Jathropa as Fuel

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Jathropa as Fuel

  1. 1. THE FUTURE
  2. 2. As civilization is growing, transport becomes essential part of life. The biggest problem is the growing population & depletion of fossil fuel. This necessitates the search for alternative of vegetable oil as energy source. NEED OF THE HOUR….
  3. 3. WHAT IS BIODIESEL?  General Definition - Biodiesel is a renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural vegetable/animal oils, and which meets the standard specification  Technical Definition - Biodiesel is a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animals fats, and meeting the requirements of standard specifications.
  4. 4. BIODIESEL CYCLE
  5. 5. INVESTIGATINGTHE HISTORY…  First concept was originated by Rudolph Diesel regarding vegetable oil as fuel?(1900).  Peanut Oil- World Exhibition in Paris  After diesel’s mysterious death in 1913, development focused on the use of petroleum-based fuels. Dr. Rudolph Diesel
  6. 6. IIT Delhi August 18, 2004 Application Areas of Biodiesel Several Decentralized Energy Units Diesel Gensets, Small Scale/Home Industries Transportation System Mechanized Agricultural Sector Irrigation Pumps, Agricultural Machinery such as Tractors, Power Tillers, Threshers etc. (Self-sufficiency for the Farmer
  7. 7. VEGETABLE OIL BIODIESEL DIESEL FUEL Triglyceride of fatty acid (Molecular Wt 700-1000) Alkyl esters of Fatty acid Molecular Wt~260 to 300 Saturated Hydrocarbon (C12-C14) Molecular Wt~200 10% less heating value than diesel because it contains Oxygen 10-12 % less heating value than diesel Major hydrogen and carbon (SOx, NOx,) Kinematic viscosity is higher (35-45 cSt at 40oC) Kinematic viscosity is in same range of that of diesel Kinematic viscosity is lower (3.8 -5 cSt at 40oC) Less volatility Less volatile than diesel High volatility Biodiesel is not the raw vegetable oil
  8. 8. INDIA’S VIEW Why non edible oils instead of easily available edible oils are used for this purpose?  India is deficient in edible oil production and plants producing non edible oil may be the only material of choice for production of biodiesel. Azadirachta (Neem) Calophyllum(Undi) Pongamia (Karanj) Jatropha curcas (Bharenda) Why non edible oils instead of easily available edible oils are used for this purpose? India is deficient in edible oil production and plants producing non edible oil may be the only material of choice for production of biodiesel. Azadirachta (Neem) Calophyllum(Undi) Pongamia (Karanj) Jatropha curcas (Bharenda)
  9. 9. JATHROPHA CURCUS  Jathropha curcas is a drought resistant bushy shrub that belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae.  It can be grown on almost any soil type found in our country.  The crops possess enormous industrial and export potentials.  The oil content is 35-40% in the seeds and 50-60% in the kernel.
  10. 10. Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas
  11. 11. Properties  A very high saponification value.  Burns without emitting smoke.  Jatrophine-have anti cancerous properties Uses  By product of jatropha seeds - fish foods, domestic animals food - as fertilizer  Bark-colouring cloth, fishing nets
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY  The biodiesel is prepared from jatropha oil through esterification followed by trans-esterification.  The yield of jatropha oil methyl ester is about 97%. Plantation of Jathropha Curcus
  13. 13. Procedure Main ingredient - jatropha oil Catalyst - methanol + NaOH Output - biodiesel + glycerol (fatty acids and catalysts)
  14. 14. HOW BIODIESEL IS MADE?  Recipe  Chemistry  Titrations
  15. 15. BASIC RECIPE 1. Collect, process, and heat oil. 2. Measure 6 parts of methanol to 1 part oil. 3. Oil combine with methanol and catalyst. 4. Mixture is allow to reach to equilibrium. 5. Settle, and drain glycerin.
  16. 16. CH2-OH CH2-OH CH2-OH glycerol CH2-OOC-R1 CH -OOC-R2 CH2-OOC-R3 +3R’OH R1-COO-R’ R2-COO- R’ R3-COO- R’ + Catalyst At Temp 55 to 60˚C Triglyceride + Alcohol Esters + The trans esterification reaction is carried out for 2 hrs keeping the molar ratio of methanol to oil at 6:1 and NaOH concentration of 0.7 weight percentage of oil. -TRANS ESTERIFICATIONCHEMISTR Y
  17. 17. TITRATION  When oil is fried too hot too long, the fatty acids break off, acidifying the oil.  Titration is necessary to determine the acidity of oil. Fig:Titration
  18. 18. SAFETY  Potential hazards include, and are not limited to: ◦ Fire ◦ Chemical exposure ◦ Spills ◦ Explosion  Recommended personal protection measures ◦ Gloves ◦ Goggles ◦ Ventilation ◦ Acid for neutralization
  19. 19. BENIFITS  Major content is carbon (neutral) Efficiency Eco-Friendly  Trade deficit and creates job.  High ignition quality.
  20. 20. DRAWBACKS  Less availability  Increase in NOx  More expensive due to less production
  21. 21. CONCLUSION  Performance characteristics does not differ greatly from diesel fuel.  Emission of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are less where as NOx is high.  Manufacturing process is simple and cost effective.
  22. 22. References :  Lide D.R. And H.P.R Frederikse,1995.CRC Handbook Of Chemistry And Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.  Agrawal A.K., Das L.M. –Biodiesel And Characterization For Use As A Fuel In Compression Ignition Engines. Trans ASME,2001;123;44.-7.  Agrawal A.K., Bijwe J. And Das L.M. (April 2003),”effect Of Biodiesel Utilization Of Wear Of Vital Parts In Compression Ignition Engines”, ASME Journal Of Engineering For Gas Turbines And Power. Vol. 125.  An Overview Of Biodiesel And Petroleum Diesel Lifecycle ,May 1998, Sheehan, Et.Ai NREL  Energy Balances In The Growth Of Oil Seed Jatropha For Biodiesel And Wheat For Bioethanol, June. I.R.Richards.  www.biodieselcommunity.org- Great Grassroots, Beginners website  biodiesel.infopop.cc –the discussion board  www.biodiesel.org –The Industry Webpage,news ,pump locations

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