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Droits sexuels et reproductifs des femmes work in progress

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sexual and reproductive health in Tunisia and in the world.

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Droits sexuels et reproductifs des femmes work in progress

  1. 1. Droits Sexuels et Reproductifs des Femmes Les standards du droit international Groupe TAWHIDA BEN CHEIKH
  2. 2. Des droits humains à part entière • Conventions internationales et Organes des Nations-Unies: - Pacte Droits économiques, sociaux et culturels, art. 12 + GC14 (2000) - CEDEF, art. 12 (santé) et 16.e (vie de la famille) - Rapporteur spécial sur le droit à la santé, 2002 (rapport 2011) • Accords politiques aux conférences internationales des Nations- Unies: - Caire 1994, Programme d’action - Beijing 1995, Plateforme pour l’action - Sommet du Millenium 2000 • Au niveau régional: - Charte africaine des doits de l’homme et des peuples, UA, art. 16 - Protocole de Maputo sur droits de femmes en Afrique, 2007, art.14
  3. 3. Le droit des femmes à la santé inclut le droit à la santé reproductive et sexuelle qui fait donc partie intégrante des droits humains fondamentaux des femmes
  4. 4. Compagne au NEPAL
  5. 5. L’approche DROITS DE L’HOMME en matière de santé sexuelle & reproductive • Droits indivisibles et interdépendants: - étroitement liés au droit à la vie, à la non-discrimination, à la santé, à la vie privée, au droit à l’information et au droit de ne pas être soumis à la torture - conditionnent l’accès aux droit à la santé, à la vie, à l’éducation et au travail • Une approche qui crée des responsabilités changement de langage - ‘Droits’ versus des ‘Besoins’ - ‘Obligations’ versus ‘Charité’ - ‘Individus’ versus ‘Bénéficiaires’
  6. 6. Obligations et Responsabilités des Etats: • Respecter: ne pas entraver, ni directement ni indirectement • Protéger: empêcher des tiers de faire obstacle • Mettre en oeuvre: mesures appropriées d'ordre législatif, administratif, budgétaire, judiciaire, incitatif ou autre La constitution tunisienne: • ARTICLE 45 • ARTICLE 6
  7. 7. 3 principes de base en matière de droits sexuels et génésiques • Les individus ont le droit de décider de leur vie sexuelle et reproductive et de prendre des décisions sans interférence ni coercition • Le droit au respect de la différence et à la non-discrimination • Obligations des Etats de fournir des services complets et de supprimer les barrières aux soins pour garantir le droit à la santé et à la vie
  8. 8. Avortement et Droits de l’Homme • La criminalisation de services de santé requis que par les femmes, notamment de l’avortement, est une forme de discrimination contre les femmes! • S’assurer que les femmes jouissent de leurs droits à la santé, aux services d’avortement quand la santé ou la vie de la mère est menacée, ou quand la grossesse est due à un viol (une 1ère: le protocole de Maputo, droit explicite + santé physique mais aussi mentale) • L’avortement légal doit être sur, accessible, abordable et de qualité (VDA v. Argentine, LC v. Perou) à toute femme le demandant. Sources: Comité des droits de l’homme, comité DESCR, Comité CEDEF, Plateforme d’action Beijing, Rap. Spécial, Maputo Protocol
  9. 9. Avortement et Droits humains • Les soins nécessaires après un avortement (complications) doivent toujours être accessibles, disponibles et surs, que l’avortement soit légal ou pas: eg. pas de dénonciation ou confession forcée pour procédure judiciaire, comité CIT sur Chili : SECRET MEDICAL (ne concerne pas le médecin mais toute personne ayant accès à des information concernant la santé de tout individu selon la loi tunisienne) • L’Etat doit faciliter, assurer et promouvoir l’information et l’accès aux méthodes de contraception
  10. 10. Avortement et Droits humains • Et le droit à la liberté de conscience et de pensée du personnel médical ? Un droit protégé Le personnel médical ne peut être forcé MAIS: - l‘objection de conscience peut être exercée par un individu, pas par une institution - ne donne pas le droit d’empêcher, d’obstruer l’accès à ces services ni de désinformer à propos de ces services et soins - Le droit au secret médical doit être garantit pour tout patient (selon la loi tunisienne)
  11. 11. Contraception et Droits de l’Homme • Même droit que les hommes de décider du nombre d’enfants et de l’espacement des naissances (art. 16.e, CEDEF) • Droit à la vie privée • Droit à la vie • Droit à la santé • Droit à l’information et à l’éducation
  12. 12. Consentement et Adolescents • Convention Droits de l’Enfant: capacités évolutives, capacités critiques, autonomie des adolescents ; le comité déplore le manque d’information et de services de santé pour les adolescents • Éducation sexuelle pour permettre un choix informé :sans information, l’accès au droit est compromis: Importance de l’éducation: cours de sciences naturelles concernant la sexualité ayant un volume horaire minimal et enseigné au cours de la 9éme année d’enseignement!!!!! • Utilisation des services/soins: Confidentialité assurée, ne doit pas dépendre de l’autorisation d’une tierce partie (comités CEDEF et CRC)
  13. 13. MERCI

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