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The impact of Goolge as a marketing tool on business growth

  1. 1. democratic and popular republic of algeria Ministry of higher education & scientific research Djilali Liabes University of Sidi Bel Abbes Faculty Of Economics, Commercial and Management Sciences Thesis in order to obtain academic Master's Degree diploma Specialty: Commercial Sciences Option: Marketing Presented by: Kada Benchiha Mohamed Amine Theme : Supported On : In front of the juries composed of Presedent : Dr. Beniakhlef Khdidja………… MCB University of SBA Mentor : Dr. Nouala Meriem………………..MCB University of SBA Co-Mentor : Dr.Ezzine Abdelmadjid………..MCB University of SBA Examiner : Graa Amel……………………… MCB University of SBA College year: 2016-2017 The Impact Of Google As a Marketing Tool On Business Growth
  2. 2. You will fail, you will lose, you will embarrass yourself, you will suck at something ... But don't quit, don't fall back .. just continue to fail once & twice & more ... you will catch the break one day ... just you have to know how to fall .. FALL FORWARD. Denzel Washington
  3. 3. Acknowledgements Our most grateful thanks goes to our mentor, Mrs NOUALA MERIEM, for having accepted to direct this work while advising us, helping us and encouraging us throughout our research. We are very grateful to Mr. EZZINE ABDELMADJID, who gave us his time and contributed to the direction of this work in the right direction, For his valuable advice and encouragement and for his availability. To our dear Friends for their invaluable help to the accomplishment of this work I mention : Mr. Tou Ahmed Amine : TOU HANNA, Founder and CEO , Mr. Chelghaf Hichem : Artist & Designer Mr. Ouahmed Rafik : french language university professor, Ms. Djeziri Zoulikha : Ereka Business School, Founder and CEO, and all the team, Our best friends : Allaedine Didaoui & Imene Guerdjoum, Our friends Mouad younes & sarah harouat who shared this journey with us until the last minute, Finally, we would like to thank anyone who has contributed to the realization of this work. Kada Benchiha Mohamed Amine
  4. 4. Dedication I dedicate this modest work to the best two things in my life, my MOTHER & my FATHER, My deepest gratitude to my family, friends & colleagues, for their full support and understanding enduring this research quest journey with me. To my little hero, OMAR EL-FAROUK.
  5. 5. Acknowledgements Dedication Summary List Of Tables List Of Figures General Introduction ................................................................................................................I Chapter I - Knock The Door … Digital Marketing Chapter I Introduction ..............................................................................................................05 1.1 Traditional Marketing……………………………………………………………..…06 1.1.1 Traditional Marketing Definitions………………………………….………..06 1.1.2 The Nine Functions Of Marketing………………………………….…….......06 1.2 Digital Marketing…………………………………………………………….……….07 1.2.1 Digital Marketing Definitions …………………………….………………….07 1.2.2 What Means Digital Marketing?.......................................................................08 1.2.3 Understanding Digital Marketing …………………………….………………09 1.3 Marketing 3.0…………………………………………………………………………10 1.3.1 Why Marketing 3.0……………………………………………….……….......10 1.3.2 The Age Of Participation And Collaborative Marketing……………………..11 1.3.3 Marketing 3.0: Collaborative, Cultural, And Spiritual………….…………….12 1.3.4 Digital Marketing Trends………………………………………….……….....12 1.4 Marketing 4.0…………………………………………………………………………14 1.4.1 Marketing 4.0 Definitions…………………………………………………….14 1.4.2 From Segmentation And Targeting To Customer Community Confirmation…….…15 1.4.3 The Technology Behind Digital Marketing…………………………………..16 1.4.4 From Brand Positioning And Differentiation To Brand Clarification Of Characters And Codes………………………………………………………...17 1.4.5 From Selling The Four P's To Commercializing The Four C's………….……18 1.4.6 From Customer Service Processes To Collaborative Customer Care….……..20 1.5 Traditional Marketing Vs. Digital Marketing ………………………………….…….21 1.6 How Do Digital Marketing And Traditional Marketing Fit Together?........................23 1.7 Skill Sets Differ Between Digital Marketing And Traditional Marketing……………24 Chapter I Conclusion ………………………….……………………………………………25 Chapter II – Google … Think With Google Chapter II Introduction ……………………………………………….………………………27 2.1 Google Introduction…………………………………………………………………..28 2.1.1 The Google Story …………………………………………………………….28 2.1.2 Managing Talent………………………………………………………………31 2.1.3 Revenue Model…………………………………………….………………….31 2.1.4 Google Founders……………………………………………………………...33
  6. 6. 2.2 Google Culture………………………………………………………………………..34 2.2.1 Google, The Company Culture………………………….…………………….34 2.2.2 Google, A Culture Of Innovation………………….………………………….35 2.3 Google, Billions Per Click!..........................................................................................37 2.3.1 Costs Vs. Benefits…………………………………………………………….38 2.4 Why You Should Work At Google…………………………………………………..40 2.5 Google, The Products And The Services…………………………………………….42 2.5.1 Google Products………………………………………………………………42 2.5.2 Goolge Services……………………………………………………………….45 2.6 Google … The Future……………………………...…………………………………50 2.6.1 Google Three Technology Trends For Local Marketing……………...……...50 2.6.2 The Internet Of Things Demands An Integrated Marketing Strategy…….…..50 2.6.3 Mobile Means It’s Time To Think Local……………………………………..51 2.6.4 One Quick Win Local Businesses Can Have In Mobile Marketing?................51 2.6.5 Personalization Means Increased Capabilities For Targeting…………...……52 Chapter II Conclusion………………………………...…………………………………….. 53 Chapter III – Business Growth Featuring Digital Chapter III Introduction………………………………………………………………….55 3.1 What Means Business Growth?....................................................................................56 3.1.1 The Definitions………………………………………………………………..56 3.2 Young Companies In The Economy………………………………………………….58 3.2.1 A Life Cycle View Of Young Companies……………………………………59 3.2.2 Characteristics Of Young Companies…………………….…………………..60 3.3 Digital Business Definition……………………………………….…………………..61 3.3.1 The Truth About Digital Business ………………………………..…………..61 3.3.2 Digital Business Is The Goal………………………………..………………...62 3.4 A Digital Business Strategy Provides A Guide For Growth…………..……………...62 3.5 The Five Stages Of Small Business Growth…………………………..……………...65 3.5.1 Developing A Small Business Framework……………………...…………….66 3.5.2 Key Management Factors…………………………………..…………………76 3.5.3 Varying Demands…………………………………………..…………………77 3.5.4 Avoiding Future Problems………………………………….………………...79 3.5.5 Applying The Model………………………………….………………………80 Chapter III Conclution………………………………………………..………………………83 Chapter IV - Empirical Study 4.1. DZDROID Introduction…………………………………………..…………………..85 4.1.1. Dzdroid Startup………………………………………….……………………85 4.1.2. Startup Services………………………………………….……………………86 4.1.3. Creating Online Presence……………………………………….…………….87 4.1.4. The Online Presence and Growth at Dzdroid………………..………………..89
  7. 7. 4.1.5. Google Search Console (SEO)…………………………….………………….91 4.1.6. Key Learning…………………………………….……………………………95 4.1.7. Outcome measures………………………………….…………………………96 4.1.8. Recommendation……………………………….……………………………..98 4.2. Study design and methodology.………………………………………………………99 4.2.1. Conceptual model and hypothesis recall……………………………………...99 4.3. Operationnalisation of the study..……………………………………. …………….100 4.3.1. Description of the questionnaire………….………………….………………100 4.3.2. Sampling……………………….…………………………….………………101 4.3.3. The data collection………………………………….……………………….101 4.4. Quantitative research………………………………………………….……………..101 4.4.1. Quantitative research methodology………………………….………………102 4.4.2. Methods to conduct quantitative research……………….…………………..103 4.4.3. The Process of Research……………………………….…………………….104 4.5. Definition of Structural Equation Modeling………………………………………...105 4.5.1. SEM vs. Other Approaches………………………………………………….106 4.5.2. Partial Least Squares (PLS) method……………………………….………..107 4.6. Result of the research…………………………………………………...…………...109 4.6.1. The choice of the method of analysis……………………………...………...109 4.7. Descriptive analysis of data………………………………………………………….110 Conclusion……………………………………..……………………………………………119 General conclusion….………………………………...……………………………………..121 Bibliography Annexes
  8. 8. List Of Tables N° Title Page 01 Comparison of Marketing 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and Marketing 4.0 12 02 Overview 86 03 Statistical processing of data 109 04 Profile of the respondents 112 05 Measures of convergent validity 113 06 Reliability of measurements (CR and AVE) 114 07 Discriminatory validity √AVE > Cor 115 08 Results summary 118
  9. 9. List Of Figures N° Title Page 01 Three Changes that Lead to Marketing 3.0 13 02 From customer service processes to collaborative customer care 21 03 TOP 100 Most Valuable Global Brand 2009 40 04 dominates in both the (a) U.S. search market and the (b) international search 43 05 Digital business value tree 65 06 Growth Phases (source : hbr.org) 67 07 Growth Phases 2 (source : hbr.org( 68 08 Growth Phases Line Graph (source: hbr.org) 68 09 Characteristics of small business at each stage of development (source: hbr.org) 69 10 Evolution fo small companies (source: hbr.org) 70 11 Management factors and the stages (Source: hbr.org) 77 12 dzdroid website 89 13 dzdroid website 90 14 dzdroid website 91 15 dzdroid website 92 16 Google search engine website 93 17 Google maps website 95 18 dzdroid website 96 19 dzdroid website 97 20 Conceptual Model 99
  10. 10. 21 Description of Quantitative Method 102 22 The Process of Research 104 23 The basic model for PLS PM processing 110 24 Goolge marketing products & services users 110 25 Google’s most used products 111 26 Measurement model and structural after the application of the PLS algorithm 116 27 Measurement model and structural after the Boostrap method 117
  11. 11. General Introduction
  12. 12. General Introduction I General introduction : Today, in the age of globalization, competition between companies is intensifying. Without a strong and positive reputation, no company can be competitive in a sustainable way, as the image of a company is a decisive factor in its competitiveness without costs and its attractiveness. Hence companies need to redouble their efforts to have a good image that attracts more consumers and customers or even talents as well as attention and media respect. And here is the importance of SEO that allows companies to value themselves on the web from where they would have more visibility. The need to keep its place at the top of the Internet search has prompted several companies to adopt Google's services and products.Everybody knows google as a search engine, means if you to know information about any subject you will automatically ask google, you want to search for the best places to travel on a holiday, google knows best and there are many weird things you will find it there for example, you’re late , and you want to eat something faster just write it on google and he will give you the solution that you want. Also in business google can help you on your business he will give you the best strategies to make your business successful, like using google business products and services as Gmail and others. Problématic and research question : Businesses, therefore, need genuine solutions to guarantee their competitiveness and reputation: is this answer is Google, Google adapted to their needs. Faced with this reality, Google's strategies can be defined as a means of positioning a company whose objective is to differentiate itself and position itself to its advantage. This reasoning opens a path towards a problematic that allows us to point out a problem that we formulate under the following question : « is there an impact of google as a marketing tool on business growth? » This leads us to raise other issues : How can use google on business growth ? how to reach more users, and build brand, also improve visibility? what are the tools for the best practices?
  13. 13. General Introduction II The hypotheses : H1 : There is an impact of entrepreneurial orientation on brand image H2 : There is an impact of entrepreneurial orientation on brand performance H3 : There is an impact of entrepreneurial orientation on business growth H4 : There is an impact of entrepreneurial orientation on google marketing products and services adoption H5 : There is an impact of google marketing products and services adoption on business growth H6 : google marketing products and services adoption on brand performance The objectives of the study : In this thesis we are directed by three objectives which are: 1. First, let's develop a theoretical framework revolves around digital marketing, google and business growth. 2. we will try to test if google influences business growth. 3. we will try to measure and examine entrepreneurship orientation, Google marketing tools adoption, brand image, brand performance and business growth The importance of the study : The importance of our research comes down to the fact that google is And that the results of the study will make it possible to Knowledge about the perception of Algerian companies vis-à-vis google, can qualify our thesis as a basis for future work. Research methodology : To collect as much information as possible about our theme, we had to combine two research techniques, including documentary research and internet research; we had to search the library of our faculty and the central library which allowed us to lay the foundations for our work. Our thesis will be divided into four complementary chapters, the first three of which chapters will be devoted to the theoretical framework and the final chapter for empirical
  14. 14. General Introduction III analysis. First, in the first chapter, we will ask about digital marketing and the importance attributed to it, the interest of this chapter is both to understand what digital marketing and develop a logic of interpretation of influences that it may have. Then the second chapter will be devoted to the presentation of google’s defining precisely what this terminology covers, as well as tracing its history. then, we will deal with the aspects of business growth. And finally the fourth chapter will focus on the context in which we formulated our research problem, in order to achieve our goals.
  15. 15. Chapter I Knock the door…Digital Marketing
  16. 16. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 5 Chapter I introduction : In the first chapter we are going to talk about digital marketing, and its evolution from 3.0 to 4.0 and when we said marketing 3.0 it’s the same meaning of digital marketing but first we can’t talk about it without a little introduction about the traditional marketing, and the marketing 4.0 is the new trend of marketing its appeared in the last two years to link between marketing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 so we can say that the marketing 4.0 is a hybrid chapter in the marketing but we can’t use it in the practical side until 2020.
  17. 17. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 6 1.1. Traditional marketing 1.1.1. Traditional marketing definitions : 1. According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. Marketing is NOT sales or advertising. Its much broader than that. Sales and advertising are simply aspects of overall marketing.1 2. There are many facets of traditional marketing and examples might include tangible items such as business cards, print ads in newspapers or magazines. It can also include posters, commercials on TV and radio, billboards and brochures. Traditional marketing is anything except digital means to brand your product or logo. Another overlooked means of traditional marketing is when people find a particular business through a referral or a network and eventually you build a rapport with them.2 3. Marketing is defined as the process of determining the needs and wants of consumers and being able to deliver products that satisfy those needs and wants. Marketing includes all of the activities necessary to move a product from the producer to the consumer. Think of marketing as a bridge from the producer to the consumer. Marketing starts with market research, a learning process in which marketers get to know everything they can about the needs and wants of consumers, and it ends when somebody buys something. Many companies feel that services provided to customers after the purchase. Also, are important parts of marketing. All of these enterprises -- production, advertising, transportation, processing, packaging, and selling -- are included in the marketing process. 1.1.2. The nine functions of marketing: In order for the marketing bridge to work correctly providing consumers with opportunities to purchase the products and services they need the marketing process must accomplish nine important functions. 1 Definition of Marketing. (n.d.). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from https://www.ama.org/aboutama/pages/definition-of-marketing.aspx 2 Traditional Marketing versus Digital Marketing. (n.d.). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://digital-marketing- strategy.weebly.com/digital-marketing.html
  18. 18. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 7 The functions are: 1. Buying: people have the the opportunity to buy products that they want. 2. Selling: producers function within a free market to sell products to consumers. 3. Financing: banks and other financial institutions provide money for the production and marketing of products. 4. Storage: products must be stored and protect ed until they are needed. This function is especially important for perishable products such as fruits and vegetables. 5. Transportation -products must be physically relocated to the locations where consumers can buy them. This is a very important function. Transportation includes rail road, ship, airplane, truck, and telecommunications for non-tangible products such as market information. 6. Processing: processing involves turning a raw product, like wheat, into something theconsumer can use -- for example, bread. 7. Risk-Taking: insurance companies provide coverage to protect producers and marketers from loss due to fire, theft, or natural disasters. 8. Market Information: information from around the world about market conditions, weather, price movements, and political changes, can affect the marketing process. Market information is provided by all forms of telecommunication, such as television, The internet, and phone. 9. Grading and Standardizing: Many products are graded in order to conform to previously determined standards of quality. For example, when you purchase US No. 1 Potatoes, you know you are buying the best potatoes on the market. 1.2. Digital marketing 1.2.1. Digital marketing definitions : 1. The promotion of products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media. For example, advertising mediums that might be used as part of the digital marketing strategy of a business could include promotional efforts made via the Internet, social media, mobile phones and electronic billboards, as well as via digital and television and radio channels.3 3 What comes after those ellipses? (n.d.). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/digital-marketing.html
  19. 19. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 8 2. The practice of promoting products and services in an innovative way, using primarily database-driven distribution channels to reach consumers and customers in a timely, relevant personal and cost-effective manner is known in the theory and practice as digital marketing.4 The marketing of products or services using digital channels to reach consumers. The key objective is to promote brands through various forms of digital media. 5 3. Digital marketing includes a raft of Internet marketing techniques, such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM) and link building. It also extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as short messaging service (SMS), multimedia messaging service (MMS), callback and on-hold mobile ring tones, e–books, optical disks and games. 1.2.2. What means Digital Marketing? What first come out of your mind when you see or hear the word ‘Digital’? You may say: digital camera, digital television or you may think digital means something with electricity and internet. Well, they are “digital”, literally, but what does it means when comes to digital marketing? In order to figure out the definition clearly, both definitions have to be explained and then we can combine them together. Digital means something that can be sensed, targeted, understood, quantified, by monitoring, collecting, filtering, processing and utilizing digits / data interactively.6 Marketing is a process that firms and consumers exchange value with each other. So, when we combine them, digital marketing seems to be clear: in simplistic terms, it is the promotion of products or bands via different forms of digital tools or channels. Generally, common definition of digital marketing is mostly about revolution of mechanism or technical method of marketing, many marketing / advertising guys consider digital marketing just as an online method of promotion, such as launching an interactive H5 on social media platform, in order to precisely approach their target audience. Technically, they definitely narrow the range and weaken the power of digital marketing. From a wider point of view, I would like to define it as a revolution of marketing philosophy and marketing concepts. 4 R. D. (2016). Blending traditional and digital marketing . 1-6. Retrieved May 09, 2017. 5 Lexicon. (n.d.). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=digital-marketing 6 R. S. (2014). EMarketing: The essential (5th ed.). Quirk eMarketing (Pty) Ltd p18
  20. 20. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 9 Digital marketing is the revolution of traditional marketing mix (4Ps) and it comes into being when digital tools start to integrate with marketing philosophies and methodologies. Totally, digital marketing has two main influence on marketing, which differentiates the innovative and traditional methodology. First, digital marketing change the power and position of firms and consumers in the market, before the digital marketing, marketing strategies are mostly in the direction from firms’ products to consumers, firms start from their products. Now, digital marketing makes the interactive process become possible, single direction becomes double direction. Information asymmetry is weaken. For the first time, consumers gain the right to know much clearer about the company’s products, sales channels, advertising and promotions in a digital way. Consumers become powerful in the market and can even influence the firm. Some related concepts emerges such as word-of-mouth management and MOT (moment of truth), they reflect that customers have become the real ‘King’. Second, digital marketing can generate data, which can be used to detect consumers’ behaviour and even forecast their future behaviour. It makes CRM (customer relationship management) become possible and increase the efficiency of it. Customer-oriented marketing is the future, which is a win-win situation. It is able to rebuild the relationship between company product, customers and even non-customers. Companies need to foster a group of allies rather than just customers. If they could collect, filter, editing, analyzing and using the data generated from all digital platforms and tools, higher efficiency and lower cost will be.7 Following is a simple illustration of customer-oriented digital marketing structure. 1.2.3. Understanding Digital Marketing : Century, adverts began to appear in early newspapers in England and then spread across the globe. The first form of mass media advertising was born. The 18th and 19th centuries saw a further expansion in newspaper advertising, and alongside it the birth of mail-order advertising – which would evolve into the massive direct- mail and direct-response industry we know and love today. It also saw the establishment of the first advertising agency, set up in Boston in 1843 by the pioneering Volney Palmer. Initially ad agencies acted as simple brokers for newspaper space, but before long they developed into full-service operations, offering a suite of creative and ad-placement services to their clients. The 20th century saw the dawn of another new advertising age, with the advent of radio offering a completely new medium through which advertisers could reach out to prospective 7 Ibid, p19.
  21. 21. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 10 clients. Then came television, which shifted the advertising landscape yet again, and towards the end of the century a new force – the internet – began moving out of the realm of ‘techies’ and early adopters to become a valuable business and communication tool for the masses. The era of digital marketing was born. Technological advances have punctuated the evolution of advertising throughout history, each fundamentally altering the way businesses could communicate with their customers. Interestingly, however, none of these ground-breaking developments superseded those that came before. Rather they served to augment them, offering marketers more diversity, allowing them to connect with a broader cross-section of consumers. In today’s sophisticated age of paid search placement, keyword-targeted payper- click advertising and social networking, you’ll still find the earliest forms of advertising alive and well. Stroll through any market practically anywhere in the world – from the food markets of central London to the bazaars of North Africa, to the street markets of India – and you’ll be greeted by a cacophony of noise as vendors use their voices to vie for the attention of passing customers. The human voice, the first marketing medium in history, is still going strong in the digital age. 1.3. Marketing 3.0 1.3.1. Why marketing 3.0? Over the years, marketing has evolved through three stages that we call Marketing 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Many of today’s mar-keters still practice Marketing 1.0, some practice Marketing 2.0, and a few are moving into Marketing 3.0. The greatest opportunities will come to marketers practicing 3.0. Long ago, during the industrial age—when the core tech-nology was industrial machinery—marketing was about sell-ing the factory’s output of products to all who would buy them. The products were fairly basic and were designed to serve a mass market. The goal was to standardize and scale up to bring about the lowest possible costs of production so that these goods could be priced lower and made more afford-able to more buyers. Henry Ford’s Model T automobile epito-mized this strategy; said Ford: “Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black.” This was Marketing 1.0 or the product- centric era. Marketing 2.0 came out in today’s information age—where the core is information technology. The job of marketing is no longer that simple. Today’s consumers are well informed and can easily compare several similar product offerings. The product value is defined by the consumer. Consumers dif-fer greatly in their preferences. The marketer must segment the market and develop a superior product for a specific tar-get market. The golden rule of “customer is king” works well for most companies. Consumers are better off because their needs and wants are well addressed. They can choose from a wide range of functional
  22. 22. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 11 characteristics and alternatives. To-day’s marketers try to touch the consumer’s mind and heart. Unfortunately, the consumer-centric approach implicitly as-sumes the view that consumers are passive targets of mar-keting campaigns. This is the view in Marketing 2.0 or the customer-oriented era.8 Now, we are witnessing the rise of Marketing 3.0 or the values-driven era. Instead of treating people simply as con-sumers, marketers approach them as whole human beings with minds, hearts, and spirits. Increasingly, consumers are looking for solutions to their anxieties about making the glob-alized world a better place. In a world full of confusion, they search for companies that address their deepest needs for so-cial, economic, and environmental justice in their mission, vision, and values. They look for not only functional and emo-tional fulfillment but also human spirit fulfillment in the prod-ucts and services they choose. Like consumer-oriented Marketing 2.0, Marketing 3.0 also aims to satisfy the consumer. However, companies practicing Marketing 3.0 have bigger missions, visions, and values to contribute to the world; they aim to provide solutions to ad-dress problems in the society. Marketing 3.0 lifts the concept of marketing into the arena of human aspirations, values, and spirit. Marketing 3.0 believes that consumers are complete human beings whose other needs and hopes should never be neglected. Therefore, Marketing 3.0 complements emotional marketing with human spirit marketing. In times of global economic crisis, Marketing 3.0 gains more relevance to the lives of the consumers as they are im-pacted more by rapid social, economic, and environmental change and turbulence. Diseases become pandemics, poverty increases, and environmental destruction is under way. Com-panies practicing Marketing 3.0 provide answers and hope to people confronting such issues and, therefore, touch con-sumers at a higher level. In Marketing 3.0, companies differ-entiate themselves by their values. In turbulent times, this differentiation is arguably a strong one.9 But now there is a new born in marketing, thats what we call it (Marketing 4.0) and we will make comparison between this four marketing chapters, and we will talk about it later. Table 01 summarizes the comparison of Marketing 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 from comprehensive viewpoints. To understand Marketing 3.0 better, let us examine the rise of three major forces that shape the business landscape toward Marketing 3.0: the age of participation, the age of glob- alization paradox, and the age of creative society. Observe how these three major forces transform consumers to be more col-laborative, cultural, and human spirit-driven. Understanding this transformation will lead to a better understanding of Mar-keting 3.0 as a nexus of collaborative, cultural, and spiritual marketing. 8 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2010). Marketing 3.0: From products to customers to the human spirit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wieley & Sons P.29 9 Ibid P.30
  23. 23. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 12 1.3.2. The age of participation and collaborative marketing Technological advances have brought about huge changes in consumers, markets, and marketing over the past century. Marketing 1.0 was initiated by production technology devel- opment during the Industrial Revolution. Marketing 2.0 came into being as a result of information technology and the Inter-net. Now, new wave technology becomes the major driver for the birth of Marketing 3.0.10 Since early 2000, information technology has penetrated the mainstream market and further developed into what is considered the new wave technology. New wave technology is technology that enables connectivity and interactivity of individuals and groups. New wave technology consists of three major forces: cheap computers and mobile phones, low-cost Internet, and open source.1 The technology allows in-dividuals to express themselves and collaborate with others. The emergence of new wave technology marks the era that Marketing 1.0 Marketing 2.0 Marketing 3.0 Marketing 4.0 Orientation product clients values collaboration Use functional Functional- emotional Emotional social driver industrialization I.T new media Networking Instruments Mass marketing Direct marketing One-to-one hybrid Objectives Advertising of products recruit clients being found Engaging customers Table 1 Comparison of Marketing 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and Marketing 4.011 Translated by Kada Benchiha Mohamed Amine 10 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2010). Marketing 3.0: From products to customers to the human spirit. Hoboken, NJ: John Wieley & Sons P51 11 WMC | Wendeler Marketing Consulting | Wittgensteinstrasse 18 50931 Köln, Deutschland | http://wemarcon.de. (n.d.). Marketing 4.0. Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://wemarcon.de/de/leistungen/workshops/workshop-marketing-40/
  24. 24. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 13 1.3.3. Marketing 3.0: collaborative, cultural, and spiritual The era of Marketing 3.0 is the era where marketing practices are very much influenced by changes in consumer behavior and attitude. It is the more sophisticated form of the consumer-centric era where the consumer demands more collaborative, cultural, and spiritual marketing approaches. (See Figure 1.) Figure 1 Three Changes that Lead to Marketing 3.0 1.3.4. Digital Marketing Trends: 12 Organizations are implementing a wide range of digital channels so as to engage customers in a more personalized way, Digital marketing trends that organizations are rapidly embracing include:  Mobility: Business Insider's recent report indicates that globally, one in every five people owns a smart phone, and one in every 17 owns a tablet. That's an increase of nearly 1.3 billion smartphones in last four years, therefore an increased user base accessing the internet via smartphones has prompted many companies to optimize their online content for mobile devices. 12 Integrated digital marketing: the key to understanding our customer P.33
  25. 25. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 14  Social media: Organizations are focusing on engaging with customers through social media to offer real-time interactions. Social media helps organizations reach out to a vast pool of potential customers by supplying them with medical and campaign-related information.13 Social-Local-Mobile marketing–The growing popularity of smart mobile devices, increasing location based social activities like experience sharing, review reading via social media and the evolution of Global Positioning System (GPS) are helping companies leverage Social-Local-Mobile marketing activities.  Personalized Content marketing: Customer engagement, acquisition and retention have all taken on a new dimension with the delivery of unique, personalized, and relevant messages through identified digital channels. Email is one of the most preferred marketing channel to broadcast targeted organization messages and campaigns to existing and prospective customers.  Advanced analytics: Increased adoption of digital channels is generating large volumes of customer behavioral data. Advanced actionable analytics can help organizations define targeted marketing strategies.14  Search engine marketing (sem) / search engine optimization (seo): Organizations are focusing on SEO efforts and paid search advertising for enhancing the visibility of their products and services. 1.4. Marketing 4.0 1.4.1. Marketing 4.0 definitions : 1. Marketing 4.0 is localized virtual marketing. The goal is to engage the consumer with virtual goods to get their opinion on products before they are ready for market. But at the same time to get the consumer attention in their one little virtual world.15 2. Marketing 4.0, the era of the hybrid network, began around 2010. At the center of people and their needs, concerns and values. However, these are now satisfied with hybrid marketing as a combination of traditional methods and new digital instruments.16 13 s. C. (2015). Concept and prospect of digital marketiing . Ijbarr, 90. Retrieved may 9, 2017 P.39 14 Ibid P.41. 15 M. (1970, January 01). Jack's Opinion. Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://www.new-kid-on-the- blog.com/2010/09/marketing-40.html 16 Du web 1.0 au web 4.0: l'évolution du web depuis 1990. (2017, January 23). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from https://c-marketing.eu/du-web-1-0-au-web-4-0
  26. 26. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 15 3. Marketing 4.0 is a marketing approach that combines online and offline interaction between companies and customers. In the digital economy, digital interaction alone is not sufficient. In fact, in an increasingly online world, offline touch represents a strong differentiation. Marketing 4.0 also blends style with substance. While it is imperative for brands to be more flexible and adaptive due to rapid technological trends, their authentic characters are more important than ever. In an increasingly transparent world, authenticity is the most valuable asset. Finally, Marketing 4.0 leverages machine-to-machine connectivity and artificial intelligence to improve marketing productivity while leveraging human-to-human connectivity to strengthen customer engagement.17 1.4.2. From Segmentation and Targeting to Customer Community Confirmation Traditionally, marketing always starts with segmentation—a practice of dividing the market into homogenous groups based on their geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral profiles. Segmentation is typically followed by targeting—a practice of selecting one or more segments that a brand is committed to pursue based on their attractiveness and fit with the brand. Segmentation and targeting are both fundamental aspects of a brand's strategy. They allow for efficient resource allocation and sharper positioning. They also help marketers to serve multiple segments, each with differentiated offerings. However, segmentation and targeting also exemplify the vertical relationship between a brand and its customers, analogous to hunter and prey. Segmentation and targeting are unilateral decisions made by marketers without the consent of their customers. Marketers determine the variables that define the segments. The involvement of customers is limited to their inputs in market research, which usually precede segmentation and targeting exercises. Being “targets,” customers often feel intruded upon and annoyed by irrelevant messages aimed toward them. Many consider one-way messages from brands to be spam. In the digital economy, customers are socially connected with one another in horizontal webs of communities. Today, communities are the new segments. Unlike segments, communities are naturally formed by customers within the boundaries that they themselves define. Customer communities are immune to spamming and irrelevant advertising. In fact, they will reject a company's attempt to force its way into these webs of relationship.18 17 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: moving from traditional to digital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 81 18 Ibid. P82
  27. 27. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 16 To effectively engage with a community of customers, brands must ask for permission. Permission marketing, introduced by Seth Godin, revolves around this idea of asking for customers' consent prior to delivering marketing messages. However, when asking for permission, brands must act as friends with sincere desires to help, not hunters with bait. Similar to the mechanism on Facebook, customers will have the decision to either “confirm” or “ignore” the friend requests. This demonstrates the horizontal relationship between brands and customers. However, companies may continue to use segmentation, targeting, and positioning as long as it is made transparent to customers.19 1.4.3. The technology behind digital marketing : As we’ve already mentioned, developments in technology and the evolution of marketing are inextricably intertwined. Technology has Going digital underpinned major milestones in the history of marketing since its inception. The process tends to go something like this :  New technology emerges and is initially the preserve of technologists and early adopters.  The technology gains a firmer foothold in the market and starts to become more popular, putting it on the marketing radar.  Innovative marketers jump in to explore ways they can harness the power of this emerging technology to connect with their target audience.  The technology migrates to the mainstream and is adopted into standard marketing practice. The printing press, radio, television and now the internet are all examples of major breakthroughs in technology that ultimately altered the relationships between marketers and consumers for ever, and did so on a global scale. But, of course, marketing isn’t about technology; it’s about people: technology is only interesting, from a marketing perspective, when it connects people with other people more effectively.20 There are plenty of examples of technology through the ages having a significant impact on various markets – technology that may seem obscure, even irrelevant today. Remember Muzak, the company that brought elevator music to the masses back in the 1930s? The technology for piping audio over power lines was patented in 1922 by retired major General George O Squier, and exclusive rights to the patent were bought by North American 19 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: moving from traditional to digital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. P 88 20 Ryan, D., & Jones, C. (2014). Understanding digital marketing: marketing strategies for engaging the digital generation. London: Kogan Page.
  28. 28. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 17 Company. In 1934, under the corporate umbrella of ‘Muzak’, they started piping music into Cleveland homes. Muzak seemed to have hit on a winning formula, but the advent of free commercial radio sounded the death knell for the company’s chosen route to market. With free music available on their shiny new wirelesses, households were no longer prepared to pay for the Muzak service. Undeterred the company focused its efforts on New York City businesses. As buildings in New York soared skywards, the lift or elevator became practically ubiquitous. Muzak had found its niche, and ‘elevator music’ was born. So what, you might think. It’s true that, compared to behemoths of contemporary media like radio, television and now the internet, elevator music is small potatoes. But back in its heyday this was cutting-edge stuff, and it reached a lot of people. Muzak had the power to sway opinions and influence markets, so much so that, for music artists of that era, having your track played on the Muzak network practically guaranteed a hit. The point is that technology has the ability to open up completely new markets and to radically shake up existing ones. The main stream adoption of digital technology – the internet, the software applications that run on it, and the devices that allow people to connect both to the network and to each other whenever, wherever and however they want to – promises to dwarf all that has come before it. It heralds the single most disruptive development in the history of marketing.21 1.4.4. From Brand Positioning and Differentiation to Brand Clarification of Characters and Codes Since the early twentieth century, long-established outbound methods and principles have underpinned successful marketing strategies. A strong understanding of the 4P’s and being able to evaluate your promotion mix are essential foundational skills, but as digital transformation continues to make an unavoidable impact, traditional techniques alone are no longer enough to sustain a marketing strategy, let alone the entire industry. In a traditional sense, a brand is a set of images—most often a name, a logo, and a tagline—that distinguishes a company's product or service offering from its competitors'. It also serves as a reservoir that stores all the value generated by the company's brand campaigns. In recent years, a brand has also become the representation of the overall customer experience that a company delivers to its customers. Therefore, a brand may 21 Ibid.
  29. 29. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 18 serve as a platform for a company's strategy since any activities that the company engages in will be associated with the brand. The concept of brand is closely linked with brand positioning. Since the 1980s, brand positioning has been recognized as the battle for the customer's mind. To establish strong equity, a brand must have a clear and consistent positioning as well as an authentic set of differentiations to support the positioning. Brand positioning is essentially a compelling promise that marketers convey to win the customers' minds and hearts. To exhibit true brand integrity and win customers' trust, marketers must fulfill this promise with a solid and concrete differentiation through its marketing mix. In the digital economy, customers are now facilitated and empowered to evaluate and even scrutinize any company's brand-positioning promise. With this transparency (due to the rise of social media) brands can no longer make false, unverifiable promises. Companies can position themselves as anything, but unless there is essentially a community-driven consensus the positioning amounts to nothing more than corporate posturing.22 Today, consistently communicating brand identity and positioning in a repetitive manner a key success factor in traditional marketing may no longer be enough. With disruptive technologies, shorter product life cycles, and rapidly changing trends, a brand must be dynamic enough to behave in certain ways in certain situations. What should remain consistent, however, are the brand characters and codes. The character is the brand's raison d'être, its authentic reason for being. When the core of the brand remains true to its roots, the outer imagery can be flexible. Think of it this way: by having countless logo adaptations Google calls them doodles MTV and Google remain solid yet flexible as brands. 1.4.5. From Selling The Four P's To Commercializing The Four c's The marketing mix is a classic tool to help plan what to offer and how to offer to the customers. Essentially, there are four P's: product, price, place, and promotion. Product is often developed based on customers' needs and wants, captured through market research. Companies control the majority of product decisions from conception to production. To establish a selling price for the product, companies use a combination of cost-based, competition-based, and customer value– based pricing methods. Customers' 22 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: moving from traditional to digital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  30. 30. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 19 willingness to pay, estimated in consumer value–based pricing, is the most important input that customers have in connection with pricing. Once companies decide what to offer (product and price), they need to decide how to offer (place and promotion). Companies need to determine where to distribute the product with the objective of making it conveniently available and accessible to customers. Companies also need to communicate the information about the product to the target audience through various methods such as advertising, public relations, and sales promotions. When the four P's of the marketing mix are optimally designed, and aligned, selling becomes less challenging as customers are attracted to the value propositions.23 In a connected world, the concept of marketing mix has evolved to accommodate more customer participation. Marketing mix (the four P's) should be redefined as the four C's (co-creation, currency, communal activation, and conversation). In the digital economy, co-creation is the new product development strategy. Through co-creation and involving customers early in the ideation stage, companies can improve the success rate of new product development. Co-creation also allows customers to customize and personalize products and services, thereby creating superior value propositions. The concept of pricing is also evolving in the digital era from standardized to dynamic pricing. Dynamic pricing—setting flexible prices based on market demand and capacity utilization—is not new in some industries such as hospitality and airlines. But advancement in technology has brought the practice to other industries. Online retailers, for instance, collect a massive amount of data, which allows them to perform big-data analytics and in turn to offer a unique pricing for each customer. With dynamic pricing, companies can optimize profitability by charging different customers differently based on historical purchase patterns, proximity to store locations, and other customer- profile aspects. In the digital economy, price is similar to currency, which fluctuates depending on market demand. The concept of channel is also changing. In the sharing economy, the most potent distribution concept is peer-to-peer distribution. Players such as Airbnb, Uber, Zipcar, and Lending Club are disrupting the hotel, taxi, auto rental, and banking industries, respectively. They provide customers easy access to the products and services not owned by them but by other customers. The rise of 3-D printing will spur this peer-to-peer distribution even more in the near future. Imagine customers wanting a product and in a matter of minutes receiving the product printed in front of them. In a connected world, 23 Ibid.
  31. 31. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 20 customers demand access to products and services almost instantly, which can only be served with their peers in close proximity. This is the essence of communal activation.24 The concept of promotion has also evolved in recent years. Traditionally, promotion has always been a one-sided affair, with companies sending messages to customers as audiences. Today, the proliferation of social media enables customers to respond to those messages. It also allows customers to converse about the messages with other customers. The rise of customer-rating systems such as TripAdvisor and Yelp provide a platform for customers to have conversations about and offer evaluations of brands they have interacted with. With a connected marketing mix (the four C's) companies have a high likelihood of surviving in the digital economy. However, the paradigm of selling needs to change as well. Traditionally, customers are passive objects of selling techniques. In a connected world, the idea is to have both sides actively obtain commercial value. With increased customer participation, companies are engaging customers in transparent commercialization. 1.4.6. From customer service processes to collaborative customer care Prior to purchase, customers are treated as targets. Once they decide to buy, they are considered kings in a traditional customer-service perspective. Shifting to the customer-care approach, companies view customers as equals. Instead of serving customers, a company demonstrates its genuine concern for the customer by listening, responding, and consistently following through on terms dictated by both the company and the customer. In traditional customer-service, personnel are responsible for performing specific roles and processes according to strict guidelines and standard operating procedures. This situation often puts service personnel in a dilemma over conflicting objectives. In a connected world, collaboration is the key to customer-care success. Collaboration happens when companies invite customers to participate in the process by using self- service facilities.25 24 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: moving from traditional to digital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 25 Ibid.
  32. 32. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 21 Figure 2 Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). moving from traditional to digital. 1.5. Traditional marketing vs. Digital marketing The differences between digital marketing and traditional marketing are obvious: one focuses on the web and the other focuses on media like print, television, radio, and direct mail. Both share similar goals. Digital and traditional marketing are used to attract qualified customers and build brand awareness in your market, and they work together to power marketing results. The right mix of digital and traditional marketing is better than the sum of its parts. Suppose your goal is to sell more of a certain type of mattress, appliance or furniture this month. You could start with a strategically placed television ad during a program watched by the demographic that might be interested in this type of product.26 In our spot, we would include a call to action that motivates viewers to visit our website to print a coupon or special offer. By combining digital and traditional marketing, we put the right ad in front of the right people and give them a reason to visit both our website and swing our doors. 26 Digital vs. Traditional Marketing: 5 Minute Guide for Retailers. (2016, July 25). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from https://www.netsertive.com/digital-vs-traditional-marketing-5-minute-guide-retailers/
  33. 33. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 22 Some businesses unfortunately think of digital and traditional marketing as being at odds with each other, when in fact they complement each other to meet our unique goals. If we are skeptical of digital marketing, there are some reasons to learn more about it and let it work with our traditional marketing to get the best possible results.  Digital Marketing Is Cost-Effective: Digital advertising is more cost-effective than advertising in traditional media like television, radio, print media and the Yellow Pages. A well-executed digital marketing strategy, for a reasonable monthly investment, gives our business the power to compete effectively against larger competitors, reach a larger audience of qualified customers, generate new revenue, and get the data that we need to accurately measure our return on investment (ROI).  Online is Measurable: It’s not easy to know how many people heard our radio spots or read our newspaper ad. But we can find out exactly how many times our digital marketing messages were displayed to local customers actively researching a purchase, how many times they were clicked, which web pages they visited after clicking, how long they looked around, and more. 27 This online marketing data makes it easy to measure our progress against real business goals, and allows us to quickly adapt our entire marketing strategy to take advantage of what’s working best. With digital marketing, we can also learn things like peak days and times for visits to our website, and see how many conversions occurred (a visitor took an action we specified) signaling an intent to purchase from our store.  Digital Is Terrific for Brand Development: A well-designed, regularly updated website with high quality content is one of the best local brand-building investments we can make. Today’s reality: even if we don’t sell online our business must be found online when a qualified local customer is researching a purchase. When our website adds value by giving our target audience the information and answers they seek through a blog or other posted information, we can generate more leads and build a sense of trust with our local website visitors. we’ll get maximum results when we couple a great website with a consistent monthly online marketing investment, strengthening our visibility with potential customers so they swing our doors and buy from us over the competition.  With Digital, the Potential for Exposure Is Tremendous: our online marketing campaign has the power to drive hand-crafted marketing messages on to the digital devices our local customers use everyday, including laptops, desktops, tablets and smartphones. Face it: when was the last time we heard of a printed sales flyer going viral 27 Ibid.
  34. 34. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 23 - spreading around our target market like wildfire? Digital marketing has the potential for reaching exponentially more customers than our traditional marketing. When our website content and digital ads appear on Google, bing and Yahoo, plus social networks like Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, etc. our message and brand can be seen by many more potential customers, stretching the effectiveness of our total marketing investment.  Digital Lets You Reach Qualified, Local Shoppers With the widespread exposure digital marketing produces, and the many ways we have to target digital marketing campaigns, we are more likely to reach people who are interested in our products, and less likely to annoy those who aren’t interested. Online we can target our marketing campaign to show marketing messages only to prospective customers who are ready to buy today, which is much harder to do with traditional marketing. Netsertive knows how to use digital marketing to attract in-market shoppers to our store. Our unique cloud-based Digital Marketing Engine automates localized online advertising and channel marketing programs, encompassing search, display, social, mobile, video and other platforms. 28 1.6. How do digital marketing and traditional marketing fit together? First of all, it’s not an either-or situation of digital marketing and traditional marketing. We CAN (and probably should) do both. Secondly, we shouldn’t do digital marketing like it was traditional marketing. They’re very different tools for communicating with our target audience. That said, digital marketing is more effective if we remember the concepts that made traditional marketing successful. We see folks — very reputable and successful folks — wasting time “rediscovering” concepts that traditional marketers knew for nearly 100 years. Consumers may have changed, but the underlying concepts are still valid because they’re based on human behavior. We still need to segment our marketing and develop ways of communicating that match our target market and what they value. We still need to provide value, which requires us understand the value system of our target market. We still use influence and persuasion — in fact, group influence and persuasion are much more embedded in digital marketing than traditional marketing that relies heavily on one to many communication. 28 Digital vs. Traditional Marketing: 5 Minute Guide for Retailers. (2016, July 25). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from https://www.netsertive.com/digital-vs-traditional-marketing-5-minute-guide-retailers/
  35. 35. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 24 We still need to understand our customers’ journeys and provide the right communication for each stage in the process. We still need strong branding that resonates with your target audience. 1.7. Skill sets differ between digital marketing and traditional marketing: Digital marketing and traditional marketing require a very different skill set. Traditional marketing is much more planning and strategy and less on implementation. That’s because an entire ecosystem evolved around traditional marketing. We have advertising agencies, PR firms, branding and image firms, promotional materials companies, guerrilla marketing firms, market research firms. That means marketers don’t require a lot of technical skills and can outsource a lot of the implementation. We not convinced outsourcing (even within the same firm) is a good idea — it can lead to disjointed efforts that don’t move the brand forward and close the deal and many of these outsourced folks don’t understand marketing. Digital marketing can use some of these same agencies and more outsourcing happens all the time, but digital marketers still need a more extensive skill set — especially when it comes to technical skills. Don’t confuse this statement with any endorsement of using technical folks, like developers, to handle our digital marketing — they just don’t have the marketing chops. By the same token, digital marketing involves storytelling, but while novelists and journalists might be effective for creating our content, they don’t understand marketing.29 29 Digital Marketing and Traditional Marketing: What's the Buzz. (n.d.). Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://www.business2community.com/digital-marketing/digital-marketing-and-traditional-marketing-whats-the- buzz-01263042#FiZAEkuQfb9eEweT.97
  36. 36. Chapter I Knock the door… Digital marketing 25 Chapter I conclusion : In the end of chapter, we talked about all kinds of digital marketing and we made the difference between all the kinds of marketing, we talked about the added values of the marketing 3.0 and 4.0 and how we can use it to develop the company and make it grow.
  37. 37. Chapter II Google, think with google
  38. 38. Chapter II Google, think with google 27 Chapter II introduction : we know google as a giant in the technology industry, it's more than a company, we can say that google is an empire with a huge number of transactions and when we said huge we talked about more than 368 billion dollars in 2016. and google revolution starts in 1997 with two genius Stanford students in a little room, and we will talk more about that in our google chapter.
  39. 39. Chapter II Google, think with google 28 2.1 Google’s Introduction The Google search engine has become so popular that it is now listed as a verb in the dictionary. The American Dialect Society members voted “Google” as the most used word of the year 2002. Co-founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while students at Stanford University, Google was incorporated as a privately held company in 1998 (Google, Google Milestones, 2009) and is a textbook example of modern ‘employee-centric’ policies and benefits. Google has come a long way from its modest beginnings as a university project called the Backrub to a billion-dollar company; but they have retained the collegiate vision of creative campus-like corporate environs and unparalleled employee perks and benefits throughout this phenomenal growth. The corporate headquarters of Google - Googleplex is located at Mountainview, California and has been a favorite download on YouTube displaying the cornucopia of hard- tobelieve fringe benefits the company boasts. Google currently has offices in 14 states and in 36 different countries worldwide, including Australia, India, China, Mexico, Denmark, Finland, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates Google has a wide variety of products and services like web search, image search, and product searches to blogs, online translations, document sharing and remains on the cutting edge of information technologies and services. Millward Brown Optimizer’s Brandz ranks the 100 most powerful brands in the world, and Google has been in the top ten since 2006 and has the position of the most valuable and powerful brand for the years 2007, 2008, until 2015.30 2.1.1 The Google Story Brin and Page had early exposure to computers thanks to their highly-educated parents, who were comfortable with computers and sophisticated mathematics. As the authors 30 R. K., & E. M. (2010). Google: searching for value. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics.
  40. 40. Chapter II Google, think with google 29 mention, “Scholarship was not just mentioned in their homes, it was treasured.” Education in Montessori schools and proximity of their homes to major universities played a crucial role in shaping the careers of Brin and Page. The two met in Stanford where they registered for a PhD. Encouraged by their advisor, Rajeev Motwani, a young 30 years old professor, the two became excited about finding ways to locate and extract information from large amounts of data. Locating something on the emerging disorganized Internet in the mid-1990s, was not easy. While studying Alta Vista, a popular search engine of the times, Page noticed that the search result included something called links. Page decided to dig into links and see how they might be used further. He had a hunch that the number of links pointing to a website was a way of ranking that popularity. But all links were not created equal. The sites with most links pointing to them were clearly the most important. This led to the concept of Page Rank. While other search engines relied on matching words in queries with words on web pages, Page Rank provided an extra dimension. It put search results in a logical order for users. When, the search engine was made available to students, faculty and administrators in Stanford, its clean uncluttered look received a lot of appreciation. As the database and number of users grew, Brin and Page needed new computers. With little cash with them, they bought parts, built their own machines and moved around the loading dock in Stanford, looking for unclaimed computers. The duo’s PhD advisors provided them $10,000 from the Stanford Digital libraries project. Page’s dorm room effectively became a data centre.31 The Google search engine took more factors into account than any other search engine on the market. It did not just count words or links and deliver results. It combined information about words and links with other variables in new and interesting ways that produced better search results. 31 Vise, D. A., & Malseed, M. (2006). The Google story. New York: Bantam Dell.
  41. 41. Chapter II Google, think with google 30 The search engine was sufficiently intelligent to realize that it did matter whether words or phrases on web pages were close together or far apart, what their font size was, whether they were capitalized or in lower case type. Google’s founders also realized that their search engine needed greater computing power than that of any other search engine then available. Both hardware and software were important and had to be carefully intertwined and optimized. Brin and Page focused on the right mathematical equations and multiple personal computers to create a modern assemble line to gather, index and present information. Page explained to a group the modus operandi, “We crawl the web which means we go out and download the entire web. We download roughly 100 pages per second. This is fairly complicated to do reliably. We actually store all the web pages we download because it is very good for research. We have the web on disks across the hall. It promises to be very useful to have research to have this around.” As they scaled up operations, funding became crucial. The first break for Brin and Page came when angel investor Andy Bechtolsheim wrote a cheque for $100,000 after making a remark: “This is the single best idea I have heard in years. I want to be part of this.” Brin and Page decided to take a leave of absence from the PhD program to focus on the business, full time. The $100,000 cheque signaled the credibility of the project. Thanks to contributions from close friends, the kitty swelled quickly to $ 1,000,000. 32 On June 7, 1999, less than one year after they took leave from Stanford, Brin and Page announced that two leading Silicon Valley venture capitalists, Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia capital had, as equal partners, together agreed to invest $25 million in Google. The founders had successfully structured the deal without giving away control and power. Gradually, the vision of Google crystallized. Brin and Page challenged the prevailing conventional wisdom that all purpose websites would be the preferred gateway to the Internet. As specialization increased, Google’s founders felt these sites would fail to meet particular or 32 Ibid.
  42. 42. Chapter II Google, think with google 31 specialized needs. The two were convinced that search was the most important long term problem to be addressed. They had complete clarity about becoming dominant in search, just at the time when others were abandoning it and calling it a commodity. 2.1.2 Managing talent: Page and Brin realized the need to attract talent. They sold Google to prospective recruits on the basis of cool technology, stock options, free snacks and drinks. The company’s vision of developing software that would make an impact on millions of people, was also very appealing. During the dotcom crash of 2000, Google went on a hiring spree even as other companies retrenched heavily. Google, found it had access to outstanding software engineers and mathematicians who suddenly found themselves unemployed, holding on to a pile of worthless stock options. Even as competitors struggled, Google moved to a larger headquarters in Mountain View. Google continued its efforts to maintain a congenial environment where talent could flourish. Employees enjoyed free meals, juices, snacks, on site laundry, hair styling dental and medical care, car wash, fitness facilities with personal trainers and even a professional masseuse. Buses in which employees commuted between home and office were equipped with wireless Internet access. This ensured that employees, worked on their way to office and reached office without tension/frustration.33 2.1.3 Revenue model By the end of 1999, Google was averaging 7 million searches per day but its revenues were small. Google depended mostly on licensing deals. Advertisements were a potential source of revenue but Page and Brin realized that ad funded search engines invariably became biased towards advertisers. They decided to follow a new revenue 4 model. While search results would remain free, Google would make money by selling unobtrusive, targeted advertising to businesses on the results pages. 33 Vise, D. A., & Malseed, M. (2006). The Google story. New York: Bantam Dell.
  43. 43. Chapter II Google, think with google 32 Google decided to maintain a clear distinction between search results and ads. The company also decided to keep the home page free of ads. To maintain a high quality of user experience, Google decided against any pop ups or graphics. The ads would be brief, look identical, just a headline, a link and a short description. Advertisers could sign up online themselves. Instead of displaying an ad from the vendor willing to pay the most, Google renewed its ads based on a formula that took into account both how much someone offered to pay and how frequently computer users clicked on the ad. In short, Google trusted users to rank the ads. Consumer pull rather than business push determined where ads appeared. Google’s popularity continued to expand due to word of mouth. It became available in various languages. Google persuaded other websites to add a Google search box. On June 26, 2000, Google signed an agreement with Yahoo to provide the portal with Google generated search results. This agreement significantly expanded Google’s presence on the web. In June 2000, Google announced it had become the world’s largest search engine with more than one billion pages in its index of websites. Performing 100 million searches per day, its activities continued to expand. One engineer found a way for searchers to find a phone number on Google by simple entering someone’s name and zip code into the search box.34 Another came with a way to take care of spelling errors. If a person typed in one of the words incorrectly, the search engine automatically asked, “Did you mean xxx?” Google also launched Image Search, a service that included millions of photographs and other graphics. This facility showed that the Google search model had major expansion opportunities. As the business expanded, for the first time in its history, Google earned an annual profit of $7 million. Google attained new financial heights in 2002. America online accepted Google as its search engine of choice on May 1. Winning the AOL business against Inktomi, which 34 Ibid.
  44. 44. Chapter II Google, think with google 33 provided search results, and Overture which provided search related ads had not been easy for Google. Google provided a large financial guarantee running to millions of dollars to swing the deal in its own favour. Here Brin and Page had their say and were more willing to take more risk than CEO Eric Schmidt. Google made money every time a computer user clicked on one of the ads it displayed. But instead of fixing in advance, the cost of running an ad, on Google and its affiliated sites, was determined in a nonstop online auction. Google operated a sophisticated 24 hour market place where thousands of words and phrases that people searched for everyday were bought and sold like goods and services. 5 In 2002, Google generated sales of $440 million and profits of $100 million. Virtually, all the profits were generated from people clicking ads on the right side of the search results pages and the pages of partners and affiliates. Google fully leveraged the “network” effect. The more computer users who clicked on the Google ads, the more money website owners made. The more money they made, the more other sites were willing and eager to add Google search and ad technology to their offerings. The bigger the network grew, the harder it became for everyone to challenge it. In short, Google rapidly emerged as the #1 destination for displaying ads online.35 2.1.4 Google Founders  Larry Page, Founder and CEO Mr. Page founded Google in 1998 as a Ph.D. student at Stanford University. Paige holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering from the University of Michigan, and a master’s degree in computer science from Stanford. Page served as CEO until 2001, and then acted as president of products from 2001 to 2011. In 2011, Page again became CEO and is in charge of all day to day operations, product development, and technological strategy.36 Mr. Sergey Brin is the Co-founder of Google. He earned his bachelor's degree at the University of Maryland, following in his father's and grandfather's footsteps by 35 Vise, D. A., & Malseed, M. (2006). The Google story. New York: Bantam Dell. 36 Sergey Brin. (2017, May 09). Retrieved May 10, 2017, from https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergey_Brin
  45. 45. Chapter II Google, think with google 34 studying mathematics, as well as computer science. After graduation, he moved to Stanford University to acquire a PhD in computer science. Brai served as Co-founder of Google and Google X director and President of Alphabet Inc.  Eric Schmidt, Executive Chairman Mr. Schmidt joined Google in 2001 as CEO. He holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University, and a master’s degree and Ph.D. in computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley. Prior to Google, Schmidt served as CEO of Novell and CEO of Sun Microsystems. Schmidt served as CEO from 2001 until 2011 when he took over the job of Executive Chairman. He is responsible for building partnerships, relationships, government outreach, and advising company leadership on business and strategic matters.37  Nikesh Arora, Senior VP and Chief Business Officer Mr. Arora joined Google in 2004. At Google, he has headed global direct sale operations, management European, Middle Eastern, and African operations, and now is in charge of the company’s business strategy. He holds a master’s degree from Boston College, MBA from Northeastern University, bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from India’s Institute of Technology, and the CFA designation.38 2.2 Google Culture 2.2.1 Google, The Company Culture Google is a high-energy, fast paced work environment. Google employees (called Googlers, in Google's jargon) work hard, yet have fun at the same time. The Mountain View, CA headquarter has a college campus-like environment where the virtues of creativity and innovation are extolled. Google uses its corporate servicescape and corporate culture and and climate to create an informal ‘value-added’ environment. 37 Google Inc. (2012). University of Oregon investment group . Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://uoinvestmentgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Google.pdf 38 Ibid.
  46. 46. Chapter II Google, think with google 35 In Googelplex People’s workspaces are full of individuality, and the atmosphere is relaxed. There is neither dress code nor formal daily meetings (Lashinsky, 2007a). Googlers can play beach volleyball, foosball, videogames, pool tables, table tennis, or even roller hockey on the campus, which makes this young population feel like they are still at a college campus rather than being in an office. Google instills in its employees the credo that it isn’t about the money- rather that theirs is a lifestyle that breeds innovative superiority over the competition. They portray themselves as a company that works towards changing the world through teamwork and creative involvement. Employees feel proud to be part of such a venture and they take immense pleasure in being a part of the brand. Co-founder Sergey Brin says that the fact that Google is fairly engineeringcentric has been misinterpreted to mean that somehow the other functions are less importantrather it is the innovative employee that is the bedrock of the culture.39 Employee Resource Groups (ERGs) provide valuable feedback on Google’s HR programs and policies. This program provides valuable opportunities to grow personally and develop professionally. It is also interesting to note that Google has many international communities that help them communicate across the organization, as well as Greyglers (Googlers over 40 years old) Googlers proudly say they work for the best company in the world and that they are a part of something important and believe the work they do is remarkably satisfying . Rather than describing their work as "coding" or "selling ads," they claim they are “organizing the world's information and making it universally accessible and useful” which is the company’s mission statement.40 2.2.2 Google, A culture of innovation Google software engineers spent at least 20% of their time working on whatever projects interested them. This helped Google to come up with breakthrough ideas. Google News enabled people to access news items effortlessly. 39 R. K., & E. M. (2010). Google: searching for value. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics. 40 Ibid.
  47. 47. Chapter II Google, think with google 36 Google Alerts was developed as an automatic way for people to track specific topics of interest by email. Alerts helped people to keep track of a particular company, issue, individual or a subject in the news. Another service, Froogle enabled people to locate items they wanted to purchase and collect information about comparative products and prices. Rhyming with Google, Froogle conveyed the keen desire of consumers to hunt for value. Page and Brin wanted to make a big splash with their email service Gmail. The founders realized it had to be radically better than the email services already on offer. They decided to give away one free gigabyte of storage on Google’s own network with each Gmail account. Gmail also enabled people to find emails instantly, without having to think about storing or sorting them. A Gmail search was as fast and accurate as Google search. Unlike the search engine, Gmail was designed to make money even during the test phase. Page and Brin hit upon the idea of putting small ads on the right side of Gmail that were contextually relevant, i.e., triggered by words contained in the emails. Initially, politicians and privacy groups attacked the company and its plans. Gradually, the uproar subsided. In October 2004, Google launched desktop search, a fast, free, easy way for people to find information of all kinds stored in their own computers as quickly as they could search the Internet. This innovation closed the gap between the accuracy and speed of search on the Internet and that on PCs. Google described Desktop as a “photographic memory for your computer.” Google Desktop embarrassed Microsoft by enabling millions of computer users to find misplaced files stored using Microsoft’s programs. There was also no need to store files into folders and directories. Google also launched a product Mini that could search up to 100,000 internal documents. Mini was meant for small and medium businesses.
  48. 48. Chapter II Google, think with google 37 Google also released satellite mapping and navigation services, ways for users to save personal search histories, Google Suggest was a way for the search engine to propose search topics. Google Scholar, a new product helped to locate scientific and academic articles. Google also released quick new ways for computer users to search for stock quotes, taxis and weather conditions. Google Earth enabled computer users to visually fly to any place on the earth with 3 D views along the way. Google also added a way to explore the surface of the moon through moon.google.com. 41 2.3 Google, Billions per click! Google generated billions of dollars annually from click based advertising. Ironically, click fraud remained the most significant threat to Google’s business model. Click fraud manifested itself in two ways; businesses clicking away on the text ads of competitors in order to raise their marketing costs or website publishers who were part of Google’s affiliate network repeatedly clicking on ads served to their own sites in order to pocket more revenue. Click fraud involved automated or manual clicks that did not generate business leads. It cost advertisers money and exposed a vulnerability in Google’s cost per click advertising model. Google continued its efforts to develop software that filtered out fraudulent clicks before advertisers got billed for them. But the market perception seemed to be that Google was less customer responsive than Yahoo in dealing with the problem. Also, with its bargaining power and dependence on these revenues, Google, in spite of having the data, did not seem to have the incentive to fight click fraud. Google’s selection of partners also came for criticism. The search engine allowed new websites to sign up in a few minutes online whereas Yahoo reviewed each new site manually. So, Google seemed to be lacking in necessary 41 Vise, D. A., & Malseed, M. (2006). The Google story. New York: Bantam Dell.
  49. 49. Chapter II Google, think with google 38 controls to prevent websites from signing up merely to generate ad revenue through self clicking. Many analysts worried that Google earned all of its money from a single source, i.e., Internet advertising tied to searches.42 2.3.1 Costs vs. Benefits: Google’s operating costs exceed $1.5 billion per quarter. Payroll-related benefits account for about 50% of revenue, which is very high compared to other firms in Google’s industry sector (Kafka, 2009). Food expenses alone exceed $63 million for just its US employees per year (Mergent Online 2009), which translates into $5,000 per year per employee per year. Google has been subsidizing employee childcare to the tune of $37,000 per child. Why do companies like Google spend so much money for these kinds of benefits? Every company has to measure the cost of benefits compared to the increase in productivity and efficiency of the organization. The goal is to have the best people in the right jobs and to have low turnover (Your People Professionals, n.d.). The assumption is that satisfied employees equates with satisfied customers and enhanced firm profitability and market share. Google has always correlated its success directly to employee satisfaction. Google has considered its employees their main asset and the employees have responded very well to this philosophy. Basic people management practices including selective hiring, employment security, reduction of status differences, benefits and compensation provide high performance have resulted in increased productivity, innovation and cost reduction; Google's benefits and corporate culture contribute to this success. Every year, Fortune Magazine reveals the “Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For” list. In preparing the list, the magazine relies on two criteria: the culture and the policies of each company and the opinions of the company's own employees. Employee responses 42 Ibid.
  50. 50. Chapter II Google, think with google 39 constitute the two-thirds of the total score, and the remaining one-third of the score comes from Fortune's evaluation of each company's benefits, compensation, and culture.43 Google took over the first place in Fortune’s “Best Companies to Work For” list from Genentech in 2007. Genentech is the only biotech company which has appeared on Fortune’s list for eleven consecutive years, but more important than that, Genentech is the company Google has chosen as their role model for culture building. Google topped the Fortune’s list in 2007 and 2008. In 2009, however, the company slipped to number four. Another way to measure the value employees give to the firm is their productivity rate, which can be translated into profit per employee. Google had $209,624 in profit per employee in 2008, beating all other large tech companies in the sector, including big hitters like Microsoft, Apple, Intel and IBM, and competitor Yahoo! (at $31K per employee). Brand value and equity is an extremely important virtue in today’s competitive world. The brand value of company represents its value in the market. Beyond building customer loyalty, successful brands have the power to enter the customer unconscious, weaving their way into the fabric of everyday life), becoming cultural and social icons.44 In 2008, Google had revenue of $21.8 billion primarily through advertising. Google was rated the number one brand in the world for 2009 (See Table) 43 R. K., & E. M. (2010). Google: searching for value. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics. 44 Ibid.
  51. 51. Chapter II Google, think with google 40 Figure 3 TOP 100 Most Valuable Global Brand 200945 2.4 Why you should work at Google? Google provides its employees a wide range of benefits to make sure that employees are satisfied and are loyal to the company. These benefits include:  Free Food (Gourmet Cafeterias & Snack Rooms). Google offers free gourmet meals to all its employees at any of the company's 11 gourmet cafeterias, at its Mountain View and New York campuses as well as satellite offices. The rule at Google is that no staff member should ever be further away than 100 feet from a source of food, so various snacks, fresh fruit and drinks are a stone’s throw away.  Onsite Childcare Facilities. Google offers child care service in its Mountain View campus and also back-up child care to help California parents when their regularly scheduled child care falls through.  Healthcare Services. Google provides 100% health care coverage for its employees and their family. In addition on-site physicians and dentists are available at Mountain View and Seattle campuses. 45 Optimer, M. P. (2009). Brandz top 100 most valuable global brands. Retrieved April 2017, from Millward Prime Optimer: http://www.millwardbrown.com/Sites/Optimor/Content/KnowledgeCenter/BrandzRanking.aspx
  52. 52. Chapter II Google, think with google 41  Transportation Services. Google operates free, Wi-Fi-enabled shuttle services to several San Francisco, East Bay, and South Bay locations.  Laundry & Dry Cleaning Services. Employees can do laundry for free in company washers and dryers and also drop off dry cleaning in the Mountain View campus.  Sport Facilities. Google Mountain View campus contains a swimming pool, beach volleyball court, a climbing wall, running trails. Employees can work out in the gym, attend subsidized exercise classes, and get a professional massage.  Pets Allowed. Google is very unique in its policy that allows employees to bring their pets to work on condition that pets are reasonably well behaved and house trained. However, the pet will have to be taken home upon the first complaint.46  20% Creative Time Program. Google encourages all of its engineers to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. This program not only makes engineers enjoy what they do and keeps them challenged, but also provides some good business opportunities for the company. Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense are Google services that were all started as individual projects.  Environmentalism. Google is very enthusiastic about environmental conservation and makes every effort to be as energy efficient as possible. Employees who buy hybrid or electric cars and who install solar panels in their homes.  Numerous Holidays and Leave Days. Googlers can get 25 leave days and 12 holiday days a year. New mothers get 18 weeks of paid maternity leave and new dads get 7 weeks of paternity leave.  Other Services. Google Mountain View campus also includes services such as hair dressing, car wash, and oil change. The company also offers its employees personal development opportunities like foreign language classes. 46 R. K., & E. M. (2010). Google: searching for value. Journal of Case Research in Business and Economics.
  53. 53. Chapter II Google, think with google 42  In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google has designated a Chief Culture Officer in 2006, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on in the beginning a flat startup organization with a collaborative environment. 2.5 Google, The products and the services: Now, the life it’s easy cause of google, if we want to search about what we must eat today, let’s google it, if we want to know the perfect plact to spend the holidays or the weekends, let ask Oncle Google, if we need to party tonight, Google knows best, everybody knows Google as a search engine but Google has thousends of products as apps, search engine, ect … But if we try to see how many products tha we use everyday in our daily life, at work, school, or home, maybe there is five until twenty products and services, as Google images, Goolge maps, Youtube, Bloger and more, so let’s checkout what is the fonctions of those products and what is those services and know the others that we can use it in marketing: 2.5.1 Google Products  Google’s Search Engine: Google’s search engine stemmed from a Stanford PhD project, “BackRub” in 1996, and 9 years later, is the leading internet search engine over others like Yahoo and MSN, answering over 35 percent of U.S. internet searches and over 65 percent of international internet searches.47 47 Alki, S. D., & Sonuyi, T. (2005). Get to Know Google… Because They Know You. Ethics and Law on the Electronic Frontier, 6.805. Retrieved May 09, 2017, from http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/student- papers/fall05-papers/google.pdf
  54. 54. Chapter II Google, think with google 43  Google Adsense Is a fast and easy wayfor website publishers of all sizes to display relevant Google ads on their website’s content pages. Google Adsense gives website publishers a way to monetize search and content pages by delivering ads related to the characteristics of the site. Ad formats include: text, image, flash, and click-to-play video.  Google Adwards Google Adwords Designed for advertisers who want to reach a qualified audience as efficiently as possible. With Google AdWords you can create ads, choose keywords for your audience, and pay only when someone clicks on them. Figure 4 dominates in both the (a) U.S. search market and the (b) international search
  55. 55. Chapter II Google, think with google 44 Google Adwards connects us with new customers at the precise moment when they’re looking for your products/services. The Google Network, through Google properties and our AdSense content partners, reaches more than 80 percent of Internet users.  Google Audio AdsTM By introducing technology advancements developed in the Internet space, Google Audio Ads brings simplicity, efficiency, and accountability to radio advertising. Google Audio AdsTM connects us with new customers at the precise moment when they’re looking for your products/services. The Google Network, through Google properties and our AdSense content partners, reaches more than 80 percent of Internet users. 48  Google Print AdsTM Google Print Ads is a new extension of Google AdWords that makes it easy for your clients to run ads in newspapers across the U.S. – whether they are buying space in one paper or a hundred. The process is simple: your clients select the newspapers, enter a bid for available ad space, and upload their ads. Google Print Ads isn’t auction-based – instead, they suggest the price that works with their budget. Publishers will review their bids and either approve, decline, or negotiate their offers. After your clients’ ads run, they’ll see a copy of the newspaper page where their ad was published, and can safely pay for the placement –all in one interface.  GoogleTV AdsTM An end-to-end digital system for buying, selling, measuring, and delivering television ads. With Google TV Ads, your clients can boost brand awareness, drive incremental web traffic and increase revenue. Deliver better, more relevant ads to the viewers your clients care about. Our platform offers better measurement, more accountability and greater optimization which will enable your clients to advertise more efficiently and effectively. 48 G. (2017). Product Guide. Google Agency Product Guide. Retrieved May 09, 2017, from https://www.google.com/adwords/images/blog/AgencyProductGuide.pdf.
  56. 56. Chapter II Google, think with google 45 Using Google TV Ads, launch campaigns quickly and efficiently through our totally automated process. It’s easy – your clients simply send us their video ad, set their own budget and decide when and where they’d like their ads to air.49 2.5.2 Goolge Services  Google AnalyticsTM Free hosted web analytics service that enables website owners and marketers to better understand visitor behavior. Google Analytics is fully integrated into Google AdWords and is available to AdWords advertisers. This service is not limited to AdWords customers – any website owner can use Google Analytics for free. Google Analytics will help your clients better understand and influence visitor behavior, and generate a higher ROI on marketing initiatives  Google AppsTM Google Apps is a way for your clients to stay connected and work together more effectively. Gmail, Google Calendar and Google Talk can be used in their own custom domain, while Docs & Spreadsheets lets them share files and collaborate in real-time. It’s all hosted by Google, so there’s no hardware or software to install or download, and minimal setup and maintenance. You can get up and running quickly, even if you don’t have technical resources. Currently, no ads are being served on Google Apps.  BlogerTM Blogger is a place to collect and share things that you find interesting – whether it’s your political commentary, a personal diary, or links to websites you want to remember. 49 Ibid.
  57. 57. Chapter II Google, think with google 46 Google Blogger has a range of features that can help your clients communicate more effectively to interested parties. And, with the AdSense program, they can even earn revenue by blogging AdWords ads are available on Blogger sites.50  Google Product SearchTM Google Product Search (formerly Froogle) applies the power of Google’s search technology to one very specific task: locating sellers that offer the item you want to find and pointing you directly to the place where you can buy it. Google Product Search connects users with sellers at the moment of sale. AdWords ads appear on Google Product Search.  Google CheckoutTM Google Checkout is a fast, convenient checkout process that can bring your clients more customers and allows them to purchase with a single login – and they can process their orders and charge their credit or debit cards for free. Using Checkout, your clients can increase sales, process sales for free, and protect themselves from fraud. Currently, no ads are being served on Google Checkout.  Google Desktop SearchTM A desktop search tool that provides a full search over your computer files, emails, music, photos, web chats, and searches. Google Desktop puts your client pitches, briefs, and media plans easily within your reach – and frees you from having to manually organize your files, emails, and bookmarks. 50 G. (2017). Product Guide. Google Agency Product Guide. Retrieved May 09, 2017, from https://www.google.com/adwords/images/blog/AgencyProductGuide.pdf.

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