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YANG (哪)


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YANG (哪)

  1. 1. YANG (哪) Amey Borkar Date:05/05/16 TCET: 747 1
  2. 2. Content Introduction Data Modelling History SNMP NETCONF YANG Implementation Future 2
  3. 3. Introduction • YANG is an abbreviation for “Yet Another Next Generation” • YANG is a data modelling language for NETCONF protocol • YANG was published as RFC 6020 in October 2010 • YANG was developed by the NETMOD group of the IETF force 3
  4. 4. What is IETF ? • IETF develops and promotes voluntary internet standards • IETF is an open standard organisation with no formal membership or membership requirements • IETF was an activity supported by the US government but since 1993, it has operated as a standard development function under “Internet Society” 4
  5. 5. What is Data Modelling ? • Data modelling is the process of creating a data model for an information system • It is a process used to define and analyse data requirements needed to support the business process • Data modelling defines not just elements but also the structure and relationship between them 5
  6. 6. Data Modelling structure • The figure illustrates the way data models are developed and used today. • A conceptual data model is developed based on the data requirements for the application that is being developed. 6
  7. 7. Example of data modelling • This is a screenshot of a data modelling example • It clearly shows us the relationship between different models and the type of relationship (one-to-many or many-to-one) between each model 7
  8. 8. History • Many network management protocols have associated data modelling languages • The first widely developed internet standard for network management was Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) • The data modelling language associated with SNMP was Structure of Management Information (SMI) • The SMI language was itself based on the 1998 version of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) 8
  9. 9. Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) • ASN.1 is a standard and notation that describes rules and structures in Telecom and Computer Networking • ASN.1 is used for representing, encoding and transmitting data in Networking • ASN.1 defines the abstract syntax of information but does not restrict the way the information is encoded • A particular new application of ASN.1 is Fast Infoset 9
  10. 10. Structure of Management Information(SMI) • SMI is an adapted subset of ASN.1 • The Structure of Management Information (SMI) is a framework that describes the basic types of information that can be manipulated by SNMP • SMI operates in Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) • SMI provides a skeleton that specifies the basic format and hierarchy of management data but does not describe the objects that can be managed • SMI defines the modules of related managed objects in a Management Information Base (MIB) 10
  11. 11. SMI Sample • To ensure that object identifiers are unique, each organization is responsible for a particular section of the OID tree. • Just as ISO and CCITT have responsibility for their portions, the Internet Activities Board (IAB) has responsibility for the internet portion. 11
  12. 12. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) • SNMP is an internet standard protocol • SNMP is used for collecting and organising information about managed devices on IP networks • Devices supporting SNMP are:  Routers  Switches  Servers  Workstations 12
  13. 13. SNMP Applications • SNMP is widely used in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention • SNMP is a component of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • SNMP operates in the Application Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite (Layer 7 of OSI model) • SNMP agent receives requests on UDP port 161 13
  14. 14. SNMP Network • In typical uses of SNMP one or more administrative computers, called managers, have the task of monitoring or managing a group of hosts or devices on a computer network • An SNMP-managed network consists of three key components:  Managed device  Agent  Network Management Station (NMS) 14
  15. 15. Issues with SNMP • SNMP is not purpose-built for configuring network • SNMP lacks standard MIBs for configuring networks • SNMP is not efficient to play back configurations • SNMP is not fast either. For example, when returning routing tables, it is very slow 15
  16. 16. Advantages of NETCONF and YANG • Single focus is configuration • They use standard XML format, which uses a native “get config” command which return only configuration data • “Network configuration” over “Box configuration” • NETCONF has the ability to support transaction 16
  17. 17. NETCONF • NETCONF is a network management protocol developed and standardized by IETF • NETCONF was published in December 2006 as RFC 4741 and revised in June 2011 as RFC 6241 • NETCONF provides mechanisms to install, manipulate and delete configuration of network devices • NETCONF operates on the top of the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol layer • NETCONF protocol uses an Extensive Markup Language (XML) 17
  18. 18. NETCONF superior to SNMP • SNMP was not being used to configure network equipment but was mainly being used for network management • IETF got together with network operators to solve this issue • During this time, Juniper Networks used an XML-based net management approach • These two events together led the IETF in may 2003 to form the NETCONF working group 18
  19. 19. NETCONF Protocol Layers • The NETCONF protocol can be conceptually partitioned into four layers: 1. The Content layer consists of configuration data and notification data 2. The Operations layer defines a set of base protocol operations to retrieve and edit the configuration data 3. The Messages layer provides a mechanism for encoding remote procedure calls (RPCs) and notifications 4. The Secure Transport layer provides a secure and reliable transport of messages between a client and a server 19
  20. 20. NETCONF Protocol Layers • The NETCONF protocol has been implemented in network devices such as routers and switches by some major equipment vendors • One particular strength of NETCONF is its support for robust configuration change transactions involving a number of devices 20
  21. 21. NETCONF and YANG • NETCONF is the standard for installing, manipulating and deleting configuration of network devices while YANG is used to model both configuration and state data of network elements • Soon after the development of NETCONF protocol, IETF realised that a data module language was needed to define data modules in NETCONF • The syntactic structure and baseline system was originally borrowed from SMIng 21
  22. 22. YANG • YANG structures the data definitions into tree structures and provides many modelling features • YANG also includes an extensible type system, formal separation of state and configuration data and a variety of syntactic and semantic constraints • YANG data definitions are contained in modules and provide a strong set of features for extensibility and reuse 22
  23. 23. Publication The YANG data modelling language was developed by NETMOD working group in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and was published as RFC 6020 in October 2010 23
  24. 24. YANG Module Structure A YANG module is made up of: • Header Information • Imports and Includes • Type Definitions • Configurational and operational data declarations • Action (RPC) and notification declarations 24
  25. 25. YANG Sample Code 25
  26. 26. YIN & YANG • In Chinese philosophy, YIN and YANG describe how opposite or contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected and interdependent in the natural world • YIN is the XML version of YANG 26
  27. 27. Yang-ide • An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development • An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, build automation tools and a debugger • Most modern IDEs have intelligent code completion • YANG IDE is an integrated development environment for Yang language 27
  28. 28. Software required Software tools required to implement a YANG-IDE are as follows: 1. Eclipse SDK 4.4 2. Java SE Development Kit 7 3. Apache Maven 4. Git 28
  29. 29. Steps to implement Steps to implement yang-ide are as follows: 1. Clone the project 2. Import the projects into Eclipse 3. Configure Eclipse 4. Build the project by Maven 5. Run YANG IDE from Eclipse Development Environment 29
  30. 30. OpenDaylight and YANG • OpenDaylight heavily uses YANG to model any data, notification or Remote Procedure Call (RPC) that goes between different modules • This module is provided to the MD-SAL platform and then loaded in Karaf • MD-SAL creates two data stores for this module i.e.: 1. Config data store 2. Operational data store 30
  31. 31. Ericsson and YANG IDE • Ericsson has started to develop an IDE plugin to support the YANG language • Currently it uses pyang to analyse the yang model file • It does: Syntax Highlighting Invocation of pyang on the yang file Analysing the pyang output Marking errors 31
  32. 32. YANG and Amdocs • Amdocs has announced its own plan for NFV Orchestration • This NFV Orchestration is meant to be the central brain of a new NFV network • The service models are represented in YANG • One example would be a virtual function to block distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks 32
  33. 33. Amdocs Network Cloud Ecosystem 33
  34. 34. YANG and YumaWorks • YumaWorks is a leader in YANG-driven automation tools for NETCONF, CLI and RESTCONF network management interfaces • The YumaPro Server supports the complete NETCONF protocol • Any protocol operation, database object or notification message can be easily added to the server by providing a YANG data model defining the API 34
  35. 35. YANG and Tail-f • Tail-f Systems provides multi-vendor network automation software for traditional and Software Defined Networks (SDN) • Tail-f are leaders in the development of configuration management software based on the NETCONF and YANG standards • Tail-f Systems was the first company to introduce 100% YANG (RFC 6020) compliant software applications and tools • YANG allows Tail-f Systems customers to build more robust and resilient products in less time 35
  36. 36. ConfD by Tail-f • ConfD is the leading commercial development platform to take advantage of NETCONF and YANG • As a way to expand adoption of NETCONF and YANG, Tail-f is providing a free version of ConfD • Large service providers, such as AT&T and Deutsche Telekom have a strong preference for the NETCONF and YANG standards 36
  37. 37. Light Reading article 37
  38. 38. YANG in Telecom Companies supporting NETCONF/YANG are as follows: Brocade Communications Systems Inc. Cisco Systems Inc. Juniper Networks Inc. Ericsson-LG Amdocs Inc. Nokia Networks Alcatel-Lucent AT&T Inc. Deutsche Telekom 38
  39. 39. Future Implementations • SDN has provided a shift away from Hardware towards software and services • RESTCONF is an IETF draft that describes how to map a YANG specification • RESTCONF is not intended to replace NETCONF but rather provide an additional simplified interface • NETCONF and YANG are powerful tools with a bright future for SDN/NFV 39
  40. 40. References • • • • nfv-orchestration/2014/10/ • ocol 40