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Team sports


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Team sports

  2. 2. TEAM SPORTSBASKETBALLBasketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score pointsagainst one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m) high hoop (the goal) underorganized rules. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.[1] Points are scored by shooting the ball through the basket above; the team with more points at the end of the game wins. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it (dribbling) or passing it between teammates. Disruptive physical contact (foul) is not permitted and there are restrictions on how the ball can be handled (violations). Through time, basketball hasdeveloped to involve common techniques of shooting, passing and dribbling, as well as playerspositions, and offensive and defensive structures. Typically, the tallest members of a team willplay center or one of two forward positions, while shorter players or those who possess thebest ball handling skills and speed, play the guard positions. While competitive basketball iscarefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have developed for casual play. In somecountries, basketball is also a popular spectator sport.While competitive basketball is primarily an indoor sport, played on a basketball court, lessregulated variations have become exceedingly popular as an outdoor sport among both innercity and rural groups. pág. 2
  3. 3. Positions and structures:Basketball positions in the offensive zoneAlthough the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part ofbasketball. During the first five decades of basketballs evolution, one guard, two forwards,and two centers or two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s,more specific positions have evolved, namely: 1. point guard: usually the fastest player on the team, organizes the teams offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time 2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponents best perimeter player on defense 3. small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points via cuts to the basket and dribble penetration; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively 4. power forward: plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man- to-man defense) 5. center: uses size to score (on offense), to protect the basket closely (on defense), or to rebound.The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will choose to use a three guardoffense, replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. The most commonlyinterchanged positions are point guard and shooting guard, especially if both players havegood leadership and ball handling skills.There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and man-to-man defense. Zone defenseinvolves players in defensive positions guarding whichever opponent is in their zone. In man-to-man defense, each defensive player guards a specific opponent and tries to prevent himfrom taking action. pág. 3
  4. 4. HANDBALLHandball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a teamsport in which two teams of seven players each (six players and a goalkeeper) pass and bounce a ball to throw it into the goal of the opposing team. The team with the most goals after two periods of 30 minutes wins. Handball which is played indoors has two variants. One is field handball which was more common in the past. The other is beach handball. American handball is a completely different sport. The modern game is most popular in Europe, where it is the second most played sport after football (soccer). The only country in Europe where it is not professionally played is the United Kingdom. Handball is not recognised as a national sport in the United Kingdom. The game is quite fast and includes body contact as the defenders try to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. Contact is only allowed when the defensive player is completely in front of the offensive player, i.e. between the offensive player and the goal, there is referred as a player sandwich. Any contact from the side or especially from behind is considered dangerous and is usually met with penalties. When a defendersuccessfully stops an attacking player, the play is stopped and restarted by the attacking teamfrom the spot of the infraction or on the nine meter line. Unlike in basketball where playersare allowed to commit only 5 fouls in a game (6 in the NBA), handball players are allowed anunlimited number of "faults," which are considered good defense and disruptive to theattacking teams rhythm.Goals are quite common in handball; usually both teams score at least 20 goals each, and it isnot uncommon to have a match end 33-31. This was not true in the earliest history of thegame, when the scores were more akin to that of ice hockey. But, as offensive play has pág. 4
  5. 5. improved, particularly the use of counterattacks (fast breaks) after a failed attack from theother team, goal scoring has increased.Formations:Players are typically referred to by the position they are playing. The positions are alwaysdenoted from the view of the respective goalkeeper, so that a defender on the right opposesan attacker on the left. However, not all of the following positions may be occupied dependingon the formation or potential suspensions.Offense  Left and right wingman. These typically excel at ball control and wide jumps from the outside of the goal perimeter to get into a better shooting angle at the goal. Teams usually try to occupy the left position with a right-handed player and vice versa.  Left and right backcourt. Goal attempts by these players are typically made by jumping high and shooting over the defenders. Thus, it is usually advantageous to have tall players for these positions.  Center backcourt. A player with experience is preferred on this position who acts as playmaker and the handball equivalent of a basketball point guard.  Pivot (left and right, if applicable). This player tends to intermingle with the defense, setting picks and attempting to disrupt the defense formation. This positions requires the least jumping skills but ball control and physical strength are an advantage.Defense  Far left and far right. The opponents of the wingmen.  Half left and half right. The opponents of the left and right backcourts.  Back center (left and right). Opponent of the pivot.  Front center. Oppenent of the center backcourt, may also be set against another specific backcourt player. pág. 5
  6. 6. VOLLEYBALLVolleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players are separated by anet. Each team tries to score points against one another by grounding a ball on the otherteams court under organized rules.The complete rules of volleyball are extensive, and points are awarded as follows: If the balltouches the ground outside the court area, the team which made contact with it last loses thepoint. If the ball touches the ground on team As side of the net, team B is awarded a point,and vice-versa. The ball must be hit over the net to get a point. The team who wins the pointthen serves. The first team to reach 25 points wins the set and the first team to win three setswins the match.] Teams can contact the ball only three times before the ball crosses the net,and consecutive contacts must be made by different players. The ball is usually played with thehands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part ofthe body.Through time, volleyball has developed to involve common techniques of spiking, passing,blocking, and setting, as well as specialized player positions and offensive and defensivestructures. Because many plays are made above the top of the net, vertical jumping is anathletic skill emphasised in volleyball. This article focuses on competitive indoor volleyball,which is carefully regulated and played indoors. Numerous variations of volleyball havedeveloped for casual play, including the Olympic spin-off sport beach volleyball. pág. 6
  7. 7. SOCCERAssociation football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport playedbetween two teams of eleven players, and is widely considered to be the most popular sport inthe world.[1][2][3] It is a football variant played on a rectangular grass or artificial turf field, with agoal at each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by manoeuvring the ball intothe opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeepers are the only players allowed to use theirhands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to kick the ball intoposition, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in midair. The team thatscores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game,either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout,depending on the format of the competition.  1 Goalkeeper (GK)  2 Defenders o 2.1 Centre-back (CB) o 2.2 Sweeper/Libero (SW) o 2.3 Full-back (FB/RB/LB) o 2.4 Wingback (WB/RWB/LWB)  3 Midfielders o 3.1 Centre midfielder (CM) o 3.2 Defensive midfielder (DM) o 3.3 Attacking midfielder (AM) o 3.4 Winger (RW/LW) or wide midfielder (LM/RM)  4 Forward o 4.1 Centre forward (CF) o 4.2 Striker (S) o 4.3 Deep-lying forward (SS pág. 7