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A Serverless Journey: AWS Lambda Under the Hood (SRV409-R1) - AWS re:Invent 2018

Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web Services
Amazon Web ServicesAmazon Web Services

Serverless computing allows you to build and run applications and services without thinking about servers. Serverless applications don't require you to provision, scale, and manage any servers. However, under the hood, there is a sophisticated architecture that takes care of all the undifferentiated heavy lifting for the developer. Join Holly Mesrobian, Director of Engineering, and Marc Brooker, Senior Principal of Engineering, to learn how AWS architected one of the fastest-growing AWS services. In this session, we show you how Lambda takes care of everything required to run and scale your code with high availability

A Serverless Journey: AWS Lambda Under the Hood (SRV409-R1) - AWS re:Invent 2018

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A Serverless Journey: AWS Lambda Under the Hood (SRV409-R1) - AWS re:Invent 2018
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
A Serverless Journey:
Under the Hood of AWS Lambda
Marc Brooker
Senior Principal Engineer
Serverless
S R V 4 0 9
Holly Mesrobian
Director of Engineering
AWS Lambda
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
processes 4,000 requests
per second
ingests, analyzes and
stores 17+ petabytes of
data per season
processes half a trillion
validations of stock
trades daily
executes 16 million
requests a month
processes tens of
billions of data
points monthly
SERVERLESS AT SCALE IS THE NEW NORM
API traffic to register and license
more than 47 million driver
records in Great Britain,
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
© 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Load
Balancing

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A Serverless Journey: AWS Lambda Under the Hood (SRV409-R1) - AWS re:Invent 2018

  • 2. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A Serverless Journey: Under the Hood of AWS Lambda Marc Brooker Senior Principal Engineer Serverless S R V 4 0 9 Holly Mesrobian Director of Engineering AWS Lambda
  • 3. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 4. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. processes 4,000 requests per second ingests, analyzes and stores 17+ petabytes of data per season processes half a trillion validations of stock trades daily executes 16 million requests a month processes tens of billions of data points monthly SERVERLESS AT SCALE IS THE NEW NORM API traffic to register and license more than 47 million driver records in Great Britain,
  • 5. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 6. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Load Balancing
  • 7. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Scaling Up and Down
  • 8. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Handling Failures
  • 9. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 10. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 11. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 12. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Lambda Handles Load Balancing Auto Scaling Handling Failures Security Isolation Managing Utilization (and many other things) for you
  • 13. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 14. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Front End Invoke Orchestrate both synchronous and asynchronous Invokes
  • 15. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Counting Service Provides a region wide view of customer concurrency to help enforce set limits
  • 16. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Worker Manager Tracks container idle and busy state and schedules incoming invoke requests to available containers
  • 17. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Worker Provisions a secure environment for customer code execution
  • 18. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Placement Service Places sandboxes on workers to maximize packing density without impacting customer experience or cold-path latency
  • 19. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Routing function traffic across hosts distributed across Availability Zone
  • 20. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Cloud Region Lambda customer (Existing Worker, New Sandbox) Availability zone 2 Availability zone 1 Invoke Front End Invoke Front End Worker Mgr Worker Mgr Reserve Sandbox Invoke Worker Worker Worker Init
  • 21. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Cloud Region Lambda customer (Existing Worker, Existing Sandbox) Availability zone 2 Availability zone 1 Invoke Front End Invoke Front End Worker Mgr Worker Mgr Reserve Sandbox Invoke Worker Worker Worker
  • 22. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SERVERLESS CUSTOMERS
  • 23. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. “What took us just a few days to build using a serverless solution based on AWS Lambda would have taken us six months to build from scratch.Our CTO and the rest of the project stakeholders were really happy with how much money and time we saved.” Nitin Mahajan Executive Director for Service Engineering
  • 24. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Provision function capacity when needed and releasing when not needed
  • 25. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Cloud Region Lambda customer (New Function or Scaling Up) Availability zone 2 Availability zone 1 Invoke Front End Invoke Front End Worker Mgr Worker Mgr Reserve Sandbox Invoke Init Placement Claim Worker Worker Worker Worker
  • 26. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Cloud Region Availability zone 2Availability zone 1 Placement Claim Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker Placement Claim Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker
  • 27. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Cloud Region Availability zone 2Availability zone 1 Placement Return Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker Placement Return Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker Worker
  • 28. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AWS Cloud Region Lambda customer Availability zone 2 Availability zone 1 Front End Front End Worker Mgr Worker Mgr Placement Return Worker Worker Worker Worker
  • 29. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SERVERLESS CUSTOMERS
  • 30. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Handling Host and Availability Zone failure
  • 31. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. With Lambda: Always have a healthy host
  • 32. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Instance Instance Instance InstanceInstance Instance AWS Cloud Region Availability zone 2Availability zone 1
  • 33. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Instance Instance Instance InstanceInstance Instance AWS Cloud Region Availability zone 2Availability zone 1
  • 34. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 35. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code
  • 36. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code
  • 37. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code
  • 38. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code
  • 39. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code
  • 40. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code
  • 41. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Sandbox Lambda Runtime Your Code One Function Many Accounts
  • 42. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Virtual Devices Device Emulation Physical Devices
  • 43. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS virtio drivers virtio host in Firecracker Physical Devices
  • 44. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hardware Host OS Hypervisor Guest OS Virtual Devices Device Emulation Physical Devices
  • 45. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 46. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. % of Resources Doing Useful Work (vs. idle or waste)
  • 47. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. With Lambda: Pay only for useful work.
  • 48. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Inside Lambda: Optimize To Keep Servers Busy
  • 49. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 50. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Bad: 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 60%
  • 51. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Good: 99% 99% 99% 99% 0% 0% 0% Cache Locality Ability to Autoscale
  • 52. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Server Bad: Pack Server With One Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload
  • 53. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Server Better: Pack With Many Loads Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload
  • 54. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 55. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 56. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 57. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Server Best: Placement Optimization Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload Workload
  • 58. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Worker Lambda Function ENI in your VPC Your VPC Local NAT
  • 59. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Worker Lambda Function ENI in your VPC Your VPC Remote NAT
  • 60. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 61. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Firecracker Hypervisor vs. Others ↓ ↓ ↑
  • 62. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Firecracker Unlocks Higher Utilization and Scale
  • 63. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  • 64. Thank you! © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Marc Brooker – Senior Principal Engineer, Amazon Serverless Holly Mesrobian – Director of Engineering, Amazon Lambda
  • 65. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.