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Following Well Architected Frameworks - Lunch and Learn.pdf


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The AWS Well-Architected Framework enables customers to understand best practices around security, reliability, performance, cost optimization and operational excellence when building systems on AWS. This approach helps customers make informed decisions and weigh the pros and cons of application design patterns for the cloud. In this session, you'll learn how to use the Well-Architected Framework to follow AWS guidelines and best practices to your architecture on AWS.

Following Well Architected Frameworks - Lunch and Learn.pdf

  1. 1. © 2017, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. “Are you Well- Architected?” Werner Vogels
  3. 3. What is the Well-Architected Framework? Pillars Design Principles Questions
  4. 4. Pillars of Well-Architected Security Reliability Performance Efficiency Cost Optimization Operational Excellence
  5. 5. Why would I want to apply the AWS Well-Architected Framework? Build and deploy faster Lower or mitigate risks Make informed decisions Learn AWS best practices
  6. 6. A Mechanism for your Cloud Journey Learn Measure Improve
  7. 7. Pillar- Specific Design Principles General Design Principles Design Principles
  8. 8. General Design Principles Stop guessing your capacity needs Test systems at production scale Automate to make architectural experimentation easier Allow for evolutionary architectures Build data-driven architectures Improve through game days
  9. 9. AWS Reference Architectures
  10. 10. AWS Reference Serverless Micro Service Architectures AWS Serverless Multi-Tier Architectures Using Amazon API Gateway and AWS Lambda November 2015
  11. 11. AWS Foundation Services Compute Storage Database Networking AWS Global Infrastructure Regions Availability Zones Edge Locations Client-side Data Encryption Server-side Data Encryption Network Traffic Protection Platform, Applications, Identity & Access Management Operating System, Network & Firewall Configuration Customer content Customers Shared Responsibility between AWS and our customers Customers are responsible for their security IN the Cloud AWS is responsible for the security OF the Cloud
  12. 12. AWS Trusted Advisor AWS Trusted Advisor
  13. 13. AWS Well-Architected Framework Whitepapers AWS Well Architected Framework November 2016 AWS Well Architected Framework Whitepaper • Security Pillar Whitepaper • Reliability Pillar Whitepaper • Performance Efficiency Pillar Whitepaper • Cost Optimization Pillar Whitepaper • Operational Excellence Pillar Whitepaper
  14. 14. Free Online Self Paced Training Materials
  15. 15. Specialized Reviews by Architecture Type • Web Application Hosting • Content Streaming and Media Serving • COTS Enterprise Workloads (e.g. SAP, Microsoft, Oracle) • Fault Tolerance and High Availability • Large Scale Processing and Huge Data Sets • Ad Serving • Serverless • Gaming
  16. 16. AWS Well-Architected Framework Security Pillar Whitepaper Security Pillar AWS Well-Architected Framework November 2016
  17. 17. Design Principles for Security Apply security at all layers Enable traceability Implement a principle of least privilege Focus on securing your system Automate security best practices
  18. 18. Pillar Area Question Text Question Context Best Practices
  19. 19. Upload: FTP • Work through the questions • Use the questions as a prompt • CURRENT STATE – what is being done now? • TARGET STATE – what do you think they should be doing? • Not an absolute right or wrong – use case specific • It’s a guide How to Document Your System
  20. 20. Key Services for Security AWS IAM Areas Key Services Identity and Access Management Detective Controls Infrastructure Protection Data Protection Incident Response Elastic Load Balancing Amazon EBS Amazon S3 Amazon RDS AWS Key Management Service MFA Token Amazon VPC AWS CloudTrail AWS Config Amazon CloudWatch AWS IAM AWS IAM AWS CloudFormation AWS Organizations
  21. 21. AWS Organizations Control AWS service use across accounts Policy-based management for multiple AWS accounts. Consolidate billingAutomate AWS account creation AWS Organizations
  22. 22. AWS Identity & Access Management IAM Users IAM Groups IAM Roles IAM Policies • Granular access control for least privileges • Manage hierarchies of AWS Accounts with AWS Organizations • Federate with your existing directory services • Role-based access and segregation of duties • Achieve just-in-time access using automation • Create rich mobile applications without giving end-users long-term access keys IAM
  23. 23. You are making API calls... API Executed AWS CloudTrail is continuously recording API calls… And delivering log files to you AWS CLOUDTRAIL AWS CloudTrail
  24. 24. Continuous ChangeRecordingChanging Resources AWS Config History Stream Snapshot (ex. 2014-11-05) AWS Config AWS Config
  25. 25. AWS Config & Config Rules  Record configuration changes continuously  Time-series view of resource changes  Archive & Compare  Enforce best practices  Automatically roll-back unwanted changes  Trigger additional workflow AWS Config Amazon Config Rules
  26. 26. Private Subnet (Web Tier) Private Subnet (App Tier) VPC Defense in Depth Public Subnet SG-Web SG-App SG-Web SG-Web SG-App SG-App SG-ALB Allow CloudFront IP ranges only Allow SG-ALB only Allow SG-Web only
  27. 27. VPC Flow Logs • Agentless • Enable per ENI, per subnet, or per VPC • Logged to AWS CloudWatch Logs • Create CloudWatch metrics from log data • Alarm on those metrics AWS account Source IP Destination IP Source port Destination port Interface Protocol Packets Bytes Start/end time Accept or reject
  28. 28. VPC Flow Logs – CloudWatch Alarms Amazon CloudWatch alarm
  29. 29. Mitigate DDoS Threats Application DDoS Good users Bad guys Web server Database AWS Shield
  30. 30. Mitigate OWASP Application Threats Good users Bad guys Web server Database Exploit code SQL injectionXSS AWS WAF filtering rule
  31. 31. SSL/TLS  Deep integration with AWS Services  Automated Certificate Renewal  CloudTrail  No extra cost … or you can always use your own AWS Certificate Manager
  32. 32. Cryptographic Services  Deep integration with AWS Services  CloudTrail  AWS SDK for application encryption AWS KMS  Hardware Security Module  Integrate with on-premises HSMs  Hybrid Architectures Amazon CloudHSM … or you can always use your own
  33. 33. AWS CloudFormation – Infrastructure as Code AWS CloudFormation  Orchestrate changes across AWS Services  Use as foundation to Service Catalog products  Use with source code repositories to manage infrastructure changes  JSON & YAML text file describing infrastructure  Resources created from a template  Can be updated  Updates can be restricted Template Stack
  34. 34. AWS Well-Architected Framework Reliability Pillar Whitepaper Reliability Pillar AWS Well-Architected Framework November 2016
  35. 35. Design Principles for Reliability Test recovery procedures Automatically recover from failure Scale horizontally to increase aggregate system availability Stop guessing capacity Manage change in automation
  36. 36. Key Services for Reliability Areas Key Services Foundations Change management Failure management AWS IAM Amazon VPC AWS CloudTrail AWS Config AWS CloudFormation Amazon CloudWatch
  37. 37. Foundations | Limit Management How do you manage AWS service limits for your accounts?
  38. 38. Foundations | Limit Management AWS Trusted Advisor Amazon CloudWatch
  39. 39. Foundations | Limit Management Easy wins: Default service limits AWS Trusted Advisor limit checks. Increasing soft limits if needed. Things to consider: Limit monitoring (possible automation) The difference between hard and soft limits Plan for more than you need. Consider your limits across accounts. Fixed Limit - 125 peering connections per VPC Fixed Limit - 100 routes across Direct Connect
  40. 40. Foundations | Limit Management
  41. 41. Foundations | Limit Management
  42. 42. Foundations | Limit Management
  43. 43. Foundations | Limit Management
  44. 44. Foundations | Limit Management
  45. 45. Foundations | Network Topology How are you planning your network topology on AWS?
  46. 46. Foundations | Network Topology Amazon VPC AWS Direct Connect VPN Gateway
  47. 47. Foundations | Network Topology Easy wins: Redundant networking built in to AWS regions. Highly available load balancing, DNS. Choose correct CIDR masks. Things to consider: Default VPC quick and resilient, but plan your own. Redundant connectivity to office/datacentre? VPN or Direct Connect? IP subnet address ranges overlap for VPC peering.
  48. 48. Change Management
  49. 49. Change Management | Monitoring How are you monitoring AWS resources?
  50. 50. Change Management | Monitoring Amazon CloudWatch Amazon S3 Amazon QuickSight
  51. 51. Change Management | Monitoring Easy wins: Amazon CloudWatch deep integration with AWS services. Built-in CloudWatch metrics. Highly durable CloudWatch logs. Things to consider: Integrate existing log solutions like Greylog or Splunk. Automate responses to alerts. Use Amazon EMR to gain insights. Long term event trigger refinement.
  52. 52. Change Management | Change Execution How are you executing change?
  53. 53. Change Management | Change Execution AWS CloudFormation AWS CodePipeline AWS CodeDeploy
  54. 54. Change Management | Change Execution Easy wins: Infrastructure as code for simple services. Version control infrastructure for change and rollback. Environments kept consistent. Things to consider: CI/CD pipeline is a long term strategy. Continuous Delivery is different to Deployment. Identify automation candidates. Shift approvals to the left.
  55. 55. Failure Management | Data Durability How are you backing up your data?
  56. 56. Failure Management | Data Durability Amazon S3 AWS KMS Amazon EBS
  57. 57. Failure Management | Data Durability Easy wins: S3 designed for 99.99999999999% durability. Frequent snapshots of EBS volumes. RDS takes regular incremental snapshots. Things to consider: Durability requirements, ease of snapshots, speed, cost. Encryption of your data and management of keys. Periodic recovery testing to meet RPO and RTO.
  58. 58. Failure Management | Recovery Planning How are you testing your resiliency?
  59. 59. Failure Management | Recovery Planning AWS CloudFormation AWS SDKs
  60. 60. Failure Management | Recovery Planning Easy wins: Automated infrastructure for flexible testing. Chaos Monkey and the Simian Army for failure injection. Scheduling game days to break your system. Things to consider: Make sure your build servers are reliable as well. Do your playbooks sufficiently cover recovery pathways? Learn from your failures with Root Cause Analysis.
  61. 61. Failure Management | Recovery Planning How are you planning for disaster recovery?
  62. 62. Failure Management | Recovery Planning AWS IAM Amazon S3 Amazon Glacier
  63. 63. Failure Management | Recovery Planning Easy wins: Automated system recovery using infrastructure as code. Versioning in S3 with object lifecycle policies easy to turn on. Use another region or account to test failover. Knowledge base for capturing incident responses. Things to consider: RPOs and RTOs need to be defined first. Manage data access policies with IAM. Be aware of Configuration drift. Consider continuous availability.
  64. 64. Three Key Takeaways 1. Don’t forget the foundations. 2. Continually monitor your environment for events and analysis. 3. Automate, test and iterate.
  65. 65. AWS Well-Architected Framework Performance Efficiency Pillar Whitepaper Performance Efficiency Pillar AWS Well-Architected Framework November 2016
  66. 66. Design Principles for Performance Efficiency Democratize advanced technologies Go global in minutes Use serverless architectures Experiment more often Mechanical sympathy
  67. 67. Key Services for Performance Efficiency Areas Key Services Selection Review Monitoring Trade-Off Amazon EBS Amazon S3 Amazon RDSAuto Scaling Amazon Glacier Amazon CloudFront Amazon DynamoDB Amazon CloudWatch AWS Lambda Amazon Elasticache AWSSnowball AWS CloudFormation AWS Blog Amazon CloudWatch
  68. 68. Instances • CPU • Memory • EBS • GPU Containers • EC2 type • Memory • CPU • tenancy hi1.4xlarge m2.4xlarge m1.small • Functions – Memory – Execution time – Concurrency • Elasticity – Demand-based – Buffer-based – Time-based Selection | Compute
  69. 69. Key service for elastic compute solutions: Auto Scaling Selection | Compute
  70. 70. Characteristics Amazon EBS Amazon EFS Instance Storage Amazon S3 Amazon Glacier Selection | Storage
  71. 71. Selection | Storage Characteristics: - Availability - Consistency - Partition Tolerance - Latency - Durability - Scalability - Query capability Configuration options: - Cache - Memory - Database level settings - Storage optimisation Access Patterns: - Indexes - Key distribution - Partition - Horizontal scaling
  72. 72. Selection | Database Amazon DynamoDB Amazon ElastiCache Amazon RDS Amazon Redshift Fully Managed No-SQL - Fast and Predictable - Seamless Scalability - Secondary Indexing - Managed Table Partitioning In-Memory Cache - Memcached/Redis - High Performance - Supports Sharding, Clustering, Read Replicas Managed Relational DB - Industry standard relational databases - Options for Read Replicas, Provisioned IOPs, Indexes Data Warehouse - Fully Managed - Petabyte-scale - Columnar Storage - Specify sort keys, distribution keys, column encoding
  73. 73. Selection | Network Location (Regions and Availability Zones) - Where your users are located - Where your data is located - Other constraints (e.g. Security, compliance) Considerations: - Placement Groups - Edge Locations - DNS - Route53 edge location
  74. 74. AWS Well-Architected Framework Cost Optimization Pillar Whitepaper Cost Optimization Pillar AWS Well-Architected Framework November 2016
  75. 75. Design Principles for Cost Optimization Adopt a consumption model Benefit from economies of scale Stop spending money on data center operations Analyze and attribute expenditure Use managed services to reduce cost of ownership
  76. 76. Key Services for Cost Optimization Areas Key Services Cost-effective resources Matched supply and demand Expenditure awareness Optimizing over time Amazon CloudWatch Auto Scaling Amazon SNS Reserved Instances AWS Trusted Advisor AWS Blog & What’s New Cost Allocation Tags
  77. 77. How do you visualize and allocate costs for chargeback Cost explorer in the “billing and management” console
  78. 78. Tagging resources – add your own metadata (Almost) everything in AWS can be tagged Each tag is a key and an optional value Up to 10 tags per resource Project = natasha Stack = Development DevTribe = Tribe3 ticket = 78912 EC2 instance name i-4a1c2f5d RDS instance name d-6x3r2f7h Owner = DBAdmin Stack = Production Department = Accounts CostCenter = 8899 Project = BAU Key ValueKey Value Project = natasha Owner = DBAdmin Department = Accounts Stack = Production S3 bucket name s378236 Key Value ticket = 78912 CostCenter = 8899
  79. 79. Tagging resources – Now you have metadata you can pivot E.G. Accurately measure What resources (name) did project = natasha use? E.G. Chargeback how much (monthly $) did department = accounts spend? what proportion (monthly $) of ticket = 78921 should be charged to stack = production? Project Natasha Natasha BAU Stack t Developmen t Production Production Devtribe Tribe3 Ticket 78921 78912 Owner DBAdmin DBAdmin Depart Accounts Accounts Cost center 8899 8899 EC2 S3 RDS $680 $700 $45 Monthly $Name
  80. 80. Auto scaling: variable workloads CloudWatch for usage start more instances when usage is high stop instances when usage is low Time Based : For development and scheduled workloads 720 hours in a month 160 business hours in a month 80% saving if you switch them off Strategies to make sure your capacity matches, but does not substantially exceed what you need
  81. 81. Example – using CloudWatch metrics to control Auto-Scaling Single large instance = wasted capacity Autoscaling with cloudwatch = less wasted capacity Autoscaling with cloudwatch and appropriate instance size = Cost optimized Time Utilization Time Utilization Time Utilization
  82. 82. EC2 instance types – consider RAM usage Monitor RAM with a CloudWatch custom metric h/latest/DeveloperGuide/mon-scripts.html EBS Provisioned IOPS EBS General Purpose S3 Standard S3 Reduced redundancy Glacier EC2 c3.8xlarge 32 x vCPU, 60GB RAM EC2 r3.8xlarge 32 x vCPU, 244GB RAM Greatest Savings Greatest PerformanceGreatest Performance EBS Magnetic Storage Types – choose the right storage class for your workload Selecting appropriate EC2 instance types and storage types meet cost targets 50% saving
  83. 83. Cost optimizing EC2 instances – same technology – optimized commercials EC2 “On Demand” – scale up and down for dynamic workloads EC2 “Reserved instances” - reduce costs for steady state workloads EC2 “Spot instances” – Lowest possible price for time insensitive workloads The technology is the same BUT You can pick a commercial model that meets your business need Serverless Compute – event based computing model with step change in price Or Managed services with consumption based pricing models
  84. 84. AWS Well-Architected Framework Operational Excellence Pillar Whitepaper Operational Excellence Pillar AWS Well-Architected Framework Coming Soon
  85. 85. Design Principles for Operational Excellence Perform Operations with Code Align Operations Processes to Business Objectives Make Regular, Small, Incremental Changes Test for Responses to Unexpected Events Learn from Operational Events and Failures Keep Operations Procedures Current
  86. 86. Topics explored in Operations Excellence Pillar • What best practices for cloud operations are you using? • How are you doing configuration management for your workload? • How are you evolving your workload while minimizing the impact of change? • How do you monitor your workload to ensure it is operating as expected? • How do you respond to unplanned operational events? • How is escalation managed when responding to unplanned operational events?
  87. 87. Areas Key Services Preparation Operations Responses Key Services for Operational Excellence AWS CloudTrail AWS Config AWS CloudFormation Amazon CloudWatch Amazon CloudWatch AWS CloudFormation AWS CloudFormation Lambda RunCommand Batch Lambda RunCommand Batch Lambda RunCommand Batch AWS Config AWS Config AWS Developer Tools AWS CloudFormation AWS CloudTrail AWS Developer Tools AWS Developer Tools
  88. 88. Preparation Checklists Runbooks Playbooks Traceable changes Auto Scaling AWS CloudFormation Amazon CloudWatch AWS Config AWS CloudTrail
  89. 89. Operations CI/CD Pipeline • Releases • Build Systems • Deployment and rollback • Testing Centralised monitoring and logs Alerts and Automated responses Amazon CloudWatchAlarms
  90. 90. Responses CloudWatch Events CloudWatch Alarms AWS Config and Rules Lambda
  91. 91. Use CloudWatch Events and Lambda cloudwatch-events/
  92. 92. Benefits of Well-Architected Think Cloud-Natively Consistent Approach to Reviewing Architecture Understand Potential Impact Visibility of Risks
  93. 93. Preparing for Well Architected Review • Complete the Online Training • Perform Customer Self Assessment • Evaluate Automated Assessment Tools • Certified APN Partner Led Assessment • AWS Account Team Engagement & Review • Work with AWS SA on any Remediation Plans
  94. 94. AWS Well Architected Report Format
  95. 95. For More Information… AWS Well-Architected Framework Whitepaper Pillar Specific Whitepapers Free Online Training