What Is Carbon ?
CARBON is the chemical element with
symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of
group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and
tetravalent—making four electrons available to
form covalent chemical bonds. There are three
naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being
stable, while 14C is radioactive
A Hydrocarbon is an organic
compound that contains only the
elements hydrogen and carbon.
In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the
bonds are single bonds.
Alkane is another name for a
Factors that determine the properties of a
The number of carbon atoms
How the atoms are arranged:
1. Straight chain
2. Branched chain
3. Ring Or Cyclic
A hydrocarbon can contain
one carbon atom, as in
methane or thousands of
carbon atoms, as in
One carbon Methane
Two carbon ethane
Three carbon propane
Four carbon butane
Five carbons pentane
Six carbon hexane
Carbon has an ability to form branches
with other carbon atoms. Simple
branched alkanes often have a common
name using a prefix to distinguish them
from linear alkanes, for example n-
pentane, isopentane, and neopentane.
IUPAC naming conventions can be used
to produce a systematic name.
Carbons can be arranged in the
form of a ring or cyclic, such as
cyclobutane , Benzene etc .
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some
chemical elements to exist in two or more
different forms, known as allotropes of these
elements. Allotropes are different structural
modifications of an element; the element's
atoms are bonded together in a different
manner. For Example --
This is also a form of carbon allotrope. The
first one to be identified was C-60 which has
carbon arranged in the shape of a football.
As it resembled to the geodesic dome
designed by US architect Buckminster Fuller ,
So the molecule was named fullerene.
In diamond, each carbon atom is tetra
headedly attached to four other carbon
atoms forming a rigid three dimensional
Thus it is the hardest substance known.
In organic chemistry, functional groups
are specific groups of atoms within
molecules that are responsible for the
characteristic chemical reactions of those
molecules. The same functional group will
undergo the same or similar chemical
reaction(s) regardless of the size of the
molecule it is a part of.