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Best Practices Scaling Web Application Up to Your First 10 Million Users

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If you have a new web application and want to use cloud computing, you might be asking yourself, "Where do I start?" Cloud computing gives you a number of advantages, such as the ability to scale your web application on demand. Join us in this webinar to understand best practices for scaling your resources from zero to millions of users. We show you how to best combine different AWS services, how to make smarter decisions for architecting your application, and how to scale your infrastructure in the cloud.

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Best Practices Scaling Web Application Up to Your First 10 Million Users

  1. 1. Your First 10 Million Users with Amazon Web Services Markku Lepistö Principal Technology Evangelist @markkulepisto
  2. 2. So how do we get to scale?
  3. 3. a lot of things to read
  4. 4. a lot of things to read not where we want to start
  5. 5. Auto Scaling is an excellent destination. There’s lots we can do in the mean time.
  6. 6. What do we need first?
  7. 7. Some basics…
  8. 8. So let’s start from day one, user one (you)
  9. 9. AWS Global Infrastructure 12
  10. 10. TECHNICAL & BUSINESS SUPPORT Account Management Support Professional Services Training & Certification Security & Billing Reports Partner Ecosystem Solutions Architects ENTERPRISE APPS Virtual Desktops Sharing & Collaboration Corporate Email Backup Regions Availability Zones Points of Presence INFRASTRUCTURE CORE SERVICES Compute VMs, Auto-scaling, Load Balancing, Containers, Cloud functions Storage Object, Blocks, File, Archival, Import/Export Databases Relational, NoSQL, Caching, Migration Networking VPC, DX, DNS CDN HYBRID ARCHITECTURE Data Backups Integrated App Deployments Direct Connect Identity Federation Integrated Resource Management Integrated Networking Access Control Identity Management Key Management & Storage Monitoring & Logs Assessment and reporting Resource & Usage Auditing SECURITY & COMPLIANCE Configuration Compliance Web application firewall Business Apps Business Intelligence Databases DevOps Tools NetworkingSecurity Storage IoT Rules Engine Device Shadows Device SDKs Registry Device Gateway DEVELOPMENT & OPERATIONSMOBILE SERVICESAPP SERVICESANALYTICS Data Warehousing Hadoop/S park Streaming Data Collection Machine Learning Elastic Search Queuing & Notifications Workflow Search Email Transcoding One-click App Deployment Identity Sync Mobile App Testing Push Notifications DevOps Resource Management Application Lifecycle Management Containers Triggers Resource Templates API Gateway Streaming Data Analysis Business Intelligence Mobile Analytics The Broadest Infrastructure Technology Platform Single Integrated Console MARKETPLACE
  11. 11. EC2 instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  12. 12. c3.8xlarge m3.2xlarge t2.micro
  13. 13. • Will hit an endpoint eventually c3.8xlarge m3.2xlarge t2.micro
  14. 14. EC2 Instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  15. 15. • No failover • No redundancy • Too many eggs in one basket EC2 Instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  16. 16. Web Instance Database Instance Elastic IP Amazon Route 53 User
  17. 17. Self-managed Fully managed Database server on Amazon EC2 Your choice of database running on Amazon EC2 Bring Your Own License (BYOL) Amazon DynamoDB Managed NoSQL database service using SSD storage Seamless scalability Zero administration Amazon RDS Aurora, Microsoft SQL, Oracle, MySQL, MariaDB or PostgreSQL as a managed service BYOL or License Included Amazon Redshift Massively parallel, petabyte-scale data warehouse service Fast, powerful, and easy to scale Database options
  18. 18. But how do I choose what DB technology I need? SQL? NoSQL?
  19. 19. If you do NEED NoSQL Consider Amazon DynamoDB
  20. 20. Web instance Elastic IP RDS DB instance Amazon Route 53 User
  21. 21. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Availability Zone Web Instance RDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) Elastic Load Balancer Amazon Route 53 User
  22. 22. • Create highly scalable applications • Distribute load across EC2 instances in multiple Availability Zones Feature Details Available Load balances across instances in multiple Availability Zones Health checks Automatically checks health of instances and takes them in or out of service Session stickiness Routes requests to the same instance Secure sockets layer Supports SSL offload from web and application servers with flexible cipher support Monitoring Publishes metrics to CloudWatch and can get logs of requests processed Elastic Load Balancer Elastic Load Balancer
  23. 23. Scaling this horizontally and vertically will get us pretty far ( 10k -100k’s of users)
  24. 24. User 10k-100k’s RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Availability Zone RDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) Elastic Load Balancer RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Amazon Route 53 User
  25. 25. This will take us pretty far, but we care about performance and efficiency, so let’s improve further
  26. 26. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon Route 53 User
  27. 27. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User • Move static content from the web instance to Amazon S3 and Amazon CloudFront
  28. 28. Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) is cloud storage for the Internet: Amazon S3
  29. 29. CloudFront Amazon CloudFront is a web service for scalable content delivery: • Cache static content at the edge for faster delivery • Helps lower load on origin infrastructure • Dynamic and static content • Streaming video • Custom SSL certificates • Low TTLs (as short as 0 seconds) • Lower costs for origin fetches (between Amazon S3 / Amazon EC2 and CloudFront) • Optimized to work with Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, Elastic Load Balancing, and Amazon Route 53 ResponseTime ServerLoad Response Time Server Load Response Time Serve rLoad No CDN CDN for Static Content CDN for Static & Dynamic Content 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM VolumeofData Delivered(Gbps)
  30. 30. Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User
  31. 31. • Move session/state and DB caching to Amazon ElastiCache or Amazon DynamoDB Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache DynamoDB
  32. 32. • Managed, provisioned throughput NoSQL database • Fast, predictable performance • Fully distributed, fault tolerant architecture • JSON support • Items up to 400 KB Feature Details Provisioned throughput Dial up or down provisioned read/write capacity Predictable performance Average single digit millisecond latencies from SSD-backed infrastructure Strong consistency Be sure you are reading the most up to date values Fault tolerant Data replicated across Availability Zones Monitoring Integrated with Amazon CloudWatch Secure Integrates with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM)
  33. 33. • Move dynamic content from the ELB to Amazon CloudFront Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache DynamoDB
  34. 34. • Move dynamic content from the ELB to Amazon CloudFront Web Instance RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Amazon Route 53 User ElastiCache DynamoDB
  35. 35. Now that our web tier is much more lightweight, we can revisit the beginning of our talk…
  36. 36. Auto Scaling!
  37. 37. Automatic resizing of compute clusters based on demand Feature Details Control Define minimum and maximum instance pool sizes and when scaling and cool down occurs. Integrated to Amazon CloudWatch Use metrics gathered by CloudWatch to drive scaling. Instance types Run Auto Scaling for on-demand and Spot Instances. Compatible with VPC. aws autoscaling create-auto-scaling-group --auto-scaling-group-name MyGroup --launch-configuration-name MyConfig --min-size 4 --max-size 200 --availability-zones us-west-2c, us-west-2b Auto Scaling Trigger auto-scaling policy Amazon CloudWatch
  38. 38. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com
  39. 39. Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Typical weekly traffic to Amazon.com Provisioned capacity
  40. 40. November
  41. 41. Provisioned capacity November
  42. 42. 76% 24% Provisioned capacity November
  43. 43. November
  44. 44. Auto Scaling lets you do this!
  45. 45. Availability Zone Amazon Route 53 User Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer DynamoDB RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance ElastiCache RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance ElastiCacheRDS DB Instance Standby (Multi-AZ) RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ)
  46. 46. AWS application management solutions Convenience Control Higher-level services Do it yourself AWS Elastic Beanstalk AWS OpsWorks AWS CloudFormation Amazon EC2
  47. 47. Deploying a WebApp with AWS Elastic Beanstalk
  48. 48. Host Level Metrics Aggregate Level Metrics
  49. 49. Centralized Log Analysis External Site Monitoring
  50. 50. There are further improvements to be made by breaking apart our web/app layer
  51. 51. Controller A Controller B Controller A Controller B Q Q Tight coupling Use Amazon SQS as buffers Loose coupling
  52. 52. RDS DB Instance Active (Multi-AZ) Availability Zone Elastic Load Balancer RDS DB Instance Read Replica RDS DB Instance Read Replica Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Web Instance Amazon Route 53 User Amazon S3 Amazon Cloudfront DynamoDB Amazon SQS ElastiCache Worker Instance Worker Instance Amazon CloudWatch Internal App Instance Internal App Instance Amazon SES
  53. 53. The next big steps
  54. 54. • Split up databases by function/purpose • Harder to do cross-function queries • Essentially delaying the need for something like sharding/NoSQL until much further down the line • Won’t help with single huge functions/tables ForumsDB UsersDB ProductsDB
  55. 55. Sharded horizontal scaling • More complex at the application layer • No practical limit on scalability • Operation complexity/sophistication • Shard by function or key space • RDBMS or NoSQL User ShardID 002345 A 002346 B 002347 C 002348 B 002349 A Shard C Shard B Shard A
  56. 56. Shifting functionality to NoSQL • Leverage hosted services like DynamoDB • Some use cases: – Leaderboards/scoring – Rapid ingest of clickstream/log data – Temporary data needs (cart data) – “Hot” tables – Metadata/lookup tables DynamoDB
  57. 57. A quick review
  58. 58. Putting all this together means we should now easily be able to handle 10+ million users!
  59. 59. To infinity…..
  60. 60. Thank you! Markku Lepistö Technology Evangelist APAC @markkulepisto

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