Bosnia and Herzegovina - Introducing the Heart-Shaped Country
Bosnia and Herzegovina Introducing the Heart-Shaped Country Specially prepared for:China Foreign Affairs University Amel Kovačević, Ambassador
What is Bosnia and Herzegovina? Bosnia and Herzegovina is the heart-shaped countrylocated in the South-East of Europe with long history ofits statehood. Bosnia, meaning running water, was named after itsabundant freshwater rivers, streams and springs. Herzegovina was named after the Herzeg (Duke)Stephan, who was the prominent mediaeval ruler ofthe Southern Bosnian lands. Herzegovina literally means the land belonging to theDuke.
What is Bosnia and Herzegovina? Bosnia and Herzegovina is a emerging federaldemocratic republic that operates under the ruleof law and with free and democratic elections. Head of the state is the Presidency The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmakingbody that consists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The Council of Ministers is governmentcomprising of 9 ministries.
What is Bosnia and Herzegovina? Bosnia and HerzegovinaFederation of Republic of Bosnia and Brčko District Srpska BDHerzegovina RS 10 Cantons FBIH RS 74 63Municipalities Municipalities
What is Bosnia and Herzegovina? Bosnia and Herzegovinais mostly a mountainouscountry with the DinaricAlps dominatingthe landscape. Rich forests andgreeneries cover almost50% of the land. In the North, along theSava River valley, a hilly,fertile plain stretches eastto west.
What is Bosnia and Herzegovina? The country has 21.2 km of coastline in theSouthwest of the country, providing access to theAdriatic Sea in the town of Neum. Mediterranean (maritime) climate in the southeast,continental mountain (Alps) climate in the central part,moderate continental (central European) climate in thenorth. Area: 51.209,20 km² Major Cities: Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Zenica ,Bijeljina, Mostar , Prijedor, Brčko, Bihać and Doboj
Where is Bosnia and Herzegovina? Located in the Balkans, the South-East of Europe Neighboring Countries: Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro Access to Adriatic Sea and Rhine–Main– Danube Canal through Sava River Regional transport and energy corridorsBosnia and Herzegovina波黑在欧洲的地理位置
South East Europe 欧洲东南部 Moldova Hungary Slovenia Croatia Romania B&H Serbia MN Bulgaria Albania Macedonia Greece TurkeyBosnia and Herzegovina波黑在欧洲东南部的位置
Who is Bosnia and Herzegovina? In 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina had a population of4,377,033. 43.47% are Bosniaks, 31.21% are Serbs, and 17.38% areCroats, while 5.54% are considered Yugoslavs and 2.38%others. The official languages are Bosnian, Serbian and Croatianlanguage. The main religions are Islam, Orthodox and RomanCatholic Christianity Strong correlation between ethnic identity and religionin Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina has survived for centuries as amulti-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-confessionalcommunity.
Historical Overview Early Days - Bosnian Pyramids Result of anthropological genetic testing have proventhat Bosnia is second oldest oasis of life in Europe with27,000 years of uninterupted presence of human. Fascinating discovery of pyramidal man made structurein Visoko town. These are the first pyramids discovered in Europe The site includes the biggest pyramidal structure in theworld(over 220m). The most precise orientation towards the cosmic northwith the error of 0 degrees, 0 minutes and 12 seconds. It is completely covered by rectangular concrete blocksmuch superior to the modern concrete materials. Over 12,000 years old.
Historical OverviewEarly Days – Bosnian Pyramids
Historical Overview Ancient time Early inhabitants Illyrians, invasion of Celts Since 9 AD Roman rule, colonists and settlements,civilization, art, transport infrastructure. Invasion of Germanic tribes of Goths in 3rd century BC Invasion of Mongolian tribes of Huns in 4th and Iraniantribes of Alans in 5th century BC Invasion of Turkic tribes of Avars and Slavs in 6 century Melting pot of races, cultures and civilizations Slavic tribes migration to Bosnia gradually influenceddomicile population that was eventually slavenised. Arrival of Slavic tribes of Serbs and Croats on BalkanPeninsula in 7th century
Historical OverviewAncient time Walls of ancient Daorson, Ošanići near Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3rd century BC.
Historical OverviewMediaeval Bosnian State Tvrtko I Kotromanić ruled in 1353–1366 and again in 1367–1377 as ban and in 1377– 1391 as the first King of Bosnia. Bosnian medieval state between 9th and 1463 Bosnian royal Kotromanić family tree
Historical Overview Mediaeval Bosnian State One of the earliest states of South Slavs in Balkan Peninsula The Charter of Ban Kulin is trade agreement between Bosniaand the Republic of Ragusa that regulates trade rights in Bosniawritten on August 29, 1189. It is one of the oldest written state documents of South Slavsin the Balkans and is among the oldest historical documentswritten in bosančica early alphabet of Bosnian language.
Historical Overview Mediaeval Bosnian State Exploitation of natural resources especially metals suchas copper, silver, gold, lead as well as wood and agriculturalproducts. Bosnian strategic location open trade routes to the East 360 fortified towns across the state
Historical Overview Mediaeval Bosnian State Religious freedom and safe heaven for Christian heretics Bosnian church authentic Christian belief in Bosnia The Stećci are monumental medieval tombstones that lie scattered across mediaevalBosnian state. An estimated 60,000 are found within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovinaand the rest of 10,000 are found in neighboring countries. The Stećci have been nominatedto the UNESCO World Heritage List as Joint Cultural Heritage by the four countries in 2009
Historical Overview Ottoman Era Ottomans conquered Kingdom of Bosnia 1463 New rulers started building urban centers, transportinfrastructure, educational institutions Religious freedom accompanied with introduction ofIslam BosnianOttomanheritage is stillvivid andattracts greatinterest oftourists
Historical OverviewOttoman Era Bosnia preserved its administrative identity Development of authentic culture and arts Fall of the Ottoman Empire and withdrawal fromBosnia after 415 years left significant changes inBosnian society
Historical OverviewOttoman Era The Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 17th century.
Historical OverviewAustro-Hungarian Era (1878-1918) Bosnia was occupied by Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Introduction of new state name of Bosnia andHerzegovina and state borders that are internationallyrecognized today Industrial and Urban Development Modernization Europeanization Assassination of ArchdukeFranz Ferdinand Beginning of WWI
Historical OverviewAustro-Hungarian Era (1878-1918) Wood processing, mining, industrial production,intensive usage of railway, development of technicaleducation, social and economic progress.
Historical OverviewAustro-Hungarian Era (1878-1918) The map of Bosnia and Herzegovina as at the Congress of Berlin 1878
Historical OverviewRise and Fall of Yugoslavias 1918-1992 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians 1918-1929 Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1929-1941 WWII and Peoples Liberation War and SocialistRevolution The Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of 6 republics
Historical OverviewSocialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1945-1992 Yugoslavia under CPY has experience tremendous social and economic progress in first 30 years after WWII Yugoslavia gain respect and recognition of the world
Historical OverviewSocialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1945-1992 Sarajevo XIV Winter Olympic Games-Peak of Yugoslavia
Historical OverviewSocialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1945-1992 During 1980s, upon death of Marshal Tito, long lasting communist leader, Yugoslavia was faced with economic as well as political crisis. Yugoslavia failed to reinvent itself, and differences of future prospects of different republics continue to grow. Bosnia and Herzegovina opted for Yugoslavia in all possible forms provided that both Serbia and Croatia remain part of it. Based on the recommendations of the International Arbitrary Commission, the dissolution of SFRY was stated and the republics were invited to declare their position on the independence.
Historical OverviewSocialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia 1945-1992 Slovenia and Croatia declared independence, and Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina decided to go on referendum on its future status. Referendum held on 1st March 1992 showed that 64.31% of total voters participated while 99.44% of them responded in favor of independence. Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina became member of UN on 22nd May 1992 After the independence wars in Slovenia and Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina became the victim of bestial destruction of human and physical resources.
Historical OverviewBosnian War 1992-1995 Due to arms embargo, disproportionate internationalconflict involving regular military forces of neighboringcountries on territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina More than 110,000 killed, 30,000 raped, 1 milliondisplaced Sarajevo under siege for 42 months –the longest siegein history Ethnic cleansing radically changed ethnic composition, The International Criminal Tribunal for the formerYugoslavia (ICTY) was established in 1993 as a body of theUN to prosecute war crimes committed during the wars inthe former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators.
Historical OverviewBosnian War 1992-1995 In February 2007 the International Court of Justice(ICJ) concurred with the International Criminal Tribunalfor the former Yugoslavia judgment confirming Srebrenicamassacre as genocide
Historical OverviewBosnian War 1992-1995 Dayton Peace Accord 1995 Preserved sovereignty and territorial integrity Administrative division mainly follows military lines Peace building and reconstruction of devastated country State building and Reconciliation process Lessons from the past and looking forward approach
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPeace and Prosperity Security and stability Return of refugees and building up multiethnic society Reconstruction lead economic development European integration process
BH Economy Bosnia and Herzegovina General Economic Indicators* in million of Euros 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011**Nominal GDP 8200 8800 9900 11100 12600 12300 12650 13200GDP per Capita in Euros 2122 2283 2564 2898 3289 3194 3293 3426Real Growth Rate 6.30% 3.90% 6% 6.20% 5.70% -0.29% 0.70% 1.80%Industrial Production Growth Rate 9% 10% 11% 10% 9.20% -3.30% 1.60% 6.10%Average Inflation on Annual Level 0.40% 3.80% 6.10% 1.50% 7.40% -0.40% 3.10% 3.80%BH Unemployment Rate 43.20% 43% 31% 29% 23.40% 24.10% 27.10% 27.60%Average Net Wages in Euros 258 275 300 322 385 404 408 416Foreign Debt 2.061 2.218 2.081 2.025 2.168 2.658 3.195 3.323Foreign Debt / GDP 25.1% 25.2% 21.0% 18.2% 17.2% 21.6% 25.3% 25.2%Current Account Deficit -1443.17 -1499.67 -769.65 -1156.18 -1797.7 -761.57 -761.82 -1073.71CAD/GDP 17.60% 17.04% 7.77% 10.41% 14.27% 6.19% 6.02% 8.13%Exports 1676.94 2087.25 2687.24 3091.54 3522 2920.25 3761.93 4333.81Export Growth 28.70% 24.10% 28.70% 15.04% 13.92% -17.08% 28.82% 15.20%Imports 5354.50 6092.92 6093.07 7233.58 8344.63 6330.11 7020.81 8006.46Imports Coverage 30.29% 32.15% 45.34% 42.72% 42.21% 44.80% 52,1% 54.12%FDI 412 282 442 1329 684 180 174 240***Foreign Reserves 1779 2160 2787 3425 3219 3176 3301 3118.9* Source: Centra l Ba nk of Bos ni a a nd Herzegovi na** Prel i mi na ry fi gures*** Prel i mi na ry fi gure for fi rs t three qua rters of 2011
EU integration process In 1999 B&H was offered the perspective of the accession ofthe European Union through the Stabilization and AssociationProcess. Negotiations with the EU on the Stabilization and AssociationAgreement began in 2006 B&H has signed the Stabilization and Association Agreementwith EU in 2008 thus becoming an associate member of theEuropean Union Submission of the application for the membership in theEuropean Union this year The European Integration Process is equally important as theEU membership because while undertaking this process ourcountry will complete necessary institutional changes, in additionto the absolute adjustment to the European standards.
Bilateral relation between Bosnia andHerzegovina and PR China The relations between the two peoples go back to the period of the SilkRoute Federative Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia recognized PR China on 1stOctober 1949
Bilateral relation between Bosnia andHerzegovina and PR China PR China, as UN SC member, supported membership of Bosnia andHerzegovina to UN on 22nd May 1992 The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as one of the six successorstates of former Yugoslavia, was recognized by People’s Republic of Chinaon 3rd April 1995. The Embassy of PR of China was opened in Sarajevo during March 1997while the Embassy of Bosnia and Herzegovina was opened in Beijing inJanuary 1999. Bosnia and Herzegovina pursues "One China" policy and therebyrecognizes the PRC as the sole and legal representative of China. There are no outstanding political issues between B&H and the PRCgiven that the two countries follow peaceful foreign policies based onfriendship, mutual trust and respect for national sovereignty and territorialintegrity, as well as non-interference in internal affairs and mutual benefit.
Bilateral relation between Bosnia andHerzegovina and PR China
Areas of economic cooperation thatshould be explored by Chinese corporatesector中国公司可以开拓的经济合作领域 There is immediate opportunity for Chinese corporatesector to take participation in development of our transportinfrastructure including construction of backbone highwaynetwork.中国公司可以直接参与交通基础设施的发展，包括建设骨干公路网。 Chinese corporations should be able to use leverage ofits technological superiority as well as domestic source ofsoft funds competing for the projects. 中国公司可以利用自己先进的技术及本国的资金来竞标。
中国公司可以开拓的经济合作领域 Power production is one of the most significant exportoriented sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with longtradition and huge potentials and opportunities forfurther development and investment.发电是波黑最重要的以出口为导向的工业部门之一，它的历史很长，潜力巨大，投资和发展的机会很多。 There are concrete projects prepared by relevantgovernmental bodies to build numerous hydro andthermo power plants as well as wind farms.波黑政府部门已经有具体的投资项目，如水力发电厂，热力发电厂和风力发电厂等。
Sectors to Consider Investing in BH可以考虑的波黑投资领域 Other economic sectors with comparative advantages in BH opened for Chinese investments are: 波黑对中国投资开放的具有相对优势的经济领域还有： Wood processing industries 木材加工工业 Textile & leather industries 纺织和皮革工业 Agriculture & food processing 农业和食品加工业 Machinery & automobile industries 机械和汽车工业 Pharmaceutical industry 医药工业 Tourism 旅游业 Education 教育