The American Diabetes Association has acknowledge some of the positiveoutcomes of low carb/reduced carb diets on diabetes in the most recentlypublished nutrition recommendations.The American Diabetes Association, “Nutrition Recommendations and Interventionsin Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 2008New research continues to emerge supporting the use of low carb and reducedcarb diets in individuals with diabetes.Research has shown low carb diets may be useful in: Improving BMI Reducing HgbA1c Improving some cardiovascular risk factors including HDL- C, TG, and Cholesterol/HDL ratio. Reducing or eliminating use of diabetic medications..Recently Published Results:Focus on pre-diabetes and diabetesTitleCarbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on Metabolic Syndrome thana Low Fat Diet. Volek, J.S., Phinney, S.D., Forstythe, C.E., et al. published inLipids, 2008Summary 12 week study of Two hypocaloric diets (1500 kcal) were compared: Carbohydraterestricted (CRD; 12% carb) and Low fat (LFD; 56% carb) The CRD had greater weight loss compared to LFD. CRD group significantly reduced fasting glucose. CRD had greater decrease in leptin levels and postprandial TAG. HDL increased in CRD group and Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio improved. LDL-C – on average, not decreased in CRD group but noted shift from the smaller LDL (more atherogenic) to larger LDL particles (less atherogenic) following diet.Conclusion A carb restricted diet can improve markers of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk including improving HDL-C, postprandial TAG, reduction of small LDL, and weight reduction.
TitleThe effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet onglycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.Westman, E.C., Yancy, W.S., Mavropoulos, J.C., Marquart, M., McDuffie, J.R.published in Nutrition & Metabolism, 2008SummaryParticipants with obesity and Type 2 DM randomized to a low-carb, ketogenic diet(LCKD; <20g Carb) or a low-glycemic, reduced calorie diet (LGID; 500 kcal deficitfrom estimated needs). HgbA1c improved by –1.5% in LCKD compared to –0.5% in LGID. Fasting glucose and insulin improved in both groups similarly. A greater percentage of participants in LCKD were able to eliminate or reduce medications. HDL-C improved in the LCKD only. No increase in GFR or creatinine was noted in either group.Conclusion A low-carb, ketogenic diet is more effective in improving glycemic control and reducing/eliminating need for diabetic medications compared to a low-glycemic diet.Title Low carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight andglycemic control during 44 months follow-upNielsen, J.V., Joensson, E.A. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2008Summary Retrospective follow-up of obese patients with type 2 diabetes following a low carbdiet (20% carb) compared to a control group. Wt loss was greater overall on low carb diet; some wt gain occurred by end of study but still lower than baseline. Greater improvement in HgbA1c noted in the low carb diet. Oral diabetic medications and insulin decreased or was eliminated by end of study in most participants. HDL-C increased and improved Cholesterol/HDL ratio noted in the low carb group.ConclusionA low-carb diet may be effective in improving weight, glycemic control andreducing/eliminating need for diabetic medications in obese individuals with type 2diabetes.