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© 2016, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved.
Alex Corley – Solutions Architect
Public Sector - State and Local Government
June 2016
Infrastructure as Code
Best Practices on AWS
Learning objectives
• Understand Infrastructure as Code
• Understand the AWS services that help you manage
your infrastructure as code
• Discover best practices for managing your AWS
infrastructure, host configuration, and applications
Background
Moving to the cloud and AWS allows you to provision and
manage infrastructure in new ways:
• Infrastructure can be provisioned in seconds
• Scale can be achieved without complicated capacity
planning
• APIs let you interact with infrastructure using languages
typically used in applications
What is Infrastructure as Code?
A practice in which traditional infrastructure management
techniques are supplemented by or replaced with code-
based tools and software development techniques
Infrastructure as Code workflow
Code
Version
Control
Code
Review
Integrate Deploy
Infrastructure as Code workflow
Code
Version
Control
Code
Review
Integrate Deploy
Text Editor
Git/SVN/
Perforce
Review
Tools
Syntax
Validation
Tools
AWS
Services
Infrastructure as Code workflow
“It’s all software”
Code
Version
Control
Code
Review
Integrate Deploy
Text Editor
Git/SVN/
Perforce
Review
Tools
Syntax
Validation
Tools
AWS
Services
Application Configuration
AWS Resources
Infrastructure as Code workflow
Operating System and Host Configuration
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
Infrastructure Resource
Management
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
Infrastructure Resource
Management
Host Configuration
Management
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
Infrastructure Resource
Management
Host Configuration
Management
Application Deployment
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
AWS CloudFormation
AWS OpsWorks
AWS CodeDeploy
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
AWS CloudFormation
AWS OpsWorks
AWS CodeDeploy
Amazon Virtual Private
Cloud (Amazon VPC)
Amazon Elastic Compute
Cloud (Amazon EC2)
AWS Identity and Access
Management (IAM)
Amazon Relational Database
Service (Amazon RDS)
Amazon Simple Storage
Service (Amazon S3)
AWS CodePipeline
…
Microsoft Windows Registry
Linux networking
OpenSSH
LDAP
Active Directory domain
registration
Centralized logging
System metrics
Deployment agents
Host monitoring
…
Application dependencies
Application configuration
Service registration
Management scripts
Database credentials
…
allOfThis == $Code
AWS CloudFormation
• Create templates that describe
and model AWS infrastructure
• CloudFormation then provisions
AWS resources based on
dependency needs
• Perform version control on,
replicate, and update the
templates like app code
• Integrates with development,
CI/CD, management tools
• No additional charge to use
Benefits
Templated resource
provisioning
Infrastructure
as code
Declarative
and flexible
Easy to use
CloudFormation concepts and technology
JSON formatted file
Parameter definition
Resource creation
Configuration actions
Framework
Stack creation
Stack updates
Error detection and rollback
Configured AWS resources
Comprehensive service support
Service event aware
Customizable
Template CloudFormation Stack
Anatomy of a CloudFormation template: JSON
Plain text
Perfect for version control
Can be validated
Anatomy of a CloudFormation template: JSON
{
"AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09",
"Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template
EC2InstanceSample: **WARNING** This template an Amazon EC2 instances.
You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack
from this template.",
"Parameters" : {
"KeyName" : {
"Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH
access to the instance",
"Type" : "String"
},
"Environment": {
"Type" : "String",
"Default" : ”Dev",
"AllowedValues" : [”Mgmt", "Dev", ”Staging", "Prod"],
"Description" : "Environment that the instances will run in.”
}
},
"Mappings" : {
"RegionMap" : {
"us-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-7f418316" },
"us-west-2" : { "AMI" : "ami-16fd7026" }
}
},
"Conditions" : {
”EnableEBSOptimized" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : " Environment
"}, ”Prod"]},
},
"Resources" : {
"Ec2Instance" : {
"Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance",
"Properties" : {
"KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" },
"EbsOptimized " : {"Fn::If": [ " EnableEBSOptimized ",
{“true”}, {“false”}]},
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" :
"AWS::Region" }, "AMI" ]},
"UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : "80" }
}
}
},
"Outputs" : {
"InstanceId" : {
"Description" : "InstanceId of the newly created EC2 instance",
"Value" : { "Ref" : "Ec2Instance" }
},
"PublicDNS" : {
"Description" : "Public DNSName of the newly created EC2
instance",
"Value" : { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "Ec2Instance", "PublicDnsName" ] }
}
}
}
Anatomy of a CloudFormation template: JSON
Parameters
"Parameters" : {
"KeyName" : {
"Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable
SSH access to the instance",
"Type" : "String"
},
"Environment": {
"Type" : "String",
"Default" : ”Dev",
"AllowedValues" : [”Mgmt", "Dev", ”Staging", "Prod"],
"Description" : "Environment that the instances will run
in.”
}
},
Mappings
"Mappings" : {
"RegionMap" : {
"us-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-7f418316" },
"us-west-2" : { "AMI" : "ami-16fd7026" }
}
},
Conditionals
"Conditions" : {
”EnableEBSOptimized" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : " Environment "}, ”Prod"]},
},
Resources
"Resources" : {
"Ec2Instance" : {
"Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance",
"Properties" : {
"KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" },
"EbsOptimized " : {"Fn::If": [ " EnableEBSOptimized ", {“true”}, {“false”}]},
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" },
"AMI" ]},
"UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : "80" }
}
}
},
Outputs
Outputs" : {
"InstanceId" : {
"Description" : "InstanceId of the newly created EC2 instance",
"Value" : { "Ref" : "Ec2Instance" }
},
"PublicDNS" : {
"Description" : "Public DNSName of the newly created EC2 instance",
"Value" : { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "Ec2Instance", "PublicDnsName" ] }
}
}
}
Headers
{
"AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09",
"Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template
EC2InstanceSample: **WARNING** This template an Amazon EC2
instances. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you
create a stack from this template.",
Description of what your stack does, contains, and so on
Provision time values that add structured flexibility and customization
Predefined conditional case statements
Conditional values set through evaluations of passed references
AWS resource definitions
Resulting attributes of stack resource creation
Headers
Parameters
Mappings
Conditionals
Resources
Outputs
Template components
Template example
Templates (in action):
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" },
{"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]},
Template example
Templates (in action):
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" },
{"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]},
“AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map
Template example
Templates (in action):
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" },
“AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map
{"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]},
“AWSInstanceType2Virt” map
Template example
Templates (in action):
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" },
“AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map
{"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt",
“AWSInstanceType2Virt” map
{ "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]},
“myInstanceType” parameter
Template example
Templates (in action):
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI",
“AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map
{"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt",
“AWSInstanceType2Virt” map
{ "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]},
“myInstanceType” parameter
{ "Ref" : "AWS::Region" },
AWS::Region pseudo parameter
Template example
"myInstanceType" : {
"Type" : "String",
"Default" : "t2.large",
"AllowedValues" :
["t2.micro", "t2.small",
"t2.medium", "t2.large"],
"Description" : "Instance
type for instances created, must
be in the t2 family."
}
"AWSInstanceType2Virt": {
"t2.micro": {"Virt":
"HVM"},
"t2.small": {"Virt":
"HVM"},
"t2.medium": {"Virt":
"HVM"},
"t2.large": {"Virt":
"HVM"},
}
"AWSRegionVirt2AMI": {
"us-east-1": {
"PVM": "ami-50842d38",
"HVM": "ami-08842d60"
},
"us-west-2": {
"PVM": "ami-af86c69f",
"HVM": "ami-8786c6b7"
},
"us-west-1": {
"PVM": "ami-c7a8a182",
"HVM": "ami-cfa8a18a"
}
}
Parameters: Mappings: Mappings:
Bootstrapping applications and handling updates
"Resources" : {
"Ec2Instance" : {
"Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance",
"Properties" : {
"KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" },
"SecurityGroups" : [ { "Ref" : "InstanceSecurityGroup" } ],
"ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "AMI" ]},
"UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["",[
"#!/bin/bash -ex","n",
"yum -y install gcc-c++ make","n",
"yum -y install mysql-devel sqlite-devel","n",
"yum -y install ruby-rdoc rubygems ruby-mysql ruby-devel","n",
"gem install --no-ri --no-rdoc rails","n",
"gem install --no-ri --no-rdoc mysql","n",
"gem install --no-ri --no-rdoc sqlite3","n",
"rails new myapp","n",
"cd myapp","n",
"rails server -d","n"]]}}
}
}
Option 1: Use Amazon EC2 UserData, which is available as a property of
AWS::EC2::Instance resources
cfn-init
cfn-hup
Bootstrapping applications and handling updates
Option 2: CloudFormation provides
helper scripts for deployment within
your EC2 instances
Metadata key—
AWS::CloudFormation::Init
The cfn-init helper script reads this
metadata key and installs the
packages listed in this key (for
example, httpd, mysql, and php); cfn-
init also retrieves and expands files
listed as sources
EC2
CloudFormation
cfn-signal
cfn-get-
metadata
Bootstrapping example
"Metadata": {
"AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : {
"config" : {
"packages" : {
},
"sources" : {
},
"commands" : {
},
"files" : {
},
"services" : {
},
"users" : {
},
"groups" : {
}
}
}
Use AWS::CloudFormation::Init with cfn-init to help bootstrap instances:
Bootstrapping example
“WebAppHost" : {
"Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance",
"Metadata" : {
"AWS:CloudFormation::Init" : {
"config" : {
"packages" : {
"yum" : {
"gcc" : [],
"gcc-c++" : [],
"make" : [],
"automake" : [],
Install packages with the native package management tool:
Manage a wide range of AWS services and resources
• Amazon EC2
• Amazon EC2 Container Service
• Amazon EC2 Container Registry
• Amazon EC2 Simple Systems Manager
• AWS Lambda (including event sources)
• AWS Elastic Beanstalk
• Auto Scaling (including Spot fleet)
• Amazon VPC and Managed NAT Gateway
• Elastic Load Balancing
• Amazon Route 53
• Amazon CloudFront
• AWS WAF
• Amazon S3
• Amazon RDS
• Amazon Redshift
• Amazon DynamoDB
• Amazon ElastiCache
• Amazon RDS (including Amazon Aurora)
• Amazon Elastic MapReduce
• Amazon Elasticsearch Service
• AWS Data Pipeline
• AWS Identity and Access Management (including
managed policies)
• AWS Directory Service (Amazon Simple AD) / Microsoft
Active Directory
• Amazon Kinesis
• Amazon SNS
• Amazon SQS
• AWS CloudTrail
• Amazon CloudWatch
• AWS Config
• AWS Key Management Service
• AWS OpsWorks
• AWS CodeDeploy
• AWS CodePipeline
• Amazon WorkSpaces
• Amazon GameLift
AWS resource support is always growing. See the most up-to-date list here.
Template file
defining stack
• The entire infrastructure can
be represented in a
CloudFormation template
Many stacks and environments from one template
Template file
defining stack
• The entire infrastructure can
be represented in a
CloudFormation template
• Use the version control
system of your choice to
store and track changes to
this template
Git
Perforce
SVN
…
Many stacks and environments from one template
Template file
defining stack
• The entire infrastructure can
be represented in a
CloudFormation template
• Use the version control
system of your choice to
store and track changes to
this template
• Build out multiple
environments, such as for
development, test,
production, and even disaster
recovery, using the same
template
Git
Perforce
SVN
…
Dev
Test
Prod
Many stacks and environments from one template
Infrastructure as Code with CloudFormation
Versioning
You track changes within your code
Do it with your infrastructure:
• What is changing?
• Who made that change?
• When was it made?
• Why was it made?(Is it tied to a ticket or bug or project system?)
Testing your CloudFormation templates
Testing your template:
• Validate by using API or AWS Command Line Interface (CLI)
• $ aws cloudformation validate-template—confirm
CloudFormation syntax
• Use something like JSONLint (http://jsonlint.com/) to find
JSON issues like missing commas or brackets
• Throw this into your testing and/or continuous integration
pipelines
Visualizing your CloudFormation templates
• AWS
CloudFormation
Designer
• Visualize template
resources
• Modify template
with drag and drop
gestures
• Customize sample
templates
Deploying your CloudFormation templates
Deploy and update by using console, API, or CLI
OR
• aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name
myteststack --template-body
file:////home//local//test//sampletemplate.json --
parameters
ParameterKey=string,ParameterValue=string
But what do we do once your
resources are provisioned and
running?
Your infrastructure needs ongoing management
• Updates or patches?
• New software?
• New configurations?
• New code deployments?
• Pool-specific changes?
• Environment-specific changes?
• Run commands across all hosts?
• Be on top of all running resources?
Ongoing management requires proper tooling
Some common challenges:
• Changing a vhost configuration on every web server across
multiple environments (development, staging, production)
• Installing a package on certain hosts to test out newer versions
• Changing the LDAP configuration on every running Amazon EC2
Linux host when the hosts exist across 25 different CloudFormation
templates
We need a tool to interact with
each host that we manage and
that makes it easier to
configure these hosts
AWS OpsWorks
• Configuration management service
for automating operational tasks
using Chef
• Model, control, and automate
applications of nearly any scale and
complexity
• Manage Linux and Microsoft
Windows environments
• Supports both AWS and on-
premises servers
• Launched in 2013
AWS OpsWorks concepts
A stack represents
the cloud
infrastructure and
applications that
you want to manage
together
A layer defines how
to set up and
configure a set of
instances and
related resources
You decide how to
scale: manually,
with 24/7 instances,
or automatically,
with load-based or
time-based
instances
Then deploy your
app to specific
instances and
customize the
deployment with
Chef recipes
AWS OpsWorks concepts: instance lifecycle
Set up Configure Deploy Undeploy Shut down
An agent on each instance understands a
set of commands that are triggered by
OpsWorks. The agent when triggered runs
Chef.
OpsWorks agent communication
1. The EC2 instance connects with the
OpsWorks service to send keepalive/
heartbeat and receive lifecycle events
2. OpsWorks sends a lifecycle event with a
pointer to the configuration JSON
(metadata, recipes) in an S3 bucket
3. The agent downloads configuration
JSON
4. The agent pulls cookbooks and other
build assets from your repository
5. The agent executes the recipe
6. The agent uploads the Chef log
7. The agent reports Chef run status
EC2
instance
OpsWorks
service
“Deploy App”
Your
repository,
for example
GitHub







How OpsWorks bootstraps EC2 instances
The EC2 instance is started by using an IAM role
• UserData passed with instance private key, OpsWorks public key
• The instance downloads and installs the OpsWorks agent
The agent connects to the instance service, gets run info
• Authenticates the instance using the instance’s IAM role
• Picks up configuration JSON from the OpsWorks instance queue
• Decrypts and verifies the message, runs Chef recipes
• Uploads Chef log, returns Chef run status
The agent then polls the instance service for more messages
AWS OpsWorks + Chef
OpsWorks uses Chef to configure the software on the
instance
OpsWorks provides many Chef Server functions to users
• Associates cookbooks with instances
• Dynamic metadata describes each registered node in the
infrastructure
Supports "push" command and control client runs
Supports community cookbooks
Working with Chef and OpsWorks
Similar to CloudFormation templates and application code:
• Mixture of JSON and a Ruby DSL
• Tools exist to do linting and syntax checking
• Versioning
• Built in cookbook versioning
• Some manual/processes scripted abilities
• But still can use source control for versioning
• Use with continuous integration systems like
CloudFormation templates and the rest of your code
Working with Chef and OpsWorks
Basics:
• Nodes
• Roles
• Cookbooks
• Recipes
• Attributes
• Data bags
• Environments
Host configuration management with Chef
package "ntp" do
action :install
end
service "ntpd" do
supports :status => true, :restart => true, :reload => true
action [ :enable, :start ]
end
cookbook_file "/etc/ntp.conf" do
source "ntp.conf"
owner "root"
group "root"
mode 00644
# Restart ntp.conf if /etc/ntp.conf changes
notifies :restart, resources(:service => "ntpd")
End
group "ganglia" do
gid 499
end
user "ganglia" do
home "/var/lib/ganglia"
shell "/sbin/nologin"
uid 499
gid "ganglia"
end
directory "/etc/ganglia" do
action :create
end
Examples:
Host configuration management with Chef
template "/etc/ganglia/gmond.conf" do
source "gmond.conf.erb"
owner "root"
group "root"
mode 00644
notifies :restart, resources(:service => "gmond")
variables(
:gmetad_name => node[:ganglia][:gmetad_name],
:cluster_name => node[:ganglia][:cluster_name]
)
end
cron "all-gmetrics" do
command "for FILE in `ls /opt/bin/gmetric-*`; do command $FILE; done >/dev/null 2>&1"
end
Examples:
Custom JSON
{
"opsworks": {
"data_bags": {
"myapp": {
"mysql": {
"username": "default-user",
"password": "default-pass"
}
}
}
}
}
Host configuration management with Chef
Recipe
mything = data_bag_item("myapp", "mysql")
Chef::Log.info("username:
#{mything['username']}")
AWS OpsWorks
Deploying applications
Automates code deployments to any instance
Handles the complexity of updating your
applications
Use it to avoid downtime during application
deployment
Deploy to Amazon EC2 or on-premise servers,
in any language and on any operating system
Integrates with third-party tools and AWS
services
AWS CodeDeploy
AWS CodeDeploy concepts
Application
Revision #1
Revision #2
Revision #3
What to deploy?
Revision #1
How to deploy?
Instance
Instance
Instance
Deployment group
Auto Scaling group
Where to deploy?
How it works: package app with appspec.yml
version: 0.0
os: linux
files:
- source: /
destination: /var/www/html
permissions:
- object: /var/www/html
pattern: “*.html”
owner: root
group: root
mode: 755
hooks:
ApplicationStop:
- location: scripts/deregister_from_elb.sh
BeforeInstall:
- location: scripts/install_dependencies.sh
ApplicationStart:
- location: scripts/start_httpd.sh
ValidateService:
- location: scripts/test_site.sh
- location: scripts/register_with_elb.sh
How it works: package app with appspec.yml
version: 0.0
os: linux
files:
- source: /
destination: /var/www/html
• Send application files to one
directory and configuration files to
another
• Set specific permissions on specific
directories and files
• Remove or add instance to Elastic
Load Balancing
• Install dependency packages
• Start Apache
• Confirm successful deploy
• More!
permissions:
- object: /var/www/html
pattern: “*.html”
owner: root
group: root
mode: 755
hooks:
ApplicationStop:
- location: scripts/deregister_from_elb.sh
BeforeInstall:
- location: scripts/install_dependencies.sh
ApplicationStart:
- location: scripts/start_httpd.sh
ValidateService:
- location: scripts/test_site.sh
- location: scripts/register_with_elb.sh
How it works: Specify targets
Group instances by:
• Auto Scaling group
• Amazon EC2 tag
• On-premises tag
Development deployment group
AgentAgent Agent
Production deployment group
AgentAgent Agent
AgentAgent Agent
How it works: Deploy
• AWS CLI and SDKs
• AWS Management Console
• AWS CodePipeline and CI/CD partners
• Amazon S3, GitHub
aws deploy create-deployment 
--application-name MyApp 
--deployment-group-name TargetGroup 
--s3-location bucket=MyBucket,key=MyApp.zip
v2 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1
v2 v2 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1
v2 v2 v2 v2 v1 v1 v1 v1
v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2
One at a time
Minimum healthy hosts = 99%
[Custom]
Minimum healthy hosts = 75%
Half at a time
Minimum healthy hosts = 50%
All at once
Minimum healthy hosts = 0
Choose your deployment configuration
Summary
Summary
• Create, update, and manage AWS resources and their configuration
and properties with CloudFormation
• You can configure OpsWorks and CodeDeploy by using
CloudFormation
• Use OpsWorks for ongoing tweaks to software and configuration of
host-based applications and the operating system
• You can configure and deploy CodeDeploy’s agent with
OpsWorks
• Use CodeDeploy to deploy your applications and their configurations
Best practices
• Your CloudFormation templates and Chef cookbooks should
go in separate repositories
• Include the appspec.yml file and related scripts in your
application’s code repositories
• Every commit should cause an execution of your continuous
delivery pipeline to lint, validate, and/or test
• Use each related service’s CLI, console, and APIs to update or
deploy as necessary
AWS Resources
Operating System and
Host Configuration
Application Configuration
AWS CloudFormation
AWS OpsWorks
AWS CodeDeploy
Amazon Virtual Private
Cloud (Amazon VPC)
Amazon Elastic Compute
Cloud (Amazon EC2)
AWS Identity and Access
Management (IAM)
Amazon Relational Database
Service (Amazon RDS)
Amazon Simple Storage
Service (Amazon S3)
AWS CodePipeline
…
Microsoft Windows Registry
Linux networking
OpenSSH
LDAP
Active Directory domain
registration
Centralized logging
System metrics
Deployment agents
Host monitoring
…
Application dependencies
Application configuration
Service registration
Management scripts
Database credentials
…
allOfThis == $Code
Learn more
• AWS CloudFormation
• https://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/
• https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/cloudformation/
• https://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/aws-cloudformation-templates/
• AWS OpsWorks
• https://aws.amazon.com/opsworks/
• https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/opsworks/
• https://github.com/aws/opsworks-cookbooks
• AWS CodeDeploy
• https://aws.amazon.com/codedeploy/
• https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/codedeploy/
• https://github.com/awslabs/aws-codedeploy-samples
Thank you!

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DevOps on AWS: Deep Dive on Infrastructure as Code

  • 1. © 2016, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All rights reserved. Alex Corley – Solutions Architect Public Sector - State and Local Government June 2016 Infrastructure as Code Best Practices on AWS
  • 2. Learning objectives • Understand Infrastructure as Code • Understand the AWS services that help you manage your infrastructure as code • Discover best practices for managing your AWS infrastructure, host configuration, and applications
  • 3. Background Moving to the cloud and AWS allows you to provision and manage infrastructure in new ways: • Infrastructure can be provisioned in seconds • Scale can be achieved without complicated capacity planning • APIs let you interact with infrastructure using languages typically used in applications
  • 4. What is Infrastructure as Code? A practice in which traditional infrastructure management techniques are supplemented by or replaced with code- based tools and software development techniques
  • 5. Infrastructure as Code workflow Code Version Control Code Review Integrate Deploy
  • 6. Infrastructure as Code workflow Code Version Control Code Review Integrate Deploy Text Editor Git/SVN/ Perforce Review Tools Syntax Validation Tools AWS Services
  • 7. Infrastructure as Code workflow “It’s all software” Code Version Control Code Review Integrate Deploy Text Editor Git/SVN/ Perforce Review Tools Syntax Validation Tools AWS Services
  • 8. Application Configuration AWS Resources Infrastructure as Code workflow Operating System and Host Configuration
  • 9. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration
  • 10. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration Infrastructure Resource Management
  • 11. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration Infrastructure Resource Management Host Configuration Management
  • 12. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration Infrastructure Resource Management Host Configuration Management Application Deployment
  • 13. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration AWS CloudFormation AWS OpsWorks AWS CodeDeploy
  • 14. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration AWS CloudFormation AWS OpsWorks AWS CodeDeploy Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) AWS CodePipeline … Microsoft Windows Registry Linux networking OpenSSH LDAP Active Directory domain registration Centralized logging System metrics Deployment agents Host monitoring … Application dependencies Application configuration Service registration Management scripts Database credentials …
  • 16. AWS CloudFormation • Create templates that describe and model AWS infrastructure • CloudFormation then provisions AWS resources based on dependency needs • Perform version control on, replicate, and update the templates like app code • Integrates with development, CI/CD, management tools • No additional charge to use
  • 18. CloudFormation concepts and technology JSON formatted file Parameter definition Resource creation Configuration actions Framework Stack creation Stack updates Error detection and rollback Configured AWS resources Comprehensive service support Service event aware Customizable Template CloudFormation Stack
  • 19. Anatomy of a CloudFormation template: JSON Plain text Perfect for version control Can be validated
  • 20. Anatomy of a CloudFormation template: JSON { "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template EC2InstanceSample: **WARNING** This template an Amazon EC2 instances. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName" : { "Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance", "Type" : "String" }, "Environment": { "Type" : "String", "Default" : ”Dev", "AllowedValues" : [”Mgmt", "Dev", ”Staging", "Prod"], "Description" : "Environment that the instances will run in.” } }, "Mappings" : { "RegionMap" : { "us-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-7f418316" }, "us-west-2" : { "AMI" : "ami-16fd7026" } } }, "Conditions" : { ”EnableEBSOptimized" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : " Environment "}, ”Prod"]}, }, "Resources" : { "Ec2Instance" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties" : { "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "EbsOptimized " : {"Fn::If": [ " EnableEBSOptimized ", {“true”}, {“false”}]}, "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "AMI" ]}, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : "80" } } } }, "Outputs" : { "InstanceId" : { "Description" : "InstanceId of the newly created EC2 instance", "Value" : { "Ref" : "Ec2Instance" } }, "PublicDNS" : { "Description" : "Public DNSName of the newly created EC2 instance", "Value" : { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "Ec2Instance", "PublicDnsName" ] } } } }
  • 21. Anatomy of a CloudFormation template: JSON Parameters "Parameters" : { "KeyName" : { "Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance", "Type" : "String" }, "Environment": { "Type" : "String", "Default" : ”Dev", "AllowedValues" : [”Mgmt", "Dev", ”Staging", "Prod"], "Description" : "Environment that the instances will run in.” } }, Mappings "Mappings" : { "RegionMap" : { "us-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-7f418316" }, "us-west-2" : { "AMI" : "ami-16fd7026" } } }, Conditionals "Conditions" : { ”EnableEBSOptimized" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : " Environment "}, ”Prod"]}, }, Resources "Resources" : { "Ec2Instance" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties" : { "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "EbsOptimized " : {"Fn::If": [ " EnableEBSOptimized ", {“true”}, {“false”}]}, "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "AMI" ]}, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : "80" } } } }, Outputs Outputs" : { "InstanceId" : { "Description" : "InstanceId of the newly created EC2 instance", "Value" : { "Ref" : "Ec2Instance" } }, "PublicDNS" : { "Description" : "Public DNSName of the newly created EC2 instance", "Value" : { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "Ec2Instance", "PublicDnsName" ] } } } } Headers { "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template EC2InstanceSample: **WARNING** This template an Amazon EC2 instances. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.",
  • 22. Description of what your stack does, contains, and so on Provision time values that add structured flexibility and customization Predefined conditional case statements Conditional values set through evaluations of passed references AWS resource definitions Resulting attributes of stack resource creation Headers Parameters Mappings Conditionals Resources Outputs Template components
  • 23. Template example Templates (in action): "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, {"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]},
  • 24. Template example Templates (in action): "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, {"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]}, “AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map
  • 25. Template example Templates (in action): "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, “AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map {"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]}, “AWSInstanceType2Virt” map
  • 26. Template example Templates (in action): "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, “AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map {"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", “AWSInstanceType2Virt” map { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]}, “myInstanceType” parameter
  • 27. Template example Templates (in action): "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionVirt2AMI", “AWSRegionVirt2AMI” map {"Fn::FindInMap": ["AWSInstanceType2Virt", “AWSInstanceType2Virt” map { "Ref" : "myInstanceType" }, "Virt"]} ]}, “myInstanceType” parameter { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, AWS::Region pseudo parameter
  • 28. Template example "myInstanceType" : { "Type" : "String", "Default" : "t2.large", "AllowedValues" : ["t2.micro", "t2.small", "t2.medium", "t2.large"], "Description" : "Instance type for instances created, must be in the t2 family." } "AWSInstanceType2Virt": { "t2.micro": {"Virt": "HVM"}, "t2.small": {"Virt": "HVM"}, "t2.medium": {"Virt": "HVM"}, "t2.large": {"Virt": "HVM"}, } "AWSRegionVirt2AMI": { "us-east-1": { "PVM": "ami-50842d38", "HVM": "ami-08842d60" }, "us-west-2": { "PVM": "ami-af86c69f", "HVM": "ami-8786c6b7" }, "us-west-1": { "PVM": "ami-c7a8a182", "HVM": "ami-cfa8a18a" } } Parameters: Mappings: Mappings:
  • 29. Bootstrapping applications and handling updates "Resources" : { "Ec2Instance" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties" : { "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ { "Ref" : "InstanceSecurityGroup" } ], "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "AMI" ]}, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["",[ "#!/bin/bash -ex","n", "yum -y install gcc-c++ make","n", "yum -y install mysql-devel sqlite-devel","n", "yum -y install ruby-rdoc rubygems ruby-mysql ruby-devel","n", "gem install --no-ri --no-rdoc rails","n", "gem install --no-ri --no-rdoc mysql","n", "gem install --no-ri --no-rdoc sqlite3","n", "rails new myapp","n", "cd myapp","n", "rails server -d","n"]]}} } } Option 1: Use Amazon EC2 UserData, which is available as a property of AWS::EC2::Instance resources
  • 30. cfn-init cfn-hup Bootstrapping applications and handling updates Option 2: CloudFormation provides helper scripts for deployment within your EC2 instances Metadata key— AWS::CloudFormation::Init The cfn-init helper script reads this metadata key and installs the packages listed in this key (for example, httpd, mysql, and php); cfn- init also retrieves and expands files listed as sources EC2 CloudFormation cfn-signal cfn-get- metadata
  • 31. Bootstrapping example "Metadata": { "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "config" : { "packages" : { }, "sources" : { }, "commands" : { }, "files" : { }, "services" : { }, "users" : { }, "groups" : { } } } Use AWS::CloudFormation::Init with cfn-init to help bootstrap instances:
  • 32. Bootstrapping example “WebAppHost" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "AWS:CloudFormation::Init" : { "config" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "gcc" : [], "gcc-c++" : [], "make" : [], "automake" : [], Install packages with the native package management tool:
  • 33. Manage a wide range of AWS services and resources • Amazon EC2 • Amazon EC2 Container Service • Amazon EC2 Container Registry • Amazon EC2 Simple Systems Manager • AWS Lambda (including event sources) • AWS Elastic Beanstalk • Auto Scaling (including Spot fleet) • Amazon VPC and Managed NAT Gateway • Elastic Load Balancing • Amazon Route 53 • Amazon CloudFront • AWS WAF • Amazon S3 • Amazon RDS • Amazon Redshift • Amazon DynamoDB • Amazon ElastiCache • Amazon RDS (including Amazon Aurora) • Amazon Elastic MapReduce • Amazon Elasticsearch Service • AWS Data Pipeline • AWS Identity and Access Management (including managed policies) • AWS Directory Service (Amazon Simple AD) / Microsoft Active Directory • Amazon Kinesis • Amazon SNS • Amazon SQS • AWS CloudTrail • Amazon CloudWatch • AWS Config • AWS Key Management Service • AWS OpsWorks • AWS CodeDeploy • AWS CodePipeline • Amazon WorkSpaces • Amazon GameLift AWS resource support is always growing. See the most up-to-date list here.
  • 34. Template file defining stack • The entire infrastructure can be represented in a CloudFormation template Many stacks and environments from one template
  • 35. Template file defining stack • The entire infrastructure can be represented in a CloudFormation template • Use the version control system of your choice to store and track changes to this template Git Perforce SVN … Many stacks and environments from one template
  • 36. Template file defining stack • The entire infrastructure can be represented in a CloudFormation template • Use the version control system of your choice to store and track changes to this template • Build out multiple environments, such as for development, test, production, and even disaster recovery, using the same template Git Perforce SVN … Dev Test Prod Many stacks and environments from one template
  • 37. Infrastructure as Code with CloudFormation Versioning You track changes within your code Do it with your infrastructure: • What is changing? • Who made that change? • When was it made? • Why was it made?(Is it tied to a ticket or bug or project system?)
  • 38. Testing your CloudFormation templates Testing your template: • Validate by using API or AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) • $ aws cloudformation validate-template—confirm CloudFormation syntax • Use something like JSONLint (http://jsonlint.com/) to find JSON issues like missing commas or brackets • Throw this into your testing and/or continuous integration pipelines
  • 39. Visualizing your CloudFormation templates • AWS CloudFormation Designer • Visualize template resources • Modify template with drag and drop gestures • Customize sample templates
  • 40. Deploying your CloudFormation templates Deploy and update by using console, API, or CLI OR • aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name myteststack --template-body file:////home//local//test//sampletemplate.json -- parameters ParameterKey=string,ParameterValue=string
  • 41. But what do we do once your resources are provisioned and running?
  • 42. Your infrastructure needs ongoing management • Updates or patches? • New software? • New configurations? • New code deployments? • Pool-specific changes? • Environment-specific changes? • Run commands across all hosts? • Be on top of all running resources?
  • 43. Ongoing management requires proper tooling Some common challenges: • Changing a vhost configuration on every web server across multiple environments (development, staging, production) • Installing a package on certain hosts to test out newer versions • Changing the LDAP configuration on every running Amazon EC2 Linux host when the hosts exist across 25 different CloudFormation templates
  • 44. We need a tool to interact with each host that we manage and that makes it easier to configure these hosts
  • 45. AWS OpsWorks • Configuration management service for automating operational tasks using Chef • Model, control, and automate applications of nearly any scale and complexity • Manage Linux and Microsoft Windows environments • Supports both AWS and on- premises servers • Launched in 2013
  • 46. AWS OpsWorks concepts A stack represents the cloud infrastructure and applications that you want to manage together A layer defines how to set up and configure a set of instances and related resources You decide how to scale: manually, with 24/7 instances, or automatically, with load-based or time-based instances Then deploy your app to specific instances and customize the deployment with Chef recipes
  • 47. AWS OpsWorks concepts: instance lifecycle Set up Configure Deploy Undeploy Shut down An agent on each instance understands a set of commands that are triggered by OpsWorks. The agent when triggered runs Chef.
  • 48. OpsWorks agent communication 1. The EC2 instance connects with the OpsWorks service to send keepalive/ heartbeat and receive lifecycle events 2. OpsWorks sends a lifecycle event with a pointer to the configuration JSON (metadata, recipes) in an S3 bucket 3. The agent downloads configuration JSON 4. The agent pulls cookbooks and other build assets from your repository 5. The agent executes the recipe 6. The agent uploads the Chef log 7. The agent reports Chef run status EC2 instance OpsWorks service “Deploy App” Your repository, for example GitHub       
  • 49. How OpsWorks bootstraps EC2 instances The EC2 instance is started by using an IAM role • UserData passed with instance private key, OpsWorks public key • The instance downloads and installs the OpsWorks agent The agent connects to the instance service, gets run info • Authenticates the instance using the instance’s IAM role • Picks up configuration JSON from the OpsWorks instance queue • Decrypts and verifies the message, runs Chef recipes • Uploads Chef log, returns Chef run status The agent then polls the instance service for more messages
  • 50. AWS OpsWorks + Chef OpsWorks uses Chef to configure the software on the instance OpsWorks provides many Chef Server functions to users • Associates cookbooks with instances • Dynamic metadata describes each registered node in the infrastructure Supports "push" command and control client runs Supports community cookbooks
  • 51. Working with Chef and OpsWorks Similar to CloudFormation templates and application code: • Mixture of JSON and a Ruby DSL • Tools exist to do linting and syntax checking • Versioning • Built in cookbook versioning • Some manual/processes scripted abilities • But still can use source control for versioning • Use with continuous integration systems like CloudFormation templates and the rest of your code
  • 52. Working with Chef and OpsWorks Basics: • Nodes • Roles • Cookbooks • Recipes • Attributes • Data bags • Environments
  • 53. Host configuration management with Chef package "ntp" do action :install end service "ntpd" do supports :status => true, :restart => true, :reload => true action [ :enable, :start ] end cookbook_file "/etc/ntp.conf" do source "ntp.conf" owner "root" group "root" mode 00644 # Restart ntp.conf if /etc/ntp.conf changes notifies :restart, resources(:service => "ntpd") End group "ganglia" do gid 499 end user "ganglia" do home "/var/lib/ganglia" shell "/sbin/nologin" uid 499 gid "ganglia" end directory "/etc/ganglia" do action :create end Examples:
  • 54. Host configuration management with Chef template "/etc/ganglia/gmond.conf" do source "gmond.conf.erb" owner "root" group "root" mode 00644 notifies :restart, resources(:service => "gmond") variables( :gmetad_name => node[:ganglia][:gmetad_name], :cluster_name => node[:ganglia][:cluster_name] ) end cron "all-gmetrics" do command "for FILE in `ls /opt/bin/gmetric-*`; do command $FILE; done >/dev/null 2>&1" end Examples:
  • 55. Custom JSON { "opsworks": { "data_bags": { "myapp": { "mysql": { "username": "default-user", "password": "default-pass" } } } } } Host configuration management with Chef Recipe mything = data_bag_item("myapp", "mysql") Chef::Log.info("username: #{mything['username']}")
  • 58. Automates code deployments to any instance Handles the complexity of updating your applications Use it to avoid downtime during application deployment Deploy to Amazon EC2 or on-premise servers, in any language and on any operating system Integrates with third-party tools and AWS services AWS CodeDeploy
  • 59. AWS CodeDeploy concepts Application Revision #1 Revision #2 Revision #3 What to deploy? Revision #1 How to deploy? Instance Instance Instance Deployment group Auto Scaling group Where to deploy?
  • 60. How it works: package app with appspec.yml version: 0.0 os: linux files: - source: / destination: /var/www/html permissions: - object: /var/www/html pattern: “*.html” owner: root group: root mode: 755 hooks: ApplicationStop: - location: scripts/deregister_from_elb.sh BeforeInstall: - location: scripts/install_dependencies.sh ApplicationStart: - location: scripts/start_httpd.sh ValidateService: - location: scripts/test_site.sh - location: scripts/register_with_elb.sh
  • 61. How it works: package app with appspec.yml version: 0.0 os: linux files: - source: / destination: /var/www/html • Send application files to one directory and configuration files to another • Set specific permissions on specific directories and files • Remove or add instance to Elastic Load Balancing • Install dependency packages • Start Apache • Confirm successful deploy • More! permissions: - object: /var/www/html pattern: “*.html” owner: root group: root mode: 755 hooks: ApplicationStop: - location: scripts/deregister_from_elb.sh BeforeInstall: - location: scripts/install_dependencies.sh ApplicationStart: - location: scripts/start_httpd.sh ValidateService: - location: scripts/test_site.sh - location: scripts/register_with_elb.sh
  • 62. How it works: Specify targets Group instances by: • Auto Scaling group • Amazon EC2 tag • On-premises tag Development deployment group AgentAgent Agent Production deployment group AgentAgent Agent AgentAgent Agent
  • 63. How it works: Deploy • AWS CLI and SDKs • AWS Management Console • AWS CodePipeline and CI/CD partners • Amazon S3, GitHub aws deploy create-deployment --application-name MyApp --deployment-group-name TargetGroup --s3-location bucket=MyBucket,key=MyApp.zip
  • 64. v2 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v2 v2 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v1 v2 v2 v2 v2 v1 v1 v1 v1 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 v2 One at a time Minimum healthy hosts = 99% [Custom] Minimum healthy hosts = 75% Half at a time Minimum healthy hosts = 50% All at once Minimum healthy hosts = 0 Choose your deployment configuration
  • 66. Summary • Create, update, and manage AWS resources and their configuration and properties with CloudFormation • You can configure OpsWorks and CodeDeploy by using CloudFormation • Use OpsWorks for ongoing tweaks to software and configuration of host-based applications and the operating system • You can configure and deploy CodeDeploy’s agent with OpsWorks • Use CodeDeploy to deploy your applications and their configurations
  • 67. Best practices • Your CloudFormation templates and Chef cookbooks should go in separate repositories • Include the appspec.yml file and related scripts in your application’s code repositories • Every commit should cause an execution of your continuous delivery pipeline to lint, validate, and/or test • Use each related service’s CLI, console, and APIs to update or deploy as necessary
  • 68. AWS Resources Operating System and Host Configuration Application Configuration AWS CloudFormation AWS OpsWorks AWS CodeDeploy Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) AWS CodePipeline … Microsoft Windows Registry Linux networking OpenSSH LDAP Active Directory domain registration Centralized logging System metrics Deployment agents Host monitoring … Application dependencies Application configuration Service registration Management scripts Database credentials …
  • 70. Learn more • AWS CloudFormation • https://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/ • https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/cloudformation/ • https://aws.amazon.com/cloudformation/aws-cloudformation-templates/ • AWS OpsWorks • https://aws.amazon.com/opsworks/ • https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/opsworks/ • https://github.com/aws/opsworks-cookbooks • AWS CodeDeploy • https://aws.amazon.com/codedeploy/ • https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/codedeploy/ • https://github.com/awslabs/aws-codedeploy-samples