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Building a web application without servers

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Building a web application without servers
Raymond Lai
Solutions Architect
raymlai@amazon.com
Running servers makes me sad
Photo by Justin Veenema
<start>
It’s easier than ever to build web applications that are:
• Massively scalable
• Highly available and fault-tolerant
• Easily secured
• Cost-aligned with usage
Without:
• Managing a single server or container orchestration system
• Patching operating systems
• Monitoring operating system metrics to control scaling
How?
With serverless
No infrastructure provisioning,
no management
Automatic scaling
Pay for value Highly available and secure
Exploring a basic web application technology stack
InternetMobile/
Web apps
?Frontend
?Backend
?Database

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Building a web application without servers

  • 1. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Building a web application without servers Raymond Lai Solutions Architect raymlai@amazon.com
  • 2. Running servers makes me sad Photo by Justin Veenema
  • 3. <start> It’s easier than ever to build web applications that are: • Massively scalable • Highly available and fault-tolerant • Easily secured • Cost-aligned with usage Without: • Managing a single server or container orchestration system • Patching operating systems • Monitoring operating system metrics to control scaling
  • 5. With serverless No infrastructure provisioning, no management Automatic scaling Pay for value Highly available and secure
  • 6. Exploring a basic web application technology stack InternetMobile/ Web apps ?Frontend ?Backend ?Database
  • 7. Exploring a basic web application technology stack InternetMobile/ Web apps ?Backend ?Database ?Frontend
  • 8. Frontend servers • Serve mostly static contents • HTML • CSS • JavaScript • Image, video, etc. • Might generate dynamic contents with languages like PHP • Reactive Web Framework • Non-blocking and event-driven applications • Using declarative approach • With interface library and data request capabilities • Easier to support multiple platforms PastPresent
  • 9. Two options for serverless hosting of static content Roll your own with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Amazon S3 AWS Amplify CLI & Amplify Console AWS Amplify
  • 10. Amazon S3 Amazon S3 • Can host static websites • Supports fine-grained permission control • Acts as a logging endpoint for Web services • Supports encryption at transit and at rest • Lifecycle capabilities to rotate data across tiers and even delete them if needed Amazon CloudFront • Cache static content at the edge for faster delivery • Dynamic and static content • Custom SSL certificates • Low TTLs (as short as 0 seconds) Responsetime Serverload Response time Server load Response time Server load No CDN CDN for static content CDN for static and dynamic content
  • 11. AWS Amplify makes it easy to create, configure, and implement scalable mobile and web apps powered by AWS • Framework • Cloudservices • Developertools • Continuousdeployment • Hosting
  • 13. AWS Amplify Step 2: “amplify add hosting” & define repository
  • 14. AWS Amplify Hosting for static web applications • Integrated with Git • Built-in CI/CD workflows (supports Git branches) • Host a friendly URL with CDN • Support for auth controls • Built-in rewrites and redirects of URL • Deploy SPA with popular frontend frameworks such as Vue, Angular, and React AWS Amplify
  • 15. InternetMobile/Web apps Exploring a basic web application technology stack ?Backend ?DatabaseAWS Amplify
  • 16. AWS Amplify Exploring a basic web application technology stack ?InternetMobile/Web apps ?Database ?Backend
  • 17. APIs are the front door of modern applications
  • 18. To put it simply: Amazon API Gateway makes it easy to host serverless APIs
  • 19. Amazon API Gateway: Types of APIs Amazon API Gateway API Gateway cache Amazon CloudWatch monitoring Fully managed CloudFront distribution Edge-optimizedRegionalPrivate Edge-optimized • Utilizes CloudFront to reduce TLS connection overhead (reduces roundtrip time) • Designed for a globally distributed set of clients Regional • Recommended API type for general use cases • Designed for building APIs for clients in the same region Private • Only accessible from within VPC (and networks connected to VPC) • Designed for building APIs used internally or by private microservices AWS Lambda functions Any other AWS service
  • 20. Secure with your Amazon API Gateway Several mechanisms for adding authorization/authentication and restricting API access • IAM permissions – use IAM policies and AWS credentials to grant access • Lambda authorizers – use Lambda to validate a bearer token (e.g., OAuth or SAML) or request parameters and grant access • Amazon Cognito user pools – create a completely managed user management system • Resource policies – can restrict based on IP, VPC, and AWS Account ID
  • 21. AWS Amplify InternetMobile/Web apps Exploring a basic web application technology stack ?DatabaseAmazon API Gateway ?
  • 22. Event-driven compute Functions as a service Serverless FaaS AWS Lambda
  • 23. Serverless applications Services (anything) Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Changes in resource state Event source Function Node.js Python Java C# Go Ruby Runtime API Serverless applications Services (anything) Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Changes in resource state Event source Function Node.js Python Java C# Go Ruby Runtime API Serverless applications Services (anything) Changes in data state Requests to endpoints Changes in resource state Event source Function Node.js Python Java C# Go Ruby Runtime API
  • 24. Lambda execution model Synchronous (push) Asynchronous (event) Stream (poll-based) /order Amazon API Gateway Lambda function Amazon DynamoDB Amazon Kinesis changes AWS Lambda service Lambda function Amazon SNS Amazon S3 reqs Lambda function
  • 25. Smart resource allocation Stats for Lambda function that calculates 1000 times all prime numbers <= 1000000 128 MB 11.722965 sec $0.024628 256 MB 6.678945 sec $0.028035 512 MB 3.194954 sec $0.026830 1024 MB 1.465984 sec $0.024638 Best Worst Lambda exposes only a memory control, with the % of CPU core and network capacity allocated to a function proportionally Match resource allocation (up to 3 GB) to logic
  • 26. Lambda permissions model Function policies • “Actions on bucket X can invoke Lambda function Z" • Resource policies allow for cross-account access • Used for sync and async invocations Execution role • “Lambda function A can read from DynamoDB table users” • Define what AWS resources / API calls this function can access via IAM • Used in streaming invocations Event source ServicesFunction
  • 27. AWS Amplify InternetMobile/Web apps Exploring a basic web application technology stack ?DatabaseAmazon API Gateway AWS Lambda
  • 28. Mobile/Web apps Internet AWS Amplify Exploring a basic web application technology stack Amazon API Gateway AWS Lambda ?Database
  • 29. © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Common data categories Relational Key value Document In memory Graph Time series Ledger Aurora, RDS DynamoDB Amazon DocumentDB ElastiCache Neptune Timestream QLDBAWS Service(s)
  • 31. Amazon DynamoDB Fast and flexible NoSQL database service for any scale Enterprise-ready ACID transactions Encryption at rest On-demand backup and restore Performance at scale Handles millions of requests per second Delivers microsecond latency Automated global replication Serverless Maintenance-free Auto scaling On-demand capacity mode
  • 32. Why we choose DynamoDB? All Amazon database services have: • Easy scale controls + ability to handle massive scale • High availability and durability • Backup/restore capabilities • Billing options that can scale with your business need But in sticking with the theme of serverless, DynamoDB wins out: • Pay-for-what-you-use billing • Dynamic scaling without the need to preconfigure capacity Again, most of this will depend on what your use case is
  • 33. AWS Amplify Exploring a basic web application technology stack Amazon API Gateway AWS Lambda Amazon DynamoDB Mobile/Web apps Internet
  • 34. </end> By combining these services, we can build a completely serverless application stack • No servers to manage • Automatic scalability to handle most workloads • High availability and fault tolerance out of the box • Numerous security controls throughout the stack • Aligned costs to consumption
  • 35. Thank you! © 2020, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Raymond Lai raymlai@amazon.com