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(SOV204) Scaling Up to Your First 10 Million Users | AWS re:Invent 2014

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Cloud computing gives you a number of advantages, such as the ability to scale your application on demand. If you have a new business and want to use cloud computing, you might be asking yourself, andquot;Where do I start?andquot; Join us in this session to understand best practices for scaling your resources from zero to millions of users. We show you how to best combine different AWS services, how to make smarter decisions for architecting your application, and how to scale your infrastructure in the cloud.

Published in: Technology

(SOV204) Scaling Up to Your First 10 Million Users | AWS re:Invent 2014

  1. 1. So how do we scale?
  2. 2. a lot of things to read
  3. 3. a lot of things to read not where we want to start
  4. 4. Auto Scaling is a tool and a destination. It’s not the single thing that fixes everything.
  5. 5. What do we need first?
  6. 6. Some basics…
  7. 7. US-WEST (Oregon) EU-WEST (Ireland) ASIA PAC (Tokyo) US-WEST (N. California) SOUTH AMERICA (Sao Paulo) US-EAST (Virginia) AWS GovCloud (US) ASIA PAC (Sydney) ASIA PAC (Singapore) CHINA (Beijing) EU-CENTRAL (Frankfurt)
  8. 8. US-WEST (Oregon) EU-WEST (Ireland) ASIA PAC (Tokyo) US-WEST (N. California) SOUTH AMERICA (Sao Paulo) US-EAST (Virginia) AWS GovCloud (US) ASIA PAC (Sydney) ASIA PAC (Singapore) CHINA (Beijing) EU-CENTRAL (Frankfurt)
  9. 9. Platform Services Containers Dev/ops Tools Resource Templates Usage Tracking Monitoring and Logs Foundation Services Compute (VMs, Auto-scaling and Load Balancing) Storage (Object, Block and Archive) Security & Access Control Networking Infrastructure Regions CDN and Points of PresenceAvailability Zones Applications Virtual Desktops Collaboration and Sharing Caching Relational No SQL Hadoop Real-time Data Workflows Data Warehouse Queuing Orchestration App Streaming Transcoding Email Search Identity Sync Mobile Analytics Notifications Databases Analytics App Services Deployment & Management Mobile Services Managed User Directories Applications Platform services Foundation services Global infrastructure
  10. 10. Platform services Containers Dev/ops Tools Resource Templates Usage Tracking Monitoring and Logs Foundation services Compute (VMs, Auto-scaling and Load Balancing) Storage (Object, Block and Archive) Security & Access Control Networking Infrastructure Regions CDN and Points of PresenceAvailability Zones Applications Virtual Desktops Collaboration and Sharing Caching Relational No SQL Hadoop Real-time Data Workflows Data Warehouse Queuing Orchestration App Streaming Transcoding Email Search Identity Sync Mobile Analytics Notifications Databases Analytics App Services Deployment & Management Mobile Services Managed User Directories
  11. 11. So let’s start from day one, user one (you)
  12. 12. EC2 instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  13. 13. c3.8xlarge m3.2xlarge t2.micro
  14. 14. • Will hit an endpoint eventually c3.8xlarge m3.2xlarge t2.micro
  15. 15. EC2 Instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  16. 16. • No failover • No redundancy • Too many eggs in one basket EC2 Instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  17. 17. Web Instance Database Instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  18. 18. Self-managed Fully managed Database server on Amazon EC2 Your choice of database running on Amazon EC2 Bring Your Own License (BYOL) Amazon DynamoDB Managed NoSQL database service using SSD storage Seamless scalability Zero administration Amazon RDS Microsoft SQL, Oracle, MySQL or PostgreSQL as a managed service Flexible licensing: BYOL or License Included Amazon Redshift Massively parallel, petabyte-scale data warehouse service Fast, powerful, and easy to scale Database options
  19. 19. But how do I choose what DB technology I need? SQL? NoSQL?
  20. 20. Some folks won’t like this. But…
  21. 21. Start with SQL databases
  22. 22. AH HA! You said “massive amounts,” and I will have massive amounts!
  23. 23. If your usage is such that you will be generating several TB ( >5 ) of data in the first year OR have an incredibly data intensive workload, then you might need NoSQL
  24. 24. Web instance Elastic IP RDS DB instance Amazon Route 53 User
  25. 25. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Availability Zone Web Instance RDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) Elastic Load Balancer Amazon Route 53 User
  26. 26. • Create highly scalable applications • Distribute load across EC2 instances in multiple Availability Zones Feature Details Available Load balances across instances in multiple Availability Zones Health checks Automatically checks health of instances and takes them in or out of service Session stickiness Routes requests to the same instance Secure sockets layer Supports SSL offload from web and application servers with flexible cipher support Monitoring Publishes metrics to CloudWatch and can get logs of requests processed Elastic Load Balancer Elastic Load Balancer
  27. 27. Scaling this horizontally and vertically will get us pretty far ( 10s-100s of thousands )
  28. 28. User >10ks-100ks RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Availability Zone RDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) Elastic Load Balancer RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Amazon Route 53 User
  29. 29. This will take us pretty far, but we care about performance and efficiency, so let’s improve further
  30. 30. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon Route 53 User
  31. 31. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User • Move static content from the web instance to Amazon S3 and Amazon CloudFront
  32. 32. Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) is cloud storage for the Internet: Amazon S3
  33. 33. CloudFront Amazon CloudFront is a web service for scalable content delivery: • Cache static content at the edge for faster delivery • Helps lower load on origin infrastructure • Dynamic and static content • Streaming video • Zone apex support • Custom SSL certificates • Low TTLs (as short as 0 seconds) • Lower costs for origin fetches (between Amazon S3 / Amazon EC2 and CloudFront) • Optimized to work with Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, Elastic Load Balancing, and Amazon Route 53 ResponseTime ServerLoad Response Time Server Load Response Time Serve rLoad No CDN CDN for Static Content CDN for Static & Dynamic Content 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM VolumeofData Delivered(Gbps)
  34. 34. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User
  35. 35. • Move session/state and DB caching to Amazon ElastiCache or Amazon DynamoDB Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache DynamoDB
  36. 36. • Managed, provisioned throughput NoSQL database • Fast, predictable performance • Fully distributed, fault tolerant architecture • JSON support (NEW) • Items up to 400 KB (NEW) Feature Details Provisioned throughput Dial up or down provisioned read/write capacity Predictable performance Average single digit millisecond latencies from SSD-backed infrastructure Strong consistency Be sure you are reading the most up to date values Fault tolerant Data replicated across Availability Zones Monitoring Integrated with Amazon CloudWatch Secure Integrates with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Amazon EMR Integrates with Amazon EMR for complex analytics on large datasets
  37. 37. • Move dynamic content from the ELB to Amazon CloudFront Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache DynamoDB
  38. 38. • Move dynamic content from the ELB to Amazon CloudFront Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache DynamoDB
  39. 39. Now that our web tier is much more lightweight, we can revisit the beginning of our talk…
  40. 40. Auto Scaling!
  41. 41. Automatic resizing of compute clusters based on demand Feature Details Control Define minimum and maximum instance pool sizes and when scaling and cool down occurs. Integrated to Amazon CloudWatch Use metrics gathered by CloudWatch to drive scaling. Instance types Run Auto Scaling for on-demand and Spot Instances. Compatible with VPC. aws autoscaling create-auto-scaling-group --auto-scaling-group-name MyGroup --launch-configuration-name MyConfig --min-size 4 --max-size 200 --availability-zones us-west-2c, us-west-2b Auto Scaling Trigger auto-scaling policy Amazon CloudWatch
  42. 42. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com
  43. 43. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com Provisioned capacity
  44. 44. November
  45. 45. Provisioned capacity November
  46. 46. 76% 24% Provisioned capacity November
  47. 47. November
  48. 48. Auto Scaling lets you do this!
  49. 49. Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 User Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer DynamoDB RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance ElastiCache RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance ElastiCacheRDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ)
  50. 50. AWS application management solutions Convenience Control Higher-level services Do it yourself AWS Elastic Beanstalk AWS OpsWorks AWS CloudFormation Amazon EC2
  51. 51. HOST LEVEL METRICS AGGREGATE LEVEL METRICS LOG ANALYSIS EXTERNAL SITE PERFORMANCE
  52. 52. There are further improvements to be made in breaking apart our web/app layer
  53. 53. Controller A Controller B Controller A Controller B Q Q Tight coupling Use Amazon SQS as buffers Loose coupling
  54. 54. DON’T REINVENT THE WHEEL Examples: • Email • Queuing • Transcoding • Search • Databases • Monitoring • Metrics • Logging Amazon CloudSearch Amazon SQSAmazon SNS Amazon Elastic Transcoder Amazon SWF Amazon SES In the early days, if someone has a service for it already, opt to use that instead of building it yourself.
  55. 55. RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Amazon Route 53 User Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront DynamoDB Amazon SQS ElastiCache Worker Instance Worker Instance Amazon CloudWatch Internal App Instance Internal App Instance Amazon SES
  56. 56. The next big steps
  57. 57. • Split up databases by function/purpose • Harder to do cross-function queries • Essentially delaying the need for something like sharding/NoSQL until much further down the line • Won’t help with single huge functions/tables ForumsDB UsersDB ProductsDB
  58. 58. Sharded horizontal scaling • More complex at the application layer • ORM support can help • No practical limit on scalability • Operation complexity/sophistication • Shard by function or key space • RDBMS or NoSQL User ShardID 002345 A 002346 B 002347 C 002348 B 002349 A Shard C Shard B Shard A
  59. 59. Shifting functionality to NoSQL • Similar in a sense to federation • Again, think about the earlier points for when you need NoSQL vs SQL • Leverage hosted services like DynamoDB • Some use cases: – Leaderboards/scoring – Rapid ingest of clickstream/log data – Temporary data needs (cart data) – “Hot” tables – Metadata/lookup tables DynamoDB
  60. 60. A quick review
  61. 61. Putting all this together means we should now easily be able to handle 10+ million users!
  62. 62. To infinity…..
  63. 63. Iterating on top of the patterns seen here will get you up and over 100 million users.
  64. 64. THANKS FOR LISTENING! Chris Munns - munns@amazon.com
  65. 65. Please give us your feedback on this session. Complete session evaluations and earn re:Invent swag. http://bit.ly/awsevals

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