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México D.F.
EC2: Avanzado
Henry Alvarado
Arquitecto de soluciones
Amazon Web Services
• Qué es la plataforma de instancias EC2 y una
pequeña cartilla sobre virtualización.
• Cómo obtener lo máximo de su exper...
Plataforma de instancias EC2
EC2
EC2
Amazon EC2 Instances
Host Server
Hypervisor
Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest n
c3.large
Familia
Generación de la instancia
Tamaño
Cartilla en virtualización: x86 CPU
• Antes de Intel VT-x
– Traducción binaria
– Para-virtualization (PV)
• Luego de Intel...
Host Server
Hypervisor
Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest n
Cartilla en virtualización: I/O and Devices
• Agendamiento de I/O requests entre
dispositivos virtuales y hardware físico
...
Nuestra filosofía
• Más grande, más rápido, más
económico, consistente y flexible
• Nuestro objetivo en performance es el
...
Cómo obtener el máximo de su experiencia con EC2
Instancias T2: Bajo costo
Instancias T2: Resumen
• Instancias EC2 de bajo costo. Hasta $0.013 por
hora.
• Performance Variable vs. Fijo
Name vCPUs
B...
Tip: Entienda cómo funcionan los créditos de CPU
• http://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/low-cost-
burstable-ec2-instances/
• ht...
Cómo funcionan los créditos?
Baseline Rate
Credit
Balance
• Un crédito de CPU provee el
performance de un core de CPU
comp...
Los créditos de CPU
• Un crédito de CPU provee el performance de un
core de CPU completo por un minuto.
• Se provee con un...
Tip: Monitoree sus créditos de CPU
Instancias I2: Alto I/O
Instancias I2: Resumen
• 16 vCPU: 3.2 TB SSD; 32 vCPU: 6.4 TB SSD
• 365K random read IOPS for 32 vCPU instance
Model vCPU ...
Host Server
Hypervisor
Guest 4 Guest 5 Guest 6
Host Server
Hypervisor
Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest 3
Tip: Use el kernel 3.8+
• Amazon Linux 13.09 or later
• Ubuntu 14.04 or later
• RHEL7 or later
• Etc.
Antes de los Kernels -3.8.0
• Todos los I/O deben pasar a través del I/O Domain
• Requiere un “grant mapping” antes del ke...
3.8.0+ Kernels – Persistente e indirecto
• Grant mappings son definidos por grupos una sola vez
• La data es copiada desde...
Tip: Ejecute TRIM o realice Overprovision
SSDs y Wear Leveling
• FLASH tiene un número limitado de escrituras por
cada sector físico
– Los sectores se degradan; deb...
Capa de traducción Flash
• Todas las escrituras van al TAIL
• Escritas aleatorias == Escritas secuenciales
• Desgaste homo...
Garbage Collection
• Nuevas escrituras tienen que buscar espacio disponible.
• Resulta en pausas de garbage collection
• G...
Instancias C4: Alto poder de
Cómputo
Instancias C4: Resumen
• Intel E5-2666 v3 at 2.9 GHz
• EBS-Optimized por defecto
• Enhanced networking
Model vCPU Memory (...
Tip: Usen PV-HVM AMIs con EBS
Por qué PV-HVM es más rápido que PV
• PV-HVM permite al Application llamar directamente al Kernel
• PV requiere ir a travé...
Tip: Usen TSC como clocksource
Manteniendo el tiempo
• Llevar el tiempo en una instancia es engañosamente difícil
• gettimeofday(), clock_gettime(), Quer...
Resumen
Resumen
• Esta información es solo la superficie de lo que
podríamos hablar
• Pasen por la documentación de EC2 para más t...
EC2
EC2
EC2 Avanzado
EC2 Avanzado
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EC2 Avanzado

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EC2 Avanzado

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EC2 Avanzado

  1. 1. México D.F.
  2. 2. EC2: Avanzado Henry Alvarado Arquitecto de soluciones Amazon Web Services
  3. 3. • Qué es la plataforma de instancias EC2 y una pequeña cartilla sobre virtualización. • Cómo obtener lo máximo de su experiencia con EC2 desde la lente de tres tipos de instancias? • Cómo pensar sobre el futuro de las instancias EC2 Agenda
  4. 4. Plataforma de instancias EC2
  5. 5. EC2 EC2
  6. 6. Amazon EC2 Instances Host Server Hypervisor Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest n
  7. 7. c3.large Familia Generación de la instancia Tamaño
  8. 8. Cartilla en virtualización: x86 CPU • Antes de Intel VT-x – Traducción binaria – Para-virtualization (PV) • Luego de Intel VT-x – Virtualización asistida por hardware (HVM) • PV vs. HVM Amazon Machine Images • Opciones de agendamiento vCPU y variabilidad
  9. 9. Host Server Hypervisor Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest n
  10. 10. Cartilla en virtualización: I/O and Devices • Agendamiento de I/O requests entre dispositivos virtuales y hardware físico compartido • Modelo de driver separado para dispositivos compartidos; requiere recursos de host • Intel VT-d – Direct pass through y IOMMU para dispositivos dedicados
  11. 11. Nuestra filosofía • Más grande, más rápido, más económico, consistente y flexible • Nuestro objetivo en performance es el bare metal • Los clientes nos ayudan a priorizar nuestro roadmap • Mirada bajo el capó a través de la lente de tres nuevas plataformas: C4, T2 e I2
  12. 12. Cómo obtener el máximo de su experiencia con EC2
  13. 13. Instancias T2: Bajo costo
  14. 14. Instancias T2: Resumen • Instancias EC2 de bajo costo. Hasta $0.013 por hora. • Performance Variable vs. Fijo Name vCPUs Baseline Performance Platform RAM (GiB) CPU Credits / Hour t2.micro 1 10% 32-bit or 64-bit 1 6 t2.small 1 20% 32-bit or 64-bit 2 12 t2.medium 2 40% 32-bit or 64-bit 4 24 t2.large 2 60% 64-bit 8 36NEW!
  15. 15. Tip: Entienda cómo funcionan los créditos de CPU • http://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/low-cost- burstable-ec2-instances/ • http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/t2/ • Attend this session
  16. 16. Cómo funcionan los créditos? Baseline Rate Credit Balance • Un crédito de CPU provee el performance de un core de CPU completo por un minuto. • Una instancia gana créditos de CPU a una tasa constante. • Una instancia consume los créditos cuando está activa. • Los créditos expiran (desbordan) en el tiempo. Burst Rate
  17. 17. Los créditos de CPU • Un crédito de CPU provee el performance de un core de CPU completo por un minuto. • Se provee con una balance inicial de créditos para una buena experiencia durante el arranque. • Se usan créditos cuando se está activo y se acumulan cuando se está en reposo. • Transparentes con los balances de créditos.
  18. 18. Tip: Monitoree sus créditos de CPU
  19. 19. Instancias I2: Alto I/O
  20. 20. Instancias I2: Resumen • 16 vCPU: 3.2 TB SSD; 32 vCPU: 6.4 TB SSD • 365K random read IOPS for 32 vCPU instance Model vCPU Memory (GiB) Storage Read IOPS Write IOPS i2.xlarge 4 30.5 1 x 800 SSD 35,000 35,000 i2.2xlarge 8 61 2 x 800 SSD 75,000 75,000 i2.4xlarge 16 122 4 x 800 SSD 175,000 155,000 i2.8xlarge 32 244 8 x 800 SSD 365,000 315,000
  21. 21. Host Server Hypervisor Guest 4 Guest 5 Guest 6 Host Server Hypervisor Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest 3
  22. 22. Tip: Use el kernel 3.8+ • Amazon Linux 13.09 or later • Ubuntu 14.04 or later • RHEL7 or later • Etc.
  23. 23. Antes de los Kernels -3.8.0 • Todos los I/O deben pasar a través del I/O Domain • Requiere un “grant mapping” antes del kernel 3.8.0 • Grant mappings son operaciones costosas debido a los TLB flushes read(fd, buffer, BLOCK_SIZE)
  24. 24. 3.8.0+ Kernels – Persistente e indirecto • Grant mappings son definidos por grupos una sola vez • La data es copiada desde y hacia el grant pool • El copiado es significativamente más rápido que el re mapeo read(fd, buffer, BLOCK_SIZE)
  25. 25. Tip: Ejecute TRIM o realice Overprovision
  26. 26. SSDs y Wear Leveling • FLASH tiene un número limitado de escrituras por cada sector físico – Los sectores se degradan; deben ser borrados antes de re escribir en ellos – Borrar coloca a todo 1s, lo que es lento • Los firmware modernos son muy sofisticados para extender la vida de FLASH • TRIM y/o over provisioning ayuda a evitar el garbage collection y el write amplification
  27. 27. Capa de traducción Flash • Todas las escrituras van al TAIL • Escritas aleatorias == Escritas secuenciales • Desgaste homogéneo de los sectores (Wear Leveling) HEAD TAIL
  28. 28. Garbage Collection • Nuevas escrituras tienen que buscar espacio disponible. • Resulta en pausas de garbage collection • Grandes escrituras pueden requerir desfragmentación. HEAD TAIL
  29. 29. Instancias C4: Alto poder de Cómputo
  30. 30. Instancias C4: Resumen • Intel E5-2666 v3 at 2.9 GHz • EBS-Optimized por defecto • Enhanced networking Model vCPU Memory (GiB) c4.large 2 3.75 c4.xlarge 4 7.5 c4.2xlarge 8 15 c4.4xlarge 16 30 c4.8xlarge 32 60
  31. 31. Tip: Usen PV-HVM AMIs con EBS
  32. 32. Por qué PV-HVM es más rápido que PV • PV-HVM permite al Application llamar directamente al Kernel • PV requiere ir a través del VMM • Las aplicaciones que son restrictas a llamadas del sistema son las más afectadas. Kernel Application Kernel Application VMM Application VMM Kernel Bare Metal PV-HVM PV
  33. 33. Tip: Usen TSC como clocksource
  34. 34. Manteniendo el tiempo • Llevar el tiempo en una instancia es engañosamente difícil • gettimeofday(), clock_gettime(), QueryPerformanceCounter() • El TSC – Contador de CPU, accesible desde el userspace – Sin cambios a partir de los procesadores Sandy Bridge+ • Por defecto está el Xen pvclock. • En las generaciones actuales de instancias, use TSC como clocksource
  35. 35. Resumen
  36. 36. Resumen • Esta información es solo la superficie de lo que podríamos hablar • Pasen por la documentación de EC2 para más trucos y tips
  37. 37. EC2 EC2

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