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Reactive Cloud Security | AWS Public Sector Summit 2016

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Modern deployment and hosting environments have created a new dynamism to application, network, and development architectures. Compute resources are ephemeral, networks are instantiated and configured with API calls, and new versions of applications are deployed in seconds... security has not met this challenge gracefully. In this talk, we explore some new and interesting ways to make security reactive within cloud environments by dynamically changing the environment in response to and in preparation for security incidents, baby steps toward an architecture that can protect itself.

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Reactive Cloud Security | AWS Public Sector Summit 2016

  1. 1. © 2016, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Ben Hagen, Cloud Security Operations @ Netflix June 21, 2016 Reactive Cloud Security Toward Self-Defending Cloud Environments
  2. 2. Introductions, because they matter.
  3. 3. Me ●Bachelor’s in Political Science, International Studies, Minor in Mandarin Chinese ●Master’s in Information Assurance ●Security Operations Center at Motorola ●Consulting at Motorola and Neohapsis ●Security at Obama 2012 ●Security Operations at Netflix
  4. 4. Netflix ●81+ million members ●Supporting 1,000+ device types ●Available in every* country ●Concurrent delivery from 3 global regions ●> 1/3 of all US broadband ●1,000+ of developers/1,000s of applications ●A very large monthly AWS bill ●High elasticity
  5. 5. Netflix ●Application owners “own” their own DevOps ●Immutable server pattern ●Everything scales ●The average TTL of an instance is < 3 days
  6. 6. Security @ Netflix ●A paved road ●Enablers not blockers ●Application owners “own” their security; Security teams help them make the right choices ●❤️❤️ Self-service, automation, and architecture ❤️❤️
  7. 7. Let’s talk about reactive cloud security
  8. 8. The old model ●A network firewall blocks traffic ●An intrusion prevention system blocks traffic ●A web application firewall blocks traffic ●Authentication/authorization blocks access
  9. 9. Block, block, block, block ...
  10. 10. We can do better.
  11. 11. What is Reactive Cloud Security? ●Environments should be architected for change ●Security models should understand and leverage these changes ●Reactive Cloud Security should ... • Understand the context of events within your environment • Automatically adapt the environment based on security conditions
  12. 12. That sounds great. What are some examples?
  13. 13. Environmental changes ●Scale an Auto Scaling group ●Modify security groups ●Adjust AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) object privileges ●Turn on/off logging ●Isolate a system ●Tag a system ●Redeploy a system ●Shift traffic ●...
  14. 14. OK. I get it. But how does it work?
  15. 15. The easy stuff: binary conditions ●There are things about your environment which should never change ●AWS CloudTrail should always be on ●Administrators should always have high privileges ●External traffic should only be terminated on Elastic Load Balancing load balancers ●SSL certificates should always be valid ●...
  16. 16. Less easy stuff: fuzzy conditions ●There are things about your environment that could change ●Web server CPU load should never exceed X% ●Patterns of inter-application traffic ●Engineers/administrators logging into systems ●API access patterns ●Inbound/outbound traffic patterns ●...
  17. 17. Laying the groundwork: AWS ●AWS CloudTrail • Make sure CloudTrail is turned on ... for all the things • Stream to CloudWatch logs (> 10 min latency) • Use CloudWatch Events when you can (< 1 min latency) • Connect both to AWS Lambda functions monitoring for specific conditions ●AWS Lambda functions identify, log/notify, and react to these conditions • Create specific “OK” conditions, break glass buttons, etc.
  18. 18. Laying the groundwork: Non-AWS events ●Requires a robust, reliable, and (programmatically) accessible logging infrastructure ●Access logs, authentication logs, performance logs, etc. ●A leveragable pipeline ... ELK is a good start, but not appropriate for everything • CloudWatch Logs, CloudWatch Metrics, Datadog, Statsd, $plunk, New Relic, etc. ●At Netflix we use Atlas, ES, and other big data pipelines (https://github.com/Netflix/atlas)
  19. 19. Strategy is important.
  20. 20. Three categories of events #1 Fully automatable #2 Almost automatable #3 Never automatable
  21. 21. Please talk about some more relevant buzzwords.
  22. 22. ChatOps ●Baby steps toward full reactive automation (for managing bucket #2 type events) ●Use a single shared interface to facilitate notifications, log work, provide context, and interact with tools ●Automation gets you the context and notification ●Humans approve and execute commands ●Two-factor is important!
  23. 23. Right sizing your environment ●Monitor your environment so that security policies match reality • IAM roles (look out for RepoMan from Netflix) • Security groups (working on something here too) • Amazon S3 policies 😣 ●Start off with more than you need during development ●Monitor for X days ●Adjust policy based on actual usage; expose this information! ●Enable break-glass and self-service changes to automation
  24. 24. In closing ... ●Cloud environments and modern development/deployment technologies can increase Security ●Architect for flexibility and varying security conditions ●Seek to remove practices which can’t be automated ●ChatOps and right sizing are your friends
  25. 25. Thanks! Feel free to reach out: ●bhagen@netflix.com ●benhagen@gmail.com ... or yell at me publicly: ●@benhagen

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