• It was a long period of peace,prosperity, refined sensibilities andnational self-confidence for Britain.• The era was preceded by the Georgianperiod and followed by the Edwardianperiod.
• Culturally there was a transition awayfrom the rationalism of the Georgianperiod and toward romanticism andmysticism with regard to religion, socialvalues, and the arts.
• First of all in the Victorian Age thedominating literary form was thenovel.• The Victorian writers exhibited somewell-established habits from previouseras.• while at the same time pushing artsand letters in new and interestingdirections.• Indeed, some of the later Victoriannovelists and poets are nearlyindistinguishable from theModernists who followed shortlythereafter.
Characteristics of Victorian ageliterature:• Literature tends to closer to daily life.• Moral purpose.• Idealism.(age of doubt and pessimism)• Great ideals like truth, justice, love,brotherhood are emphasized by poets,essayists and novelists of the age.
Characteristics of Victorian novel:• Omniscient narrator provided acomment on plot and create arigid barrier between right andwrong(moral aim).• The setting s the city (symbol ofindustrial civilization, anonymouslives and lost identity)
Cont…..• Long and complicatedplot.• Creation of characterand deep analysis oftheir lives.• Revenge orpunishment in thefinal chapter
Dickens novels:Novels. Number 1: Bleak HouseNumber 2: Great ExpectationsHardy’s novels:Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), TheMayor of Caster bridge (1886), Tess of thedUrbervilles (1891), and Jude the Obscure(1895).
Charles Dickens:• Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic.• Generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period.• Dickens showed compassion and empathy towards the vulnerableand disadvantaged segments of English society, and contributed toseveral important social reforms.• The Pickwick Papers (1837) Oliver Twist, through Nicholas Nickleby, AChristmas Carol, The Chimes, Dombey and Son, Bleak House, HardTimes, and ending with Little Dorrit,
Characteristics of Charles Dickens novels:• The title of a novel was extremely important to Dickens.• Dickens used suspense and mystery.• Novels rely heavily upon his use of symbolism (, for example, how heuses fire, hands, the mist, the river, the signpost in GreatExpectations).• Dickens uses comedy as relief from the serious and unhappy sectionsof his novel.• Writes from the point of view of the lowest classes living in a largecity.
• Thomas Hardy:• The presence of Fatalism on Hardy’s prose (what happens (orhas happened) in some sense has to (or had to) happen).• Novelist Thomas Hardy used his novel Tess of the d’Urbervillesto espouse his ideals on the morals of Victorian society.• Hardy used several literary devices and themes to express hisideas stylistically, by foreshadow, symbolism, marriage, anddifferent philosophies. Of these philosophies, fatalism is theoverall leading philosophical movement demonstrated in Tessof the d’Urbervilles.
• Thomas Hardy’s Tragic Vision Manifested in MajorNovels.• Tragic novels crucially shape his masterpieces.• The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the D’Urbervillesand Jude the Obscure.• Hardy’s conviction that there is a fundamental conflictbetween humanity and the ruthless fate.
Conclusion:• Victorian era can beconsidered as the golden ageof novel.• After the initialexperimentation novelhad become the mostcapable artform forreflecting complexities ofmodern world. And themain source ofentertainment foreducated middle class.