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Schizophrenia
Definition
 The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by
fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and
perception, and affect that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear
consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained
although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time.
 The most important psychopathological phenomena include
 thought echo
 thought insertion or withdrawal
 thought broadcasting
 delusional perception and delusions of control
 influence or passivity
 hallucinatory voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person
 thought disorders and negative symptoms.
Schizophrenia
 Schizophrenia occurs with regular frequency nearly
everywhere in the world in 1 % of population and
begins mainly in young age (mostly around 16 to 25
years).
 Schizophrenia is defined by
 a group of characteristic positive and negative symptoms
 deterioration in social, occupational, or interpersonal
relationships
 continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months
History
 Emil Kraepelin:This illness develops relatively early in life, and
its course is likely deteriorating and chronic; deterioration
reminded dementia (“Dementia praecox“), but was not followed
by any organic changes of the brain, detectable at that time.
 Eugene Bleuler: He renamed Kraepelin’s dementia praecox as
schizophrenia (1911); he recognized the cognitive impairment in
this illness, which he named as a „splitting“ of mind.
 Kurt Schneider: He emphasized the role of psychotic
symptoms, as hallucinations, delusions and gave them the privilege
of „the first rank symptoms” even in the concept of the diagnosis
of schizophrenia.
4 As
(Bleuler)
 Bleuler maintained, that for the diagnosis of schizophrenia are
most important the following four fundamental symptoms:
 Affective blunting
 disturbance of Association (fragmented thinking)
 Autism
 Ambivalence (fragmented emotional response)
 These groups of symptoms, are called “four A’ s” and Bleuler
thought, that they are “primary” for this diagnosis.
 The other known symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, which are
appearing in schizophrenia very often also, he used to call as a
“secondary symptoms”, because they could be seen in any other
psychotic disease, which are caused by quite different factors —
from intoxication to infection or other disease entities.
Course of Illness
 Course of schizophrenia:
 Continuous without temporary improvement
 Episodic with progressive or stable deficit
 Episodic with complete or incomplete remission
 Typical stages of schizophrenia:
 Prodromal phase
 Active phase
 Residual phase
Clinical Picture
 Diagnostic manuals:
 lCD-10 (“International Classification of Disease”,WHO)
 DSM-IV (“Diagnostic and Statistical Manual”,APA)
 Clinical picture of schizophrenia is according to lCD-10, defined
from the point of view of the presence and expression of primary
and/or secondary symptoms (at present covered by the terms
negative and positive symptoms):
 the negative symptoms are represented by cognitive disorders, having its
origin probably in the disorders of associations of thoughts, combined with
emotional blunting and small or missing production of hallucinations and
delusions
 the positive symptom are characterized by the presence of hallucinations
and delusions
 the division is not quite strict and lesser or greater mixture of symptoms
from these two groups are possible
Positive & Negative Symptoms
NegativeNegative PositivePositive
AlogiaAlogia HallucinationsHallucinations
Affective flatteningAffective flattening DelusionsDelusions
Avolition-apathyAvolition-apathy Bizarre behaviourBizarre behaviour
Anhedonia-asocialityAnhedonia-asociality Positive formal thoughtPositive formal thought
disorderdisorder
Attentional impairmentAttentional impairment
Andreasen N.C., Roy M.-A., Flaum M.: Positive and negative symptoms. In:
Schizophrenia, Hirsch S.R. and Weinberger D.R., eds., Blackwell Science, pp. 28-45, 1995
The Criteria of Diagnosis
For the diagnosis of schizophrenia is necessary
 presence of one very clear symptom - from point a) to d)
 or the presence of the symptoms from at least two groups – from point e)
to h)
for one month or more:
a) the hearing of own thoughts, the feelings of thought withdrawal, thought
insertion, or thought broadcasting
b) the delusions of control, outside manipulation and influence, or the feelings of
passivity, which are connected with the movements of the body or
extremities, specific thoughts, acting or feelings, delusional perception
c) hallucinated voices, which are commenting permanently the behavior of the
patient or they talk about him between themselves, or the other types of
hallucinatory voices, coming from different parts of body
d) permanent delusions of different kind, which are inappropriate and
unacceptable in given culture
The Criteria FOR Diagnosis
e) the lasting hallucination of every form
f) blocks or intrusion of thoughts into the flow of thinking and resulting
incoherence and irrelevance of speach, or neologisms
g) catatonic behavior
h) “the negative symptoms”, for instance the expressed apathy, poor speech,
blunting and inappropriatness of emotional reactions
i) expressed and conspicuous qualitative changes in patient’s behavior, the loss
of interests, hobbies, aimlesness, inactivity, the loss of relations to others and
social withdrawal
F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional
Disorders
F20 Schizophrenia
F20.0 Paranoid schizophrenia
F20.1 Hebephrenic schizophrenia
F20.2 Catatonic schizophrenia
F20.3 Undifferentiated schizophrenia
F20.4 Post-schizophrenic depression
F20.5 Residual schizophrenia
F20.6 Simple schizophrenia
F20.8 Other schizophrenia
F20.9 Schizophrenia, unspecified
F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional
Disorders
F21 Schizotypal disorder
F22 Persistent delusional disorders
F22.0 Delusional disorder
F22.8 Other persistent delusional disorders
F22.9 Persistent delusional disorder, unspecified
F23 Acute and transient psychotic disorders
F23.1 Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder with symptoms of
schizophrenia
F23.2 Acute schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder
F23.3 Other acute predominantly delusional psychotic disorders
F23.8 Other acute and transient psychotic disorders
F23.9 Acute and transient psychotic disorder, unspecified
F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional
Disorders
F24 Induced delusional disorder
F25 Schizoaffective disorders
F25.0 Schizoaffective disorder, manic type
F25.1 Schizoaffective disorder, depressive type
F25.2 Schizoaffective disorder, mixed type
F25.8 Other schizoaffective disorders
F25.9 Schizoaffective disorder, unspecified
F28 Other nonorganic psychotic disorders
F29 Unspecified nonorganic psychosis
F20.0 Paranoid Schizophrenia
 Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized mainly by
delusions of persecution, feelings of passive or
active control and feelings of intrusion.The
delusions are not usually systemized too much,
without tight logical connections and are often
combined with hallucinations of different senses,
mostly with hearing voices.
 Disturbances of affect, volition and speech, and
catatonic symptoms, are either absent or relatively
inconspicuous.
F20.1 Hebephrenic Schizophrenia
 Hebephrenic schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized
thinking with blunted and inappropriate emotions. It begins mostly
in adolescent age, the behavior is often bizarre.There could appear
mannerisms, grimacing, inappropriate laugh and joking,
pseudophilosophical brooding and sudden impulsive reactions
without external stimulation.There is a tendency to social
isolation.
 Usually the prognosis is poor because of the rapid development of
"negative" symptoms, particularly flattening of affect and loss of
volition. Hebephrenia should normally be diagnosed only in
adolescents or young adults.
 Denoted also as disorganized schizophrenia
F20.2 Catatonic Schizophrenia
 Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized mainly by
motoric activity, which might be strongly increased
(hyperkinesis) or decreased (stupor), or automatic
obedience and negativism.
 We recognize two forms:
 productive form — which shows catatonic excitement,
extreme and often aggressive activity.Treatment by
neuroleptics or by electroconvulsive therapy.
 stuporose form — characterized by general inhibition of
patient’s behavior or at least by retardation and slowness,
followed often by mutism, negativism, flexibilitas cerea or by
stupor.The consciousness is not absent.
F20.3 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
 Psychotic conditions meeting the general diagnostic
criteria for schizophrenia but not conforming to any of
the subtypes in F20.0-F20.2, or exhibiting the features
of more than one of them without a clear
predominance of a particular set of diagnostic
characteristics.
 This subgroup represents also the former diagnosis of
atypical schizophrenia.
F20.4 Postschizophrenic Depression
 A depressive episode, which may be prolonged,
arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness.
Some schizophrenic symptoms, either “positive” or
“negative”, must still be present but they no longer
dominate the clinical picture.
 These depressive states are associated with an
increased risk of suicide.
F20.5 Residual Schizophrenia
 A chronic stage in the development of schizophrenia
with clear succession from the initial stage with one
or more episodes characterized by general criteria of
schizophrenia to the late stage with long-lasting
negative symptoms and deterioration (not necessarily
irreversible).
F20.6 Simple Schizophrenia
 Simple schizophrenia is characterized by early and
slowly developing initial stage with growing social
isolation, withdrawal, small activity, passivity,
avolition and dependence on the others.
 The patients are indifferent, without any initiative
and volition.There is not expressed the presence
of hallucinations and delusions.
Genetics of Schizophrenia
 Many psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial (caused
by the interaction of external and genetic factors) and
from the genetic point of view very often polygenically
determined.
 Relative risk for schizophrenia is around:
 1% for normal population
 5.6% for parents
 10.1% for siblings
 12.8% for children
Etiology of Schizophrenia
 The etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia is not
known
 It is accepted that schizophrenia is multifactorial:
 Internal factors – genetic, inborn, biochemical
 External factors – trauma, infection of CNS, stress
Etiology of Schizophrenia - Dopamine
Hypothesis
 The most influential and plausible are the hypotheses, based on the
supposed disorder of neurotransmission in the brain, derived
mainly from
1. The effects of antipsychotic drugs that have in common the ability to inhibit
the dopaminergic system by blocking action of dopamine in the brain
2. Dopamine-releasing drugs (amphetamine, mescaline, diethyl amide of
lysergic acid - LSD) that can induce state closely resembling paranoid
schizophrenia
 Classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: Psychotic
symptoms are related to dopaminergic hyperactivity in the brain.
Hyperactivity of dopaminergic systems during schizophrenia is
result of increased sensitivity and density of dopamine D2
receptors in the different parts of the brain.
Etiology of Schizophrenia - Contemporary
Models
 Dopamine hypothesis revisited: various neurotransmitter
systems probably takes place in the etiology of schizophrenia
(norepinephric, serotonergic, glutamatergic, some peptidergic
systems); based on effects of atypical antipsychotics especially.
 Contemporary models of schizophrenia conceptualize it as a
neurocognitive disorder, with the various signs and symptoms
reflecting the downstream effects of a more fundamental
cognitive deficit:
 The symptoms of schizophrenia arise from “cognitive dysmetria” (Nancy
C.Andreasen)
 Concept of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder (Daniel R.
Weinberger)
Etiology of Schizophrenia -
Neurodevelopmental Model
 Neurodevelopmental model supposes in schizophrenia the
presence of “silent lesion” in the brain, mostly in the parts,
important for the development of integration (frontal, parietal
and temporal), which is caused by different factors (genetic,
inborn, infection, trauma...) during very early development of the
brain in prenatal or early postnatal period of life.
 It does not interfere too much with the basic brain functioning
in early years, but expresses itself in the time, when the subject
is stressed by demands of growing needs for integration, during
formative years in adolescence and young adulthood.
Treatment of Schizophrenia
 The acute psychotic schizophrenic patients will respond usually to
antipsychotic medication.
 According to current consensus we use in the first line therapy
the newer atypical antipsychotics, because their use is not
complicated by appearance of extrapyramidal side-effects, or these
are much lower than with classical antipsychotics.
conventional
antipsychotics
(classical
neuroleptics)
chlorpromazine, chlorprotixene, clopenthixole,
levopromazine, periciazine, thioridazine
droperidole, flupentixol, fluphenazine,
fluspirilene, haloperidol, melperone,
oxyprothepine, penfluridol, perphenazine,
pimozide, prochlorperazine, trifluoperazine
atypical
antipsychotics
amisulpiride, clozapine, olanzapine,
quetiapine, risperidone, Aripiprazole,
Thank You

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Schizophrenia

  • 2. Definition  The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affect that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time.  The most important psychopathological phenomena include  thought echo  thought insertion or withdrawal  thought broadcasting  delusional perception and delusions of control  influence or passivity  hallucinatory voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person  thought disorders and negative symptoms.
  • 3. Schizophrenia  Schizophrenia occurs with regular frequency nearly everywhere in the world in 1 % of population and begins mainly in young age (mostly around 16 to 25 years).  Schizophrenia is defined by  a group of characteristic positive and negative symptoms  deterioration in social, occupational, or interpersonal relationships  continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months
  • 4. History  Emil Kraepelin:This illness develops relatively early in life, and its course is likely deteriorating and chronic; deterioration reminded dementia (“Dementia praecox“), but was not followed by any organic changes of the brain, detectable at that time.  Eugene Bleuler: He renamed Kraepelin’s dementia praecox as schizophrenia (1911); he recognized the cognitive impairment in this illness, which he named as a „splitting“ of mind.  Kurt Schneider: He emphasized the role of psychotic symptoms, as hallucinations, delusions and gave them the privilege of „the first rank symptoms” even in the concept of the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
  • 5. 4 As (Bleuler)  Bleuler maintained, that for the diagnosis of schizophrenia are most important the following four fundamental symptoms:  Affective blunting  disturbance of Association (fragmented thinking)  Autism  Ambivalence (fragmented emotional response)  These groups of symptoms, are called “four A’ s” and Bleuler thought, that they are “primary” for this diagnosis.  The other known symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, which are appearing in schizophrenia very often also, he used to call as a “secondary symptoms”, because they could be seen in any other psychotic disease, which are caused by quite different factors — from intoxication to infection or other disease entities.
  • 6. Course of Illness  Course of schizophrenia:  Continuous without temporary improvement  Episodic with progressive or stable deficit  Episodic with complete or incomplete remission  Typical stages of schizophrenia:  Prodromal phase  Active phase  Residual phase
  • 7. Clinical Picture  Diagnostic manuals:  lCD-10 (“International Classification of Disease”,WHO)  DSM-IV (“Diagnostic and Statistical Manual”,APA)  Clinical picture of schizophrenia is according to lCD-10, defined from the point of view of the presence and expression of primary and/or secondary symptoms (at present covered by the terms negative and positive symptoms):  the negative symptoms are represented by cognitive disorders, having its origin probably in the disorders of associations of thoughts, combined with emotional blunting and small or missing production of hallucinations and delusions  the positive symptom are characterized by the presence of hallucinations and delusions  the division is not quite strict and lesser or greater mixture of symptoms from these two groups are possible
  • 8. Positive & Negative Symptoms NegativeNegative PositivePositive AlogiaAlogia HallucinationsHallucinations Affective flatteningAffective flattening DelusionsDelusions Avolition-apathyAvolition-apathy Bizarre behaviourBizarre behaviour Anhedonia-asocialityAnhedonia-asociality Positive formal thoughtPositive formal thought disorderdisorder Attentional impairmentAttentional impairment Andreasen N.C., Roy M.-A., Flaum M.: Positive and negative symptoms. In: Schizophrenia, Hirsch S.R. and Weinberger D.R., eds., Blackwell Science, pp. 28-45, 1995
  • 9. The Criteria of Diagnosis For the diagnosis of schizophrenia is necessary  presence of one very clear symptom - from point a) to d)  or the presence of the symptoms from at least two groups – from point e) to h) for one month or more: a) the hearing of own thoughts, the feelings of thought withdrawal, thought insertion, or thought broadcasting b) the delusions of control, outside manipulation and influence, or the feelings of passivity, which are connected with the movements of the body or extremities, specific thoughts, acting or feelings, delusional perception c) hallucinated voices, which are commenting permanently the behavior of the patient or they talk about him between themselves, or the other types of hallucinatory voices, coming from different parts of body d) permanent delusions of different kind, which are inappropriate and unacceptable in given culture
  • 10. The Criteria FOR Diagnosis e) the lasting hallucination of every form f) blocks or intrusion of thoughts into the flow of thinking and resulting incoherence and irrelevance of speach, or neologisms g) catatonic behavior h) “the negative symptoms”, for instance the expressed apathy, poor speech, blunting and inappropriatness of emotional reactions i) expressed and conspicuous qualitative changes in patient’s behavior, the loss of interests, hobbies, aimlesness, inactivity, the loss of relations to others and social withdrawal
  • 11. F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional Disorders F20 Schizophrenia F20.0 Paranoid schizophrenia F20.1 Hebephrenic schizophrenia F20.2 Catatonic schizophrenia F20.3 Undifferentiated schizophrenia F20.4 Post-schizophrenic depression F20.5 Residual schizophrenia F20.6 Simple schizophrenia F20.8 Other schizophrenia F20.9 Schizophrenia, unspecified
  • 12. F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional Disorders F21 Schizotypal disorder F22 Persistent delusional disorders F22.0 Delusional disorder F22.8 Other persistent delusional disorders F22.9 Persistent delusional disorder, unspecified F23 Acute and transient psychotic disorders F23.1 Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder with symptoms of schizophrenia F23.2 Acute schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder F23.3 Other acute predominantly delusional psychotic disorders F23.8 Other acute and transient psychotic disorders F23.9 Acute and transient psychotic disorder, unspecified
  • 13. F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional Disorders F24 Induced delusional disorder F25 Schizoaffective disorders F25.0 Schizoaffective disorder, manic type F25.1 Schizoaffective disorder, depressive type F25.2 Schizoaffective disorder, mixed type F25.8 Other schizoaffective disorders F25.9 Schizoaffective disorder, unspecified F28 Other nonorganic psychotic disorders F29 Unspecified nonorganic psychosis
  • 14. F20.0 Paranoid Schizophrenia  Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized mainly by delusions of persecution, feelings of passive or active control and feelings of intrusion.The delusions are not usually systemized too much, without tight logical connections and are often combined with hallucinations of different senses, mostly with hearing voices.  Disturbances of affect, volition and speech, and catatonic symptoms, are either absent or relatively inconspicuous.
  • 15. F20.1 Hebephrenic Schizophrenia  Hebephrenic schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized thinking with blunted and inappropriate emotions. It begins mostly in adolescent age, the behavior is often bizarre.There could appear mannerisms, grimacing, inappropriate laugh and joking, pseudophilosophical brooding and sudden impulsive reactions without external stimulation.There is a tendency to social isolation.  Usually the prognosis is poor because of the rapid development of "negative" symptoms, particularly flattening of affect and loss of volition. Hebephrenia should normally be diagnosed only in adolescents or young adults.  Denoted also as disorganized schizophrenia
  • 16. F20.2 Catatonic Schizophrenia  Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized mainly by motoric activity, which might be strongly increased (hyperkinesis) or decreased (stupor), or automatic obedience and negativism.  We recognize two forms:  productive form — which shows catatonic excitement, extreme and often aggressive activity.Treatment by neuroleptics or by electroconvulsive therapy.  stuporose form — characterized by general inhibition of patient’s behavior or at least by retardation and slowness, followed often by mutism, negativism, flexibilitas cerea or by stupor.The consciousness is not absent.
  • 17. F20.3 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia  Psychotic conditions meeting the general diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia but not conforming to any of the subtypes in F20.0-F20.2, or exhibiting the features of more than one of them without a clear predominance of a particular set of diagnostic characteristics.  This subgroup represents also the former diagnosis of atypical schizophrenia.
  • 18. F20.4 Postschizophrenic Depression  A depressive episode, which may be prolonged, arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness. Some schizophrenic symptoms, either “positive” or “negative”, must still be present but they no longer dominate the clinical picture.  These depressive states are associated with an increased risk of suicide.
  • 19. F20.5 Residual Schizophrenia  A chronic stage in the development of schizophrenia with clear succession from the initial stage with one or more episodes characterized by general criteria of schizophrenia to the late stage with long-lasting negative symptoms and deterioration (not necessarily irreversible).
  • 20. F20.6 Simple Schizophrenia  Simple schizophrenia is characterized by early and slowly developing initial stage with growing social isolation, withdrawal, small activity, passivity, avolition and dependence on the others.  The patients are indifferent, without any initiative and volition.There is not expressed the presence of hallucinations and delusions.
  • 21. Genetics of Schizophrenia  Many psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial (caused by the interaction of external and genetic factors) and from the genetic point of view very often polygenically determined.  Relative risk for schizophrenia is around:  1% for normal population  5.6% for parents  10.1% for siblings  12.8% for children
  • 22. Etiology of Schizophrenia  The etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia is not known  It is accepted that schizophrenia is multifactorial:  Internal factors – genetic, inborn, biochemical  External factors – trauma, infection of CNS, stress
  • 23. Etiology of Schizophrenia - Dopamine Hypothesis  The most influential and plausible are the hypotheses, based on the supposed disorder of neurotransmission in the brain, derived mainly from 1. The effects of antipsychotic drugs that have in common the ability to inhibit the dopaminergic system by blocking action of dopamine in the brain 2. Dopamine-releasing drugs (amphetamine, mescaline, diethyl amide of lysergic acid - LSD) that can induce state closely resembling paranoid schizophrenia  Classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: Psychotic symptoms are related to dopaminergic hyperactivity in the brain. Hyperactivity of dopaminergic systems during schizophrenia is result of increased sensitivity and density of dopamine D2 receptors in the different parts of the brain.
  • 24. Etiology of Schizophrenia - Contemporary Models  Dopamine hypothesis revisited: various neurotransmitter systems probably takes place in the etiology of schizophrenia (norepinephric, serotonergic, glutamatergic, some peptidergic systems); based on effects of atypical antipsychotics especially.  Contemporary models of schizophrenia conceptualize it as a neurocognitive disorder, with the various signs and symptoms reflecting the downstream effects of a more fundamental cognitive deficit:  The symptoms of schizophrenia arise from “cognitive dysmetria” (Nancy C.Andreasen)  Concept of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder (Daniel R. Weinberger)
  • 25. Etiology of Schizophrenia - Neurodevelopmental Model  Neurodevelopmental model supposes in schizophrenia the presence of “silent lesion” in the brain, mostly in the parts, important for the development of integration (frontal, parietal and temporal), which is caused by different factors (genetic, inborn, infection, trauma...) during very early development of the brain in prenatal or early postnatal period of life.  It does not interfere too much with the basic brain functioning in early years, but expresses itself in the time, when the subject is stressed by demands of growing needs for integration, during formative years in adolescence and young adulthood.
  • 26. Treatment of Schizophrenia  The acute psychotic schizophrenic patients will respond usually to antipsychotic medication.  According to current consensus we use in the first line therapy the newer atypical antipsychotics, because their use is not complicated by appearance of extrapyramidal side-effects, or these are much lower than with classical antipsychotics. conventional antipsychotics (classical neuroleptics) chlorpromazine, chlorprotixene, clopenthixole, levopromazine, periciazine, thioridazine droperidole, flupentixol, fluphenazine, fluspirilene, haloperidol, melperone, oxyprothepine, penfluridol, perphenazine, pimozide, prochlorperazine, trifluoperazine atypical antipsychotics amisulpiride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, Aripiprazole,