseen human difficulties Miscommunication among project staff Failure to recognize that project is falling behind schedule
  4. 4. “One Day at a Time” All technical projects involve hundreds of small tasks. Some tasks do not effect the project completion Other tasks are critical for the project completion.
  5. 5. To schedule the project, a project manager must do the following: Define all project tasks Build a network that depicts their interdependence. Identify the critical tasks Track the progress of these tasks Recognize the delay “one day at a time”
  6. 6. End date for completion has been finalized Only Rough time- frame is given
  7. 7. Compartmentalization – define distinct tasks Interdependency- parallel and sequential tasks Time allocation - assigned person days, start time, ending time Effort validation - be sure resources are available Defined responsibilities — people must be assigned Defined Outcomes- each task must have an output Defined milestones - review for quality
  8. 8. “If we fall behind schedule we can always add more programmers and catch to late in the project” Has a disruptive effect on the project Schedules slip even further
  9. 9. The relationship between the number of people working in software project and overall productivity is not linear Fewer people and longer time period is a better option for software development
  10. 10. To make a schedule, following tasks must be completed: Identify all the tasks needed to complete the project Break down large tasks into small activities. Determine dependency among different activities. Establish estimates for time durations to complete the activities. Allocate resources to activities. Plan starting and ending dates for activities. Determine the critical path (chain of activities that determines the duration of the project)
  11. 11. The first step involves identifying all the tasks necessary to complete the project. This can be done when the manager has good knowledge about the intricacies of the project and development process.
  12. 12. In the next step large tasks are broken down into logical set of small activities which would be assigned to different developers. The work breakdown structure (WBS) helps the managers to do this systematically.
  13. 13. After the large tasks are broken down into small activities & a WBS is created, the manager has to find the dependency among the activities. Dependency determines the order in which different activities would be carried out. For example, if an activity A requires the results of activity B, then A must be scheduled after B.
  14. 14. Once the activity network representation has been done, resources are allocated to each activity. Resource allocation is typically done using Gantt Chart.
  15. 15. After resource allocation, a PERT chart representation is developed. PERT is suitable for project monitoring and control. The time frame when each activity has to be performed is also determined. The end of each activity is called as a milestone.
  16. 16. If the project manager observes that the milestones are getting delayed, he has to carefully control the activities so that the overall deadline can still be met.
  17. 17. WBS is used to decompose a given task set recursively into small activities. It provides a notation for representing the major tasks needed to be carried out. The root of the tree is labelled by the problem name. Each node of the tree is broken down into smaller activities. Each activity is recursively decomposed into smaller sub activities, until at the leaf level, the activities require approximately 2 weeks to develop.
  18. 18. MIS Application Requirement Specification Design Code Test Document Databse Part GUI Part Databse Part GUI Part WBS of an MIS application Problem
  19. 19. WBS representation of a project is transformed into an activity network. And activity network shows Different activities making up a project, Their estimated durations, and Interdependencies. Each activity is represented by a rectangular node and its duration is shown alongside each task.
  20. 20. Specification 15 Design Database 45 Design GUI 30 Code Database 105 Code GUI 45 Write User Manual 60 Integrate & Test 120 Finish
  21. 21. Draw the network diagram for the following: Activity Duration (in days) 1-2 2 1-3 5 2-3 1 2-4 9 3-4 5 4-5 3
  22. 22. Draw the network diagram for the project whose activities & duration are given: Activity Duration (in days) Immediate predecessor A 2 - B 5 A C 1 A D 7 B E 6 C F 1 D, E
  23. 23. Critical path is the sequence of Critical Activities in a network. A network diagram may have more than one critical paths. It is the largest path in a network. Critical path gives the minimum time required to complete a project. The activities in the critical path are called critical activities. The nodes in the critical path are called critical nodes or events. If the critical activities are delayed, then the project is also delayed.
  24. 24. From the network diagram, following analysis can be made: Minimum Time (MT): to complete the project is maximum of all paths from start to finish. Earliest Start Time (ES): is the maximum of all paths from start to this task. Latest Start Time (LS): is the difference between MT and maximum of all paths from this task to finish. Earliest Finish Time (EF): of a task is the sum of the ES of the task and its duration. Latest Finish Time (LF): of a task can be obtained by subtracting maximum of all paths from this task to finish from the MT. Slag Time (ST): is LS-ES and LF-EF
  25. 25. Specification 15 Design Database 45 Design GUI 30 Code Database 105 Code GUI 45 Write User Manual 60 Integrate & Test 120 Finish
  26. 26. From the above diagram: MT= 285 days Critical task is the one with slack time = 0 Critical path is indicated with double lines. Activity ES EF LS LF ST Specification 0 15 0 15 0 Design Database 15 60 15 60 0 Design GUI 15 45 90 120 75 Code Database 60 165 60 165 0 Code GUI 45 90 120 165 75 Integrate 165 285 165 285 0 Write User Manual 15 75 225 285 210
  27. 27. Specification 15 Design Database 45 Design GUI 30 Code Database 105 Code GUI 45 Write User Manual 60 Integrate & Test 120 Finish
  28. 28. Project Evaluation & Review Technique. Is a technique for estimating and planning a project. Similar to CPM, a PERT chart consists of a network of boxes/circles and arrows. The boxes/circles represent activities & arrows represent task dependencies. One of its most powerful concepts is that project management is the management of probabilities. It represents the statistical variations in the project estimates assuming a normal distribution.
  29. 29. Thus, in a PERT chart, instead of making a single estimate for each task, three estimates are made: Optimistic, Most Likely, and Pessimistic. All of these estimates are written in the boxes/circles of the PERT chart. These three estimates are combined to calculate an expected duration.
  30. 30. Expected Duration (E)= O + 4*M + P 6 Consider a simple project of three tasks: If the first task begins on day Zero, what day can we expect the third task to complete? Task 1 3,5,9 Task 2 4,5,12 Task 3 7,9,15 End
  31. 31. So expected duration of the project = 5.33+6+9.67 = 21 days Task E Task 1 (3+5*4+9)/6 = 5.33 Task 2 (4+5*4+12)/6 = 6 Task 3 (7+9*4+15)/6 = 9.67
  32. 32. Gantt charts have been named after their developer Henry Gantt. They are mainly used to allocate resources to activities. The resources include: Staff, Hardware, and Software. They are useful for resource planning.
  33. 33. A Gantt chart is a special type of bar chart where each bar represents an activity. The bars are drawn along a timeline. The length of each bar is proportional to the duration of time planned for that activity. Each bar consists of a shaded part and a white part. The shaded part shows the length of the time each task is estimated to take. The white part shows the slack time.
  34. 34. Specification 15 Design Database 45 Design GUI 30 Code Database 105 Code GUI 45 Write User Manual 60 Integrate & Test 120 Finish
  35. 35. Jan 1 Jan 15 Mar 15 Apr 1 July 15 Nov 15 Speci ficati on Design Database Design GUI Code Database Code GUI Integrate & Test Write User Manual
  36. 36. Once a project starts, the project manager has to monitor the project continuously to ensure that it is progressing as per the plan. The project manager designates certain key events such as completion of some important activity as milestones. For example, a milestone can be the completion & review of SRS document. If any delay in reaching a milestone is predicted, then corrective actions might be taken. This may mean reworking all the schedules & producing a fresh schedule. PERT and CPM both help in determining a critical path, through which critical activities can be identified and monitored.

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