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Zaha Hadid's Architecture of Form

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Zaha Hadid's Architecture of Form

  1. 1. Zaha Hadid’s Architecture of Form AmatAlraof AbdUllah AbdAlwahid Under the supervision Associate Prof. Ismail Bin Said & Dr. Dilshan Remaz Ossen
  2. 2. Surfers Paradise Transit Center Site Queensland, Australia (2007) 2 The Outline 1) Introduction 2) Literature Review 3) Research Methodology 4) The results & findings 5) Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction 3 Kartal-Pendik Master plan Istanbul, Turkey (2006)
  4. 4. 5) Peter Eisenman 6) Bernard Tschumi 7) Daniel Libeskind 2) Zaha Hadid 1) Rem Koolhas 3) Frank Gehry 4) Coop Himm- elblau Russian Constructivism Suprematism German post-Expressionism Deconstructivism Non-Derridean Architects Derridean Architects USA Post-Structuralism in nature Derrida Philosophy of deconstruction 4
  5. 5. Hadid is considered as the most imaginative architect among her colleagues based on 1) The number of projects she has designed (950 projects )- 80 completed 2) The number of prizes she got (93 prizes) 3) The richness of various concepts she conducts Heydar Aliyev Culture Centre Baku, Azerbaijan (2007-12) 5
  6. 6. A planet in her own orbit Iraqi architect Born in 1950 Study background 1) Mathematics in Beirut 2) Architecture in AA, School of Architecture, London Started her own business in 1980
  7. 7. Problem Statements 1) Considerable number of architects, architectural students*, and fashion or furniture designers around the world who admire her works usually find difficulties to understand her designs. 2) The misconception among architects about Hadid’s projects. Many think that her designs are merely artistic works, fashion and formal whim. * Fan Ling,an architecture teacher at Beijing‘s Central Academy of Fine Arts, the most influential international architect in China (Platt, 2012). 7
  8. 8. Aim of Study To examine the pushed boundaries by Hadid in design and study the underlying causes of her projects’ uniqueness, inspirations, the radical concepts and her strategy of design 8
  9. 9. There are many studies have been done in the architectural works of famous architects such as  Le Corbusier An Analysis of Form (1996)  Meis Van Der Rohe Form follows function (2006)  Frank Lloyd wright Organic Architecture and Frank Lloyd wright In Turkey (2006) Frank Lloyd wright to 1910 (1958)  & other Precedents in Modernist Architecture  Zaha Hadid --------------------------- ( ---- ) Research Gap 9
  10. 10. Research Objectives 1) To find out Zaha Hadid’strategy of design, as well the inspiring notions; 2) To identify Hadid techniques in designing the architectural form; 3) To investigate whether there are any patterns of form through Hadid works; and 4) To investigate the architectural design principles of the form broken by Hadid and the considered ones 10
  11. 11. Research Questions 1) What is Zaha Hadid’ strategy of design? 2) What are the inspiring clues for Hadid to conduct such architecture? 3) What are Hadid techniques in designing form? 4) Are there any patterns through Hadid works? 5) What are the design principles of the architectural form ignored by Hadid? 6) What are the architectural design principles of form considered by Hadid? 11
  12. 12. Significance of the Study It lies in the findings that exposes some obscured issues about Hadid’s architecture and clarify the nature of Hadid deconstructivist forms. This will 1) Take out student’s fears if asked to design in her manner 2) Encourage architects to release their potential talent to be exposed into touchable works  result in creating a variety in their produced works  create a diversity in the general view of the city 12
  13. 13. Literature Review 13 Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre, Abu Dhabi (2008)
  14. 14. Architectural Form Deconstructivis m Suprematism Parametricism Ching, 1996; Norberg, 1980; Baker, 1989; Schumacher, 2012; Le Corbusier, 1986; Arnheim, 1974; Gelernter, 1995; Wong , 2009; Robertson, 1924; Zunde and Bougdah, 2006; Sonmez, 2006; Kamarudin, 2011; Pause and Clark, 2005; Kulic, 2001; Schumacher, 2009; Zhou, 2011; Kornberger and Clegg, 2004; Durmus and Gur, 2011; Patin, 1993; Krishan, 1998; Los, 1998; Salingaros & Masden, 2007; Bittar, 2010; Carlson, 1986; Douglass, 2008; Evans, 1975; Hewitt, 1985; Judelman, 2004; Kamel; Mohassel, 2008; Rudolf, 1977; Bittar, 2007; Cowan, 1979 Schumacher, 2004; 2008; 2008; 2009; 2009; 2010; 2012; Futagawa, 2010; Leach, 2009; Yuan and Yi, 2012 D’Apuzzo, 2011; Glancey, 2006; Mertins, 2006; Kauw, 1998; Aiello, 2005; Bowlt, 1976; Dezeen, 2010; Crowther and Wünsche, 2012; Belogolovsky, 2008; Ruddley, 1970; Railing, 1995; Elliott, 2006; Arnheim, 1954; Cooke, 1995; Didero, 2012; Woods, 2008 Wigley, 1993; 1989 ; Hattenstone, 2010; Mertins, 2006; Marjanović, 2010; Salama, 2007; Straeten, 1997; Hadid, 2006; Didero, 2012; Bowlt, 1976; Eisenman, 1984; Mclead, 1989; Reid, 2009; Patin, 1993; Wong, 2010; Aref, 2011; Saadullah, 2010; Kosiński, 2010; Lloyd, 1997; Butelski, 2001; Gyurkovich; Garnitz, 2004; Guy, 2011; Khan, 2010; Gomez, 2008; Powell, 2006; Salingaros & Alexander, 2005; Mattingly, 1999; Lewis, 2001 Definition, Resources, Patterns, Principles, Techniques, Strategy of design Definition, Background & it roots Development, laws, Characteristics Definition, Background & it roots Principles, Techniques Definition, Properties, Background & it roots, Classifications, Resources Principles, Techniques Literature Review 14
  15. 15. Study Authors Method Tools Data The text of free-form architecture: Joseph F. Wong,(2009) Article Qualitative study , Grounded theory, content analysis Interviews Four pioneer architects “Organic Architecture” and Frank Lloyd Wright in Turkey FİLİZ SÖNMEZ (2006) Thesis Qualitative study Content analysis, comparative analytical study Interviews, survey Vernacular, local and contemporary samples Le Corbusier : an Analysis of Form Baker (1996) Book Qualitative Study Analytical study Sketches Interview & text, Drawings photographs Sixsteen projects Zaha Hadid: The Female Modernist of the Twenty-first Century Leslie Elaine Reid (2009), Thesis Qualitative study, case study Content analysis Interviews, Site survey One project: Center of Contemporary Art in New York The Uncanny and the Architecture of Deconstruction Straeten (1997) Article Qualitative study, Analytical study Drawing & architects words Four contemporary architects
  16. 16. Study Auther Method Tools Data An Indigenous model for 21st Century “green architecture” Samra M. Khan Article Qualitative Study Case study Survey Interviews Photographs & sketches Allah Buksh Sethi haveli building From Constructivism to Deconstructivism Gladys Brenner (1985) Thesis Qualitative study Descriptive & Analytical study Photographs & drawing Four architectural styles Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) Book Qualitative study Analytical study Drawings Plan, section facade 64 projects 16 famous architects Replicant urbanism: the architecture of Douglas Spencer (2010) Article Qualitative Study Case study Analytical study Drawings Survey Photographs Hadid's Central Building at BMW, Leipzig Architecture Form, Space, Order Ching (1996) Book Qualitative Study Analytical study Drawings Many illustrative projects
  17. 17. Research Methodology 17 Stone Towers, Cairo, Egypt (2008)
  18. 18. Study Area: Hadid’s architectural forms; it covers her architectural works since 1975 – 2012, 208 projects in 44countries through the world Data collection: All accessible projects in Books ,the series books of Zaha Hadid, Journals, Magazines, her official website & her interviews in Youtube and other official website. 18
  19. 19. N o Objective Method Data Study, Author/Year 1. Zaha Hadid strategy of design & the inspiring notions Qualitative study: Content analysis with representing design knowledge in diagrams Hadid views, comments, feedback, thoughts in interviews Architectural Research Methods, Groat & Wang (2002) 2. Hadid Techniques Qualitative study: Content analysis Hadid interviews Architectural Research Methods, Groat & Wang (2002) Qualitative study: Analytical study & descriptive study Projects photos, their Descriptions Le Corbusier : an Analysis of Form, Baker (1996) 3. The Architectural Form Patterns of Zaha Hadid 1) Form pattern Qualitative study: Content analysis & Analytical study for her projects Hadid words & projects feature through photos Architectural Research Methods; Groat & Wang (2002) 2) Patterns shared Characteristics Descriptive analysis to find out common features Projects photos Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) 3) Patterns occurrences and percentage Quantitative study: Analytical study Hadid words Projects photos Academic Report Writing Norazman (2007) 4) The formative Relationship Between Plan and Elevation Qualitative study: Analytical study based on drawings Drawings ( plans, sections, elevations) Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) 4. The Used and ignored principles in Designing Architectural Form Qualitative study: A descriptive study of architectural form principles Projects photographs and drawing Integrated Strategies in Architecture, Zunde & Bougdah (2006); Precedents in Architecture, Clark & Pause (2005) Qualitative study: Analytical study Architecture Form, Space, Order, Ching (1996)19
  20. 20. Content Analysis for Zaha Hadid’s Interviews Interviews Videos From different websites Texts & Transcripts From books, magazines & websites Highlight all related information Categorize this information under metaphors representing different themes Collect all Hadid’s words and phrases under one theme (clustering) Partitioning variables Noting relationship between variables e.g. the affection of Hadid’s strategy of design on the final form Subsuming details into general & collect them into fine writing The Themes are:  Hadid Techniques  Form notion  Hadid’s strategy of design  Organizational Techniques  Underlie reasons of Hadid’s innovation 20
  21. 21. Zaha Hadid’s Form Patterns Zaha Hadid’s Form Patterns Hadid’s Books, Articles & Video Form notion from Hadid’s words Repetitive Features which are categorized under Different Form’s Patterns Pattern 3 Pattern 4 Pattern 5Pattern 2Pattern 1 Project’s Images Form’s Prevailing Characteristics 21
  22. 22. Quantitative Analysing of Hadid Patterns The categorization is based on Hadid description to form notion and the prevailing characteristics of project’s form. Project’s name Location Year of design Function Prevailing characteristics of The form Form Notion’s kind Notes 1-Malevich’s tektonik London 1967- 1977 hotel Suprematist: Malevich’s Tektonik suprematist Her Graduation project 2- 3- . . 208- 22
  23. 23. General Characteristics of the Projects Under one Form Pattern ; suprematist form Project Notion of the form Function General characteristics Project 1 Figure 4.59 The Peak Hong Kong (1982-83). Source@ http://www.zaha-hadid.com Figure 4.59 shows the Peak project in Hong Kong. Its notion is relatively a mixture of the suprematist geology, gravity defying and fragmentation (Hadid, 2009). The Peak consists of 1.Spa, Club (library, snack bar, exercise platform) 2.Penthouse 3.Apartments 1. The four projects consist of abstract and fundamental geometric forms that are harmonically similar to each other. 2. They are characterized by defying gravity and elevating the ground. 3. They have the impression of fragmentation. 4. They are perceived as prospective masses of three points. Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 23
  24. 24. Purpose No SamplingItems Numerous Interviews, Hadid’s words in descripting project’s notion The Accessible interviews 208 projects The Accessible projects 20 projects The project that: • Purely symbolize the pattern • The most creative and artistic • Designed in different stages of her career journey& represent different kinds of function 4 projects for Pattern 1 4 projects for Pattern 54 4 4 1 1 1 11 5 projects Being restricted by the availability of information Identifying Form’s patterns Patterns occurrence Percentage of each pattern The common characteristics of each pattern Examining the matching  Form principles to her works  The formative relationship between plan and section or elevation Sampling Procedures 24
  25. 25. The Results & Findings 25 Beko Masterplan. Belgrade, Serbia (2012)
  26. 26. Intense research Form notion Functions in zones Applying Hadid techniques Circulation Function& Natural Lighting Embedded- ness with the context Other supplement & Interior design Final form Zaha Hadid Strategy of Design  site  nature  environment  neighborhoods  function of the project  the political and the social history of the city climate connection& circulation orientation imitating natural forms site topography landscaping of the surrounding context  Art  site  nature  architecture  computing programs Objective 1 26
  27. 27. Objective 2: Zaha Hadid Techniques in Design 27
  28. 28. Zaha Hadid Techniques in Design Beko Masterplan. Belgrade, Serbia (2012) Pierres Vives, Montpellier, France (2002-12) Kusnacht Villa, Zurich, Switzerland (2006) 28
  29. 29. Mobile Art Pavilion For Chanel, Hong Kong, China (2007-08) The Habitable Bridge London, Britain (1996) Museum for the Royal Collection Madrid,Spain(1999) 29
  30. 30. Sub-Techniques 1) The formative relationship between plan and elevation or section 2) Reflecting project’s form in the interior design of space 30
  31. 31. Regium Waterfront Reggio, Italy(2007) Vilnius Museum Vilnius, Lithuania (2007) Heydar Aliyev Culture Centre Baku Azerbaijan (2007-12) The Formative Relationship Between Plan and Elevation or Section Analogous relationship between some configurative peripheral lines Analogous relationship between the configurative peripheral lines Proportional & Inverse relationship between the configurative curvy lines 31
  32. 32. Maxxi: National Museum of XXI Century Art- site Rome, Italy (2009) Maggie's Centre Fife in Kirkcaldy, Scotland (2001-6) Reflecting Project’s Form in the Interior Design of Space 32
  33. 33. (2) Topographic pattern Heydar Aliyev Culture Centre Baku, Azerbaijan (2007-12) (3) Fluid pattern Cairo Expo City: Cairo, Egypt (2009) (1) Suprematist pattern The Peak : Hong Kong (1982-83) (4) Organic pattern Regium Waterfront Reggio, Italy(2007) (5) Parametric pattern Vilnius Museum, Vilnius, Lithuania (2007) Objective 3: Zaha Hadid’s Patterns of Form 33
  34. 34. The Characteristics of Form’s Patterns Suprematist Topographic Fluid Organic Parametric Forms of this pattern characterized by: 1) Using fundamental geometric forms. 2) Utilizing analogous forms . 3) Defying gravity 4) Abstraction 5) Fragmentation 6) Conceiving masses in prospective of three points. 7) Manipulating the ground of different floors. Forms of this pattern 1) Are inspired from the natural landscape formation; the surface outline of the earth 2) Fade to join the earth giving the sense of affiliation 3) Have seamless and fluid surfaces 4) Have the features of withdrawing. 5) Lighting slots smoothly design in parallel to project’s form Forms of this pattern characterized by: 1) Having watery, amorphous (formless) surfaces; the fluid of Arabic calligraphy 2) Gradually faded to join the earth. 3) Continuous curved surfaces 4) Having kinetic interior designs that could serve as multipurpose and multifunctional spaces. 5) Rarely using corner and orthogonal angle 6) Windows and entrances take the same fluid form of the masses. Forms of this pattern 1) Inspired from nature such as animals or plants 2) Have irregular surfaces and often asymmetrical 3) Have fluid, seamless, and curvy surfaces 4) Intimately merged within the context and site because of the familiarity of their notions with the site. Forms of this pattern characterized by: 1) Parametrically flexible which differentiate progressively to meet all the requirements 2) Having fluid, compressed, torsional, and twisted forms. 3) Responsive to environment 4) Some have a reticular, perforated skin. 34
  35. 35. Sunrise Tower Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2009) 35
  36. 36. Hadid Patterns of Form The Mixed Form Patterns The study covers 208 accessible projects which constitute 22% of her designs
  37. 37. The Occurrence of Patterns Through Years
  38. 38. Objective 4: The Used and Ignored Architectural Form Principles by Hadid Ignored Principles Symmetry Simple Addition and Subtraction Embellishment & Decoration Stable Ground Rhythm Used Principles Balance: Asymmetry Unity Scale except the main space 38
  39. 39. 39 Changsha Meixihu International Culture and Art Center, Hunan, China (2013) Conclusions
  40. 40. Conclusions 1) The contribution of this thesis underlies the comprehensive clarification of Hadid’s architectural form. 2) The uniqueness of Hadid works underlies the concept of contradiction in both the used techniques and form principles. 3) Her strategy of design indicates that Hadid perceives architecture as an art. 4) The sequence emergence of Hadid patterns refers to her desire to catch up with what is new. Sheikh Zayed Bridge, Abu Dhabi (1997) 40
  41. 41. Suggestions for Further Studies 1) The language of translating project notion through form, space and circulation; make it acting vividly. 2) To explore the sustainability of Hadid’s Architecture. 3) Hadid sketches and their effective role in determining the final form. 4) Hadids contribution in changing the general conception of Architectural space. 41
  42. 42. Thank You for Your Attention aha Hadid
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. Scope of the study MODERNISM Styles : international style, neo modernism, deconstructivism, futurism, expressionism, constructivism, DECONSTRUCTIVISM Architects: Coop Himmelblau, Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha M. Hadid, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, and Bernard Tschumi. Zaha M. Hadid Architectural elements: space, form, structure, function, interior design, …etc Scope is Zaha hadid architectural form : 1) Strategy of design 2) Techniques 3) Patterns 4) principles
  46. 46. University of Bradford Research Type Exploratory research Descriptive research Analytical research Purpose Used when few or no previous studies exist. Its aim is to look for patterns, hypotheses or ideas that can be tested and will form the basis for further research. identify the characteristics of Hadid’s form patterns How she could generate such creative forms; stating the different ways of techniques application Technique Content analysis for interview Which could be categorized under basic or pure research. Collect, analyse photos & summarize data. analyse variables 46
  47. 47. Some of Zaha Hadid’s Description Words for Project’s Form Notion Malevich Tektonic Explosion Seamlessness Flower petal Complex Suprematist geology Cellular structure Curve Slicing Glacial topography Islamic Calligraphy Defying nature Diamond Shell Inverted necklace Fragment Bubbles Water movement Geometries Contradiction Kinetic Canvas Tree trunk Canyon Parametric Ever-changing Oyster Collision Mushroom columns Fabrication Abstraction Flow Cutting Art box Splintered Interwoven (p. 109) Overlapping lines Scattering Multi-purpose Topography Contours Landscape Biological analogy (branches, stems, fruits, and leaves) Coral Piercing Petra Mountain Sand Dunes Dynamic Pushing boundaries Landscape carpet Lava flow Ice formation, glacial Jewel Organic Mountain ranges Deconstruction Spiralling shapes in nature Archaeology Plastic Movement Shattering Segments Iteration of L-shape Elasticity Folding Ribbons Starfish Spine Smooth Fold Exasperation Bundles Undulating Twisting Wrapping River’s curvature Aggregation Organic System grid Intense Accumulation Swarm Rock Nude structure Digital design technology Weightlessness, freedom Sloped Wrap Float, suspend Boulder Malleable Crystal Fluid Layering Free- form Flexibility Suprematist Capsizing Dynamic Broken ice & Flame of fire Tatlin tower Wave Distortion Dynamic Distorted grid Inscription Sculpture Painting Interlock Bend Trapezoid, wedge, spiral Arc Spiral Shooting Erosion Triangulated roof Pixilation 47
  48. 48. Suprematist / Deconstructivist Form Fluid Form Topographic Form Organic Form Parametric Form Malevich Tektonic Geometries Bundles Piercing Tatlin tower System grid Twisting Shooting Cutting Weightlessness, freedom Float, suspend Explosion Suprematist geology Slicing Defying nature Inverted necklace Painting Interlock Exasperation Collision Nude structure Abstraction Distortion Layering Free-form Distorted grid Art box Folding Intense Accumulation Swarm Triangulated roof Ribbons Splintered Interwoven Overlapping lines Shattering Segments Iteration of L- shape Trapezoid, wedge, spiral Wrapping Broken ice & Flame of fire Spiral Scattering Capsizing Dynamic Pushing boundaries Fragment Contradiction Canvas Aggregation Curve Islamic Calligraphy Fluid Flexibility Dynamic Flow Wave Bend Ever-changing Seamlessness Bubbles Water movement Complex Arc Ice formation Glacial movement Kinetic Fold Undulating Multi-purpose River’s curvature fading Inscription Topography Contours Landscape Sloped Wrap Petra Mountain Sand Dunes Landscape carpet Glacial topography Lava flow Canyon Mountain ranges Archaeology Organic Flower petal Diamond Shell Starfish Rock Biological analogy (branches, stems, fruits, and leaves) Organic Spiraling shapes in nature Boulder Tree trunk Oyster Coral Jewel Mushroom columns Crystal Cellular structure Plastic Malleable Sculpture Digital design Technology Fabrication Elasticity Spine Dynamic Parametric Smooth Pixilation 48
  49. 49. Methodology of the Research No Objective Study, Author/Year Data Method 1. 1) Hadid Techniques as headlines 2) Form notion 3) Underlie reasons of Hadid’s innovation Architectural Research Methods, Groat & Wang (2002) Hadid views, comments, feedback, thoughts in interviews conducted by others Qualitative study: Content analysis 2. Zaha Hadid strategy of design Qualitative study: Content analysis with representing design knowledge in diagrams 3. Hadid Techniques Le Corbusier : an Analysis of Form, Baker (1996) Hadid words in interviews & descripting Projects as well photos Qualitative study: Analytical study & descriptive study 4. Form pattern Architectural Research Methods; Groat & Wang (2002); Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) Hadid words Qualitative study: Content analysis & Analytical study for her projects 1) Patterns shared Characteristics Projects photos 2) Patterns occurrences and percentage Academic Report Writing Norazman (2007) Hadid words Projects photos Quantitative study: Analytical study 3) The Used and ignored principles in Designing Architectural Form Integrated Strategies in Architecture, Zunde & Bougdah (2006); Precedents in Architecture, Clark & Pause (2005) Projects photographs and drawing Qualitative study: A descriptive study of architectural form principles Architecture Form, Space, Order, Ching (1996) Qualitative study: Analytical study 4) The formative Relationship Between Plan and Elevation Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) Drawings ( plans, sections, elevations) Qualitative study: Analytical study based on drawings 49
  50. 50. No Objective Study, Author/Year Data Method 1. Zaha Hadid strategy of design & the inspiring notions Architectural Research Methods, Groat & Wang (2002) Hadid views, comments, feedback, thoughts in interviews Qualitative study: Content analysis with representing design knowledge in diagrams 2. Hadid Techniques Architectural Research Methods, Groat & Wang (2002) Hadid interviews Qualitative study: Content analysis Le Corbusier : an Analysis of Form, Baker (1996) Descripting Projects, photos Qualitative study: Analytical study & descriptive study 3. The Architectural Form Patterns of Zaha Hadid 1) Form pattern Architectural Research Methods; Groat & Wang (2002) Hadid words & projects feature Qualitative study: Content analysis & Analytical study for her projects 2) Patterns shared Characteristics Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) Projects photos Descriptive analysis to find out common features 3) Patterns occurrences and percentage Academic Report Writing Norazman (2007) Hadid words Projects photos Quantitative study: Analytical study 4) The formative Relationship Between Plan and Elevation Precedents in Architecture Clark & Pause (2005) Drawings ( plans, sections, elevations) Qualitative study: Analytical study based on drawings 4. The Used and ignored principles in Designing Architectural Form Integrated Strategies in Architecture, Zunde & Bougdah (2006); Precedents in Architecture, Clark & Pause (2005) Projects photographs and drawing Qualitative study: A descriptive study of architectural form principles Architecture Form, Space, Order, Ching (1996) Qualitative study: Analytical study 50

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