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Ccna R&S (Cisco Certified Network Administration) Routing And Switching


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Ccna R&S (Cisco Certified Network Administration) Routing And Switching

  2. 2. ABOUT CISCO :- Cisco is founded in 1984 by Sandy Lerner and Len Bosack. Cisco goes public in 1990 and is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. More than 71500 employees. Nearly 70000 channel partners. More than 30000 CCIE professional.
  3. 3. CISCO CERTIFICATIONS PATH Certification Path Entry Level Associate Level Professional Level Expert Level Routing & Switching CCENT CCNA R&S CCNP R&S CCIE R&S Secuirty CCENT CCNA Security CCNP Security CCIE Security Voice CCENT CCNA Voice CCNP Voice CCIE Voice Wireless CCENT CCNA Wireless CCNP Wireless CCIE Wireless Data Center CCENT CCNA Data Center CCNP Data Center CCIE Data center
  4. 4. CCNA ROUTING & SWITCHING CONTENT:- • ROUTING (1) Basics of Routing (2) CDP (3) Routing Protocols (a) Rip (b) Eigrp (c) Ospf (4) Nat (Network Address Translation) (5) Dhcp (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) (6) Frame-Relay . SWITCHING (1) Basics of Switching (2) Vlans (3) Switching Protocols (a) STP (b) VTP (4)Etherchannel
  5. 5. ROUTER:- • Router is a layer 3 device. • Router is used to connect two different network. • Router used as switch, firewall. • Router also do packet filtering. • Router always choose the best path to route any packet. • Router suppot unicast, multicast but broadcast is not supported by routers.
  6. 6. CDP(CISCO DISCOVERY PROTOCOL) • CDP protocol is cisco proprietry protocol used by cisco device only. • Cisco router and switch exchange the cdp to each other in every 60 secound. • CDP packet is used to show all the information about cisco devices. • By default every cisco device exchange the cdp packets if we want to stop then use command:- router(config)# Interface serial 0/0 router(config-router)# No cdp e vnable
  7. 7. Routing • The process of moving a packet of data from source to destination and from destination to source is called routing. • A router may create or maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and use this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a given packet. • Packet may travel through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its destination. • There are two types of routing:- (1) Static Routing. (2) Dynamic Routing.
  8. 8. Dynamic Routing Protocol DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL LINK STATE ROUTING PROTOCOL 1. Entire routing table is sent as an update. 2. Send periodic update (Every fixed interval of time at every 30 secound). 3. Update are broadcast. 4. Update are sent to directly connected neighbour only. 5. Router donot have end to end visibility of entire network. 6. Routing loops may be exist. 1. Update are incremental. 2. Updates are triggered not periodic. 3. Update are multicast. 4. Update are sent to entire network. 5. Router have visibility of entire network. 6. No routing loop exist.
  9. 9. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) • Rip is a Dynamic Routing Protocol. • Rip is a Distance Vector Routing Protocol. • It developed for smaller network. • Rip calculate the best route based on hop count. • Maximum numbers of hop is 15 after that it considered as unrechable. • Rip require less cpu power & ram. • Rip uses 30 secound to update interval by default. • Two version available in rip first is RIP V 1 and secound is RIP V 2.
  10. 10. RIP VERSIONS RIP VERSION 1 RIP VERSION 2 1. It support classfull routing. 2. Vlsm not supported. 3. Update message is sent to broadcast address 4. No authentication support. 5. Rip version 1 donot support manual summerization because it broadcast all the routes on without any subnet information. 1. It support classless routing. 2. Vlsm Supported. 3. Update message is sent to multicast address 4. Support plaintext and MD5 authentication. 5. Rip version 2 support manual summerization.
  11. 11. Routing Information Protocol Timers:- 1. Update Timer:- In rip update timers is 30 secound by default. It means that after every 30 sec rip send thier whole update to thier neighbour router. 2. Hold down timer:- In rip hold down timer is 180 secound by default. It means that router hold the rip routes only for 180 after 180 secound route will be invalid but it will remain in routing table. 3. Flush Timer:- In rip flush timer is 240 secound by default. It means that router hold any route for 240 secound after 240 secound the route will be flushed out from routing table.
  12. 12. RIP CONFIGURATION COMMAND COMMAND'S PURPOSE Rtr(config)#router rip Enables RIP routing process Rtr(config-router)#network ip address Associates a network with a RIP routing process Rtr(config)#Router rip Rtr(conifg-router)# timer basic 30 180 180 240 used to change timers in rip protocol. Rtr#show ip route rip Used to display Rip routes. Rtr#show ip protocol Used to display protocol information.
  13. 13. EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) • It is an advanced distance vector routing protocol. • EIGRP is used on a router to share routes with other routers within the same autonomous system. • Basic values in eigrp:- AD- 90, 170 Protocol- 88 Max hop count- 255, By default- 100 • Eigrp choose thier best route by using the metric values such as bandwidth, delay, load reliability.
  14. 14. RIP(Routing Information Protocol) EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) 1. Distance vector routing proctocol. 2. Metric - hop count limited to 15. 3. Update - periodic (send every 30 sec). 4. Max hop count- 15 5.Update- Broadcast (version 1) Multicast(version 2) 1. Advanced distance vector routing protocol. 2. Metric - Bandwidth, Delay, Load, Reliability. 3. Update- Triggered. 4. Max hop count - 255, 100 5. Update - Multicast
  15. 15. Eigrp Packets:- • HELLO:- Hello packet is use send to discover the neighbour. In hello packet router send thier parameters to other router after every 5 secound. • UPDATE:- Eigrp send two types of update packets. 1. FULL UPDATE PACKET:- First time eigrp send thier full topology information in update packet. 2. PARTIAL UPDATE PACKET:- After exchanging full update eigrp send partial update . • ACK:- Eigrp send acknowledgement when it recieve any packet from other router.
  16. 16. EIGRP NEIGHBORSHIP CONDITION:- • Both router use same AS no. • Metric weight should be same on both side. • Id authentication is enable then configuration of authentication is same on both side. • Router must have to able to send/ recieve ip packet to one another. • Interface ip address must be in same subnets.
  17. 17. Configuration of Eigrp:- COMMAND COMMAND'S PURPOSE Rtr(config)#router eigrp as no. Enables EIGRP routing process Rtr(config-router)#network ip address Associates a network with a EIGRP routing process Rtr#debug ip eigrp packets used to view real time EIGRP routing updates Rtr(config-router)#show ip eigrp topology Used to display fs and successor in eigrp. Rtr#show ip eigrp topology all-links Used to display all routing links in eigrp process.
  18. 18. OSPF(OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST) • Ospf is a linked state routing protocol. • In ospf every switch knows the whole topology and information about connected router. • Ospf create Graph and run the shortest path first algorithm to choose the best path. • To make ospf scalable we devide ospf process into many areas. • In ospf area 0 is called backbone area and other areas are called non-backbone area. • In ospf all areas will communicate via area 0.
  19. 19. OSPF PACKETS:- HELLO:- A HELLO packet is a special packet (message) that is sent out periodically from a router to establish and confirm network adjacency relationships. DBD:- This packet is used to check if the LSDB between 2 routers is the same. LSR:- This packet is used to send request for database from its neighbors. LSU:- This packet is used to carry the information of database from one router to another. LSACK:- This packet is used to give acknowledgement to thier neighbor router.
  20. 20. OSPF NEIGHBORSHIP STATES:- • DOWN:- When routers are down or ospf not run. • INIT:- when we run ospf on routers and they will send hello packet to each other and exchange thier parameters and this proces is called initilization process. • TWO WAYS:- when routers exchange thier hello packet and parameters are matched on both routers and they becomes neighbors then we can say that they are in two ways state. • EXSTART:- In exstart process both router decide who will start data exchange process and who will end data exchange process. They will go in master and slave election . one router will become master and other will become slave.
  21. 21. OSPF NEIGHBORSHIP STATES (Cont....) • EXCHANGE:- In exchange state router send DBD packet which contain LSID i.e. They only exchange header of database. Router- id is become LSID. • LOADING:- In loading state they exchange thier data base with each other. With the help of LSR, LSU and LSACK packet. • FULL:- When all router exchange thier data base then they are in full state.
  22. 22. OSPF CONFIGURATIONS:- COMMAND COMMAND'S PURPOSE Rtr(config)#router ospf process no. Enables OSPF routing process Rtr(config-router)#network ip address Associates a network with a OSPF routing process Rtr#debug ip OSPF packets used to view real time OSPF routing updates Rtr(config-router)#show ip ospf database Used to display ospf information. Rtr#show ip ospf Used to display all routing links in eigrp process.
  23. 23. ACL(Access Control Lists) • ACLs are lists of conditions that are applied to traffic traveling across a router's interface. • ACLs can be configured at the router to control access to a network or subnet. • There are two types of ACLs 1. Standard 2. Extended • ACL Limit network traffic and increase network performance. • If ACLs are not configured on the router, all packets passing through the router will be allowed onto all parts of the network.
  24. 24. NAT(Network Address Translation • Network address translation is as the name suggests. It translates one type of address into another. Lets take an example. I have a network running with as my IP subnet. I want it to be converted/translated to network when leaving a router interface. • NAT will maintain a table of entries specifies which addresses have been converted to addresses so that when the return packet comes it will be send to the right user. NAT translation will be based on host basis . • NAT is used to overcome the shortage of public IP space. We can use private IP in our internal network and can use a pool of public addresses when going to the internet.
  25. 25. DHCP(dynamic host configuration protocol) • A DHCP server listens for DHCP requests and responds by issuing an IP address. A DHCP server is built into most home routers, and will assign a private network address usually in to any device that requests one. • DHCP client starts by broadcasting the DHCP DISCOVER packet. The broadcast is received by the DHCP Server(s), which in turn replies with the DHCP OFFER message. • The DHCP client may receive multiple DHCP OFFER messages, however it chooses only one DHCP OFFER message based on the policy configured in the DHCP Client. Usually its on the first come first serve basis. • The request is then sent to dhcp server and dhcp server send ip address from its pool in ack packet.
  26. 26. FRAME RELAY • Frame Relay is packet-switched technology. • Frame relay works on layer 2 technology. • Frame relay use serial links. • Frame relay save the cost. • We can also save address space by using frame relay. • DLCI:- Frame relay use DLCI no. It is always unique for new connection. • LMI:- Frame relay send lmi packet to every one as keep alive message.
  27. 27. SWITCH • switch is a layer 2 device. • switch works on mac address. • It has single broadcast domain but we can change the broadcast domain by creating vlan. • Single broadcast domain means all the interfaces of switch are the member of same vlan . • By default all interface are in vlan 1. • Switch is used to connect many users and routers.
  28. 28. VLAN(VIRTUAL LAN) VLAN provides Virtual Segmentation of Broadcast Domain in the network. The devices, which are member of same Vlan, are able to communicate with each other. The devices of different Vlan may communicate with each other with routing called Inter Vlan Communication.
  29. 29. VTP(Vlan Trunking Protocol) • Vtp stands for vlan trunking protocol which is used to share vlan information with each other. • lets take an example if we have 100 switches and we need to configure three vlans called as vlan 10 20 and 30 the initial way to do it is to go to each and every switch and configure vlans which becomes a very hectic task and there are also a chances for misconfigurations. • In these cases vtp is used vtp is configured on all the switches. One switch is kept in vtp server mode and other in vtp client mode. The vlans are then configured on the server switch it immediatly deflects to all the other 99switches which reduces the administrative load.
  30. 30. STP(SPANNING TREE PROTOCOL) • In switching spanning tree protocol is used to control the loop. • By default all switch forward the BPDU message to each other. On the basis of bpdu message switch will decide thier Root Bridge who control the stp process in vlan. • Cisco switch run per vlan spanning tree protocol. • In spanning tree protocol every switch have one root port except root bridge. • Root port is always the best path to reach the root bridge for non-root bridge switches.
  31. 31. ETHERCHANNEL • A Cisco technique that provides the ability to negotiate to bundle multiple physical links into a single, logical, higher speed link. • Two types of protocol is used to form etherchannel. (1) LACP:- Link Aggregation Control Protocol, is used to dynamically build an EtherChannel. There are different modes of LACP. It can bundle 16 link at a time. (2) PAGP:- Port Aggregation Protocol is used to achieve the same goal as LACP. But it can bundle 8 links at a time.
  32. 32. ETHERCHANNEL (cont....) • LACP MODE:- 1. Active: The active end of the group sends out a LACP frame and initiates the negotiation to form the EtherChannel. Both ends could be active and the result would be the same. 2. Passive: Passive Mode does not initiate the negotiation. It just responds to LACP packets initiated by other end. So if both ends were passive, the EtherChannel would not be formed. • PAGP MODE:- 1. Desirable: In this mode, the negotiation will be initiated by sending the special frames to form EtherChannel with the other end. 2. Auto: In this mode, negotiation is not initiated. It only responds to the special frames received for negotiation form the other end. So, if both ends are in Auto mode, EtherChannel would not be formed.