Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

  • Be the first to comment


  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.• Motivation is literally the desire to do things• An inferred process within an animal or an individual that causes that organism to move towards a goal
  3. 3. Motivation types
  4. 4. INTRINSIC EXTRINSIC• Driven by an interest or • It refers to the enjoyment in the task performance of an activity itself in order to attain an outcome • Extrinsic motivation• Don’t rely on any comes from outside of the external pressure individual
  5. 5. MOTIVATION THEORIES These theories helps us to prepare a foundation for learning how to motivate self and others. WHAT IS IT THAT’S STOPING US TO DO, WHAT IS TO BE DONE?
  6. 6. MOTIVATION THEORIES1. Cognitive Dissonance Theory2. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs3. Alderfers ERG Theory4. Goal Theory5. Self-Determination Theory6. Achievement Motivation Theory
  7. 7. 1. Cognitive Dissonance Theory A cognition is any element of knowledge - an attitude, emotion, belief, value, behaviour, etc. When two cognitions are in direct conflict with one another a state of anxiety is produced - dissonance is the term for the anxiety.
  8. 8. Example For example "smoking is bad for you" while continuing the behaviour of smoking. These two cognitions are in direct conflict with each other The belief that smoking is bad is part of one neural network - perhaps associated with health and fitness is another conflict
  9. 9. 2. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self - Actualization Esteem needs Belongingness & love needs (social needs) Safety needs Physiological needs:
  10. 10. If we fulfill our needs at onelevel, then we can focus onsatisfying the need on thenext higher level
  11. 11.  Physiological needs Hunger, thirst etc., Safety needs To feel secure & safe, out of danger Belongingness & love needs Affiliate with others, be accepted & belong Esteem needs To achieve, be component, gain approval and belong Self-actualization needs Self fulfillment & realize one’s potential
  12. 12. 3. Alderfers ERG Theory Alderfer took Maslows theory a little furtherExistence - Survival Needs(first two)Relatedness - Separateness and connectedness(second two)Growth - Learning Something New(other’s)
  13. 13. 4. Goal Theory It means ”people have drives to meet certain end states”. They are motivated to do certain things as a means to achieve that end.
  14. 14. Main Elements1. Proximity 2. Degree of 3. Specificity (time limit) difficulty
  15. 15. Types of goalShort-term A goal that can be achieved in a relative short period of time Ex: To complete the courseLong-term A goal that takes a long period of time to achieve Ex: Great success in career
  16. 16. 5. Self-Determination Theory(SDT) It is closely related to Maslows Theory with the exception SDT suggests that people do not operate on auto-pilot It presupposes that we all have a built-in tendency toward growth and development …just need an IGNITION to start
  17. 17. Three Concepts That Affect Motivation: Autonomy - Separateness... "I can do it myself" Competence Feedback - Approval and Acknowledgment from significant others Relatedness - Connectedness... "Im not alone" 
  18. 18. 6. Achievement Motivation Theory David McClellands Achievement Motivation Theory proposes that the three factors influencing motivation Need to Achieve Need for Power Need for Affiliation
  19. 19. FACTORS Need to Achieve: Varies on a continuum from low to high. This need is related to the degree of difficulty of tasks that a person chooses.
  20. 20.  Need for Power - Those person who derive a sense of satisfaction from having an impact on their environment in a way that moves it in the direction that person would like to see it move.
  21. 21.  Need for Affiliation - This need describes those who are motivated primarily by connecting and interacting with others are happiest when they feel a sense of belonging and involvement with a social group.