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production of colocasia

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production of colocasia

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production of colocasia

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON Colocasia (Colocasia esculentus) DEPARTMENTOF HORTICULTURE SHIATS (DEEMEDTO BE UNIVERISTY) ALLAHABAD 2016-2017 Submitted to: Submitted By: Dr. SAMIR E TOPNO AMBILY ELIZABATH 15MSHVS004 ANNIE MERLY MATHEW 15MSHVS008
  2. 2. Colocasia (Colocasia esculentus)
  3. 3. Introduction  Other name Taro and aravi (colocasia is an egyptian word)  Family :- Araceae  Colocasia (Colocasia esculentus) or taro is most important and one of the oldest crops.  Two types of colocasia – eddoe (C. esculentus var. antiquorum) ( C. esculentus var. esculenta) are commonly cultivated throughout India.  The eddoe type is commonly called arvi and dasheen as bunda.  Africa ranks first in area and production of colocasia followed by Asia.  Colocasia tubers are rich in starch and leaves and petioles are used as vegetables.  It contains more nutrients and minerals than other vegetables.
  4. 4. Climate and Soil  Climate- Colocasia requires moist. Conditions. In natural habitat, it is commonly found near water sources. This crop can grow on hills if frost free conditions remain during growth season.  Soil – Well drained and fertile sandy loam soil is ideally suited for its cultivation. It also comes up well in fertile loamy to clay soil. It can stand well in heavy soils and withstand waterlogged conditions. The pH of 5.5- 7.0 is ideal.
  5. 5. Varieties  Colocasia has a wide variability and a large number of local cultivars are grown in different parts of India.  Satamukhi, Sree Rashmi and Sree Pallavi are improved varieties. Varieties for :-  East India – White gauriya, Kakakachu, NDC 1, NDC 2, NDC 3, Kadma, Nadia Local, Jhankhri and White Gauriya.  West India – Satamukhi and Saharshamukhi  South India – Sree Rashmi, Sree Pallavi and C16
  6. 6. Propagation  Colocasia is propagated vagetatively mostly by small cormels weighing 20-25g. Healthy, disease and injury free and of uniform sized planting material should be selected and stored in a cool place at least for 3 months before planting.  One tonne planting material is enough for a hectare crop.
  7. 7. Cultivation Planting Planting is done by two methods a) On ridges b) Flat bed method Planting of cormels should be done at 45cm spacing on ridges made at 60cm apart. Flat bed method can also adopted under upland conditions having good drainage. Planting in small pits is good in flat bed planting
  8. 8. Planting time :-  Rainy season is ideal time for planting whereas, Feb- Mar is for irrigated areas.  Planting time state wise:-  Bihar and E. U.P: - June and February  Kerala: – April- June  Andhra Pradesh : - February  Tamil Nadu : - May  Assam : - April
  9. 9. Manuring and Fertilization  A basal dose of @ 10-15t/ha of well decomposed FYM be mixed with soil 2-3 weeks before planting. The application of 80:60:80kg/ha of N:P:K is economical dose for most of the part of India.  Half dose of N and K, and full dose of P should be given at the time of planting, while the remaining half dose of N and K should be applied in 2 splits doses,1st 7-10 days after sprouting and 2nd a month later.  Earthing should be given after each dressing.
  10. 10. Aftercare  It is it is essential to keep the field weed free.  Hand weeding should be done along with earthing up.  Generally two earthing up operations are required, first 7-8 days after sprouting and second a month later.  Desuckering is done at the time of second earthing up. Only 3 suckers/plant should be retained
  11. 11. Irrigation  Irrigation throughout the season increase yield.  About 5-8 irrigations are required for maximum yield of cormels under summer conditions.  The kharif crop is grown under rain fed conditions, but protective irrigation should be given as the rainfall is not regular.
  12. 12. Harvesting  The crop matures in 120-150 days after planting. This is indicated by drying up of leaves. Harvesting is done by digging out the corms and cormels.  The mother corms and cormels are separated after harvesting.  It yields 30-40t/ha depending on the type of variety.  Dasheen type has more yield potential  than eddoe type
  13. 13. Postharvest Management  Care should be taken during harvesting. The damaged tubers should be separated from marketing lot and consumed within 2-3 days.  Selected tubers should be spread on the ground.  Tubers should not be packed in air tight containers.  Packing in jute bags or basket prevents rotting during storage.
  14. 14. Crop protection  Aphids and worms are pest attacking leaves.  Spray Quinalphos or Dimethoate 0.05%.  Mealy bugs and scale insects damage cormels and corms.  Select cormels free of these pests for planting.  The seed cormels should be dipped In Dimethoate 0.05% solution for 10 minutes. Aphids Leaf blight
  15. 15. Leaf blight (Phytophthora colocasiae)  Oval or irregular purplish or brownish necrotic lesions with watersoaked periphery appear on leaves.  In severe cases, the entire leaf lamina and the petioles are affected giving a blighted appearance and collapse of the plant.  Heavy incidence causes up to 50 per cent crop loss.  Use of field resistant varieties viz., Muktakeshi and Jankhri, early planting to avoid heavy monsoon rains.  Use of healthy planting materials, removal of self- grown colocasia plants.  Spray with fungicides viz., Mancozeb (0.2%) or Ridomil MZ 72 @ 2 g/l of water and treating the seed tubers with biocontrol agents viz., Trichoderma viride
  16. 16. The Alomae/Bobone Virus Disease Complex  The alomae virus disease is caused by a complex of two or more viruses acting together.  The two viruses that are definitely involved are the taro large bacilliform virus (TLBV) which is transmitted by the plant hopper Tarophagus proserpina, and the taro small bacilliform virus (TSBV) which is transmitted by the mealybug Planococus citri(Rodoni 1995).  Neither virus is transmissible by mechanical contact, and their host range seems limited to aroids only.  Alomae first starts as a feathery mosaic on the leaves. The entire plant is stunted and ultimately dies.  The symptoms of bobone are similar, but the leaves are more stunted and the lamina is curled up and twisted. With bobone, complete death of the entire plant does not usually occur.  Severe cases of alomae can result in total crop loss, while bobone can cause up to 25% yield loss. Dasheen Mosaic Virus Disease (DMV)  DMV is caused by a stylet-borne, flexuous, rod-shaped virus that is spread by aphids. It is characterized by chlorotic and feathery mosaic patterns on the leaf, distortion of leaves, and stunted plant growth.  The disease is not lethal, but yield is depressed. Control is through the use of DMV- free planting material, field sanitation, and quarantine measures.
  17. 17.  The taro beetles of economic importance are several species belonging to the genus Papuana (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  Crops that are attacked include tannia, sugarcane, banana, sweet potato, yams, etc.  This versatility of hosts makes the taro beetle additionally destructive, and its control much more difficult.  Mulching with polythene, coconut husk or grass has only been partially effective. The Taro Beetle
  18. 18. Other Diseases and Pests  Other diseases and pests of taro include: a) Corm and root rots caused by the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora.b) Nematodes. c) The taro planthopper, Tarophagus proserpina which not only transmits virus diseases, but can cause wilting and death of the plant in heavy infestations. d) Aphids. e) Taro hornworm which defoliates the plant. f) Armyworms or cluster caterpillars which can also do extensive damage to the leaves.  While these diseases and pests may be considered minor, they can become quite severe in certain locations or at certain times during the cropping season
  19. 19. Physiological Disorders  Water stagnation in the field results in tubers that become hard to cook.  This occurs both in dasheen and eddoe varieties.  Control : - Proper drainage should be maintain in the field .

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