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Project Report on Textile Industrial Engineering

1 | P a g e
Analysis of Industrial Engineering activities
2 | P a g e
Certificate of Supervisor
This is certifying that Mohammad Mahbub-E-Elahi Bhuiyan student of B.Sc. in Textile
3 | P a g e
This project is on “Analysis of Industrial Engineering activities in Sewing
Floor”. Traditionally o...

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Project Report on Textile Industrial Engineering

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e SHYAMOLI TEXTILE ENGINEERING COLLEGE PROJECT REPORT ON Analysis of Industrial Engineering activities In Sewing floor Mohammad Mahbub-E-Elahi Bhuiyan Department: Apparel Manufacturing Session: 2016-17 ID: 72/17 Reg No: 502 Supervisor: Engr. Md. Almamun Rony Lecturer, Department of Apparel Manufacturing, STEC.
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e Certificate of Supervisor This is certifying that Mohammad Mahbub-E-Elahi Bhuiyan student of B.Sc. in Textile Engineering, successfully complete his project work under my supervision as the partial fulfillment for the award of B.Sc. degree. They have done their job according to my supervision and guidance. He has tried his best to do this successfully. I think this program will help in the future build up his career. I wish him success & prosperity. Engr. Md Almamum Rony Lecturer, Department of Apparel Manufacturing, Shyamoli Textile Engineering College. PROJECT TEAM: Mohammad Mahbub-E-Elahi Bhuiyan ID: 72/17 Reg No: 502 Sayeda Badhon Chowdhury ID: 50/17 Reg No: 480 Abdullah Al Noman ID: 21/17 Reg No: 451 Nusrat Habib ID: 07/17 Reg No: 504 Moumita Jaman Sampa ID: 73/17 Reg No: 503
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e ABSTRACT This project is on “Analysis of Industrial Engineering activities in Sewing Floor”. Traditionally operated garment industries are facing problems like low productivity, longer production lead-time, high rework and rejection, poor line balancing, low flexibility of style changeover etc. These problems were addressed in this study by the implementation of lean tools like cellular manufacturing, single piece flow, work standardization, just in time production, etc. After implementation of lean tools, results observed were highly encouraging. Some of the key benefits entail production cycle time decreased by 8%, number of operators required to produce equal amount of garment is decreased by 14%, rework level reduced by 80%, production lead time comes down to one hour from two days, work in progress inventory stays at a maximum of 100 pieces from around 500 to 1500 pieces. Apart from these tangible benefits operator multiskilling as well as the flexibility of style changeover has been improved. This study is conducted in the stitching section of a shirt manufacturing company. Study includes time studies, the conversion of traditional batch production into single piece flow and long assembly line into small work cells.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter: 01 Introduction of Industrial Engineering 1. Introduction 06 1.1 Techniques of Industrial Engineering 06 1.2 Job responsibility IE department 07 1.3 Industrial Engineering Tools 07 1.3.1 Lean Manufacturing 07 1.3.2 Lean manufacturing principle 08 1.3.3 Wastage of Lean 08 1.3.4 5S 09 1.3.5 KAIZEN 10 Chapter:02 Work Study 2. Work Study 11 2.1 Discipline of Work Study 11 2.2 Functions of Work study Engineering 12 2.2.1 Standard time & target setting 12 2.2.2 Method analysis 12 2.2.3 Work place Layout 12 2.2.4 Operations Sequence 13 2.2.5 Work Aids & Attachment 13 2.2.6 Operator Monitoring 13 2.3 Basic procedure of work study 14 Chapter: 03 Method Study 3. Method Study 15 3.1 Scope of method study 15 3.2 Steps of method study 15
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Chapter: 04 Time Study 4. Time Study 16 4.1 How to conduct time study 16 Chapter: 05 SMV & Efficiency Calculation 5. Machineries used for Garment Sewing in Mass Production 19 5.1 Prepare an Assembly Line 19 5.2 Sewing Process Flow Chart for T-Shirt 20 5.3 Formula for production estimation 21 5.4 Factors that hamper production 21 5.5 Calculate SMV of a Garments 22 5.5.1 Method: Through time study 22 5.6 Standard Minutes Value of basic product 23 5.7 Calculate efficiency of a production batch 23 5.8 Efficiency calculation formula 24 Chapter:06 PROJECT ANALYSIS RESULT (Increasing Productivity by reducing Bottleneck in Sewing Line) 6. Productivity increasing way 26 6.1 Bottleneck 26 6.2 Reasons of Bottleneck 27 6.3 How to find out Bottleneck 27 6.4 Example of find out Bottleneck 28 6.5 Reducing Bottleneck 28 6.6 Using method to reduce Bottleneck 29 6.7 Reducing Bottleneck by work-sharing method 30 6.8 Discussion 32 Chapter: 07 Conclusion 33 REFERENCES 34
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e Chapter: 01 Introduction of Industrial Engineering 1. Introduction: Industrial engineering is a profession in which a knowledge of mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop the ways to utilize economically the materials and other natural resources and focus of nature for the benefit of mankind. Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated system of men, materials and equipment. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. The prime objective of industrial engineering is to increase the productivity by eliminating waste and non-value adding (unproductive) operations and improving the effective utilization of resources. 1.1 Techniques of Industrial Engineering: I. Method study: To establish a standard method of performing a job after thorough analysis of the jobs and to establish the layout of production facilities to have a uniform flow of material without back tracking. II. Value Analysis: It ensures that unnecessary costs are built into the product and it tries to provide the required functions at the minimum cost. Hence, helps to enhance the worth of the product. III. Production, Planning and Control: This includes the planning for resources (like men, materials and machine) proper scheduling and controlling production activities to ensure the right quantity, quality of product at predetermined time and pre-established cost. IV. Inventory Control: To find the economic lot size and the reorder levels i tems so that the item should be made available to the production at the righttime andquantityto avoidstock out situation.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e 1.2 Job responsibility of IE Department in Apparel Industry: 1. Methods developments & analysis as a side of quality & quantity. 2. Operation breakdown, Operation Bulleting / Layout. 3. SMV calculation by time study. 4. Nonproductive time record and reduce 5. Statistical analysis for continuous quality improvement 6. Production Planning and control, Planning Calculations 7. Improving Productivity through a detailed analysis of the process by process 8. Costing Implementation of lean manufacturing tools and Six Sigma 9. Prepare a Man-machine report 10. Operator skill Summary & train up production staff on efficiency 1.3 Industrial Engineering Tools: 1. Lean Manufacturing 2. 5S 3. KAIZEN 1.3.1 Lean Manufacturing: Lean Manufacturing, also called Lean Production, is a set of tools and methodologies that aims for the continuous elimination of all waste in the production process. The main benefits of this are lower production costs; increased output and shorter production lead times. More specifically, some of the goals include: .
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e 1.3.2 Lean Manufacturing principle: 1.3.3 Wastages of Lean:
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e 1.3.4 5S 5S represents five disciplines for maintaining a visual workplace (visual controls and information systems). 5S is one of the activities that will help ensure our company’s survival. 1. Sort - All unneeded tools, parts and supplies are removed from the area 2. Set in Order - A place for everything and everything is in its place 3. Shine - The area is cleaned as the work is performed 4. Standardize - Cleaning and identification methods are consistently applied 5. Sustain - 5S is a habit and is continually improved
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e 1.3.5 KAIZEN: Kaizen is a Japanese term meaning, "change for the better" or "continuous improvement." It is a Japanese business philosophy regarding the processes that continuously improve operations and involve all employees. Kaizen sees improvement in productivity as a gradual and methodical process. 1.3.6 Steps to continuous improvement of Kaizen:
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e CHAPTER: 2 Work study: 2. Work study: It is a systematic technique of method analysis work measurement and setting of time standard that can be ensure the highest productivity by the optimum use of manpower, equipment and material. 2.1 Discipline of work study:
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e 2.2 Function of Work Study: 2.2.1 Standard Time and Target Setting: Many companies do not use standard time systems; target setting is based on guesswork and experience. Establishment of Standard times and the development of the best method to manufacture is vitally important to improve productivity. Every company that wishes to compete in the future must realize this. 2.2.2 Method Analysis: Most of the companies are using poor methods, operators are left to establish best way to do the job, decide on the number of bursts of stitching, folding and unfolding of parts, unnecessary matching and additional handling, all of these motions add to the time it takes to manufacture the garment and should be eliminated. Method study can be implemented in any type of production system whether it is in- house or on a contract basis. Proper method analysis can improve productivity by at least 15%. 2.2.3 Workplace Layout: The management wants to fit as many machines in the factory as possible, reducing the scope for methods improvement. The space between machines is insufficient in many cases. A good workplace layout will eliminate unnecessary motions and fatigue resulting in substantial increase in the efficiency of the operator.
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e 2.2.4 Operation Sequence: Some of the production departments work without a properly planned or written operation sequence. This is a critical step in garment production and a mistake or negligence at this stage can result into huge losses later in terms of operator time, work content and quality. 2.2.5 Work Aids and Attachments: Use of work aids and attachments is insufficient. Many new and inexpensive attachments and folders are being continuously developed, it is vital that these developments are known to ensure a program of constant improvement. Many new and inexpensive attachments and folders are being continuously developed, it is vital that these developments are known to ensure a program of constant improvement. 2.2.6 Operator Monitoring: Most of the companies surveyed do not have the means to establish their performance against standard, so they have no idea where they stand. There are no proper measurements so their efficiency levels are at best a guess, it is impossible to understand how they will be able to continue to compete.
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e 2.3 Basic Procedure of WorkStudy: There are eight steps in performing a complete work-study. They are: 1) Select The task to be studied 2) Record By collecting data at source & by direct observation 3) Examine By challenging the purpose, place, sequence & method of work 4) Develop New methods, drawing on contribution of those concerned 5) Evaluate Results of alternative solutions 6) Define New methods & present findings 7) Install New methods & train those involved 8) Maintain &establish control procedure
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e Chapter: 3 Method Study 3. Method study: It is more of a systematic approach to job design than a set of techniques. It is defined as the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposedmethods of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. 3.1 Scope of Method Study: The scope of method study is not restricted to only manufacturing industries. Method study techniques can be applied effectively in service sector as well. It can be applied in offices, hospitals, banks and other service organizations. The areas to which method study can be applied successfully in manufacturing are: • To improve work methods and procedures. • To determine the best sequence of doing work. • To smoothen material flow with minimum of backtracking and to improve layout. • To improve the working conditions and hence to improve labor efficiency. • To reduce monotony in the work. • To improve plant utilization and material utilization. • Elimination of waste and unproductive operations. • To reduce the manufacturing costs through reducing cycle time of operations 3.2 The method involves in following steps: Method study procedure is an organized approach and its investigation rests on the following six basic steps:  Select: the work to be analyzed.  Record: all facts relating to the existing method.  Examine: the recorded facts critically but impartially.  Develop: the most economical method commensurate with plant requirements  Install: the new method as standard practice.  Maintain: the new method.
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e Chapter:4 Time Study 4. Time study: It is a method of measuring work for recording the times of performing a certain specific task or its elements carried out under specified conditions. An operator does same operation (task) throughout the day. Time study help to define how much time is necessary for an operator to carry out the task at a defined rate of performance. 4.1How to conduct Time Study? An operation cycle consists of material handling, positioning and aligning parts, sewing, trimming threads and tying and untying a bundle. So in the time study format, divide whole task into various elements according to the motion sequences of the operation. For example, in operation ‘collar run stitch’, task elements may be I) pick up panel to sew first seam, ii) turn collar to sew second seam, iii) turn collar to sew third seam iv) check work and dispose and v) waiting for next pieces. Step 1: Preparation • At first, I have prepared stationeries like time study format, stopwatch and pencil. • Now, I select the one operation for Time study. • I am going to measure time, which time he taking to do the job. • I observe the operation carefully and break down operation into elements. • At last, I have fill the basic information in the time study format. Like machine category, guide or attachment used. Step 2: Time capturing: Now, I measure the time taken for completing each elements of the operation cycle by the operator. Time should be captured in seconds. Similarly, capture element timing for consecutive 05 operation cycles. During data capturing only note down reading of the stop watch Moreover, calculate element timing. If I found any abnormal time in any elements record time during time study and later discard that reading. Abnormal time may be occurred due to bobbin change, thread break, power cut or quality issues.
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e Step 3: Calculation of Basic time: From the Reading calculates time taken for each element for all five cycles just by deducting previous Reading from elemental reading. Sum up times of five cycles for each element. Note, if we discard any reading than in that case no. of cycles will be four. Calculate average element times. This average time is called basic time. (In the following table-2 it is noted as average time)
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e Step 4: Calculation of Standard time: To convert basic time to normal we have to multiply it with operator performance rating. Here for example, rating has been taken 100%. Now I have added allowances for machine allowances, fatigue and personal needs etc. Add machine allowance only to those elements where machine is running and fatigue and personal needs to all elements. Now I got standard time for each element in seconds. Sum up all elemental time and convert seconds into minutes. This is standard minutes or SAM.
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e Chapter: 5 SMV & Efficiency calculation 5. Machineries used for Garment Sewing in Mass Production: There are several types of sewing machines used to make our clothes. When garment making was industrialized, scientists developed industrial power driven sewing machines to meet the needs of mass production. Semi-automatic and fully automatic machines were developed in different stages. Machines are classified depending of seam types, number of needle used, stitch classes, table bed etc. In the following, list most of the machine those are used in garment making. • Single/multi needle industrial lockstitch sewing machine • Blind stitch machine/Chain stitching machine. • Flat lock machine (cylinder bed and flatbed) • Over lock machine (3 threads/4 threads and 5 threads) • Single/double needle chain stitch machine • Zigzag flatbed sewing machine. • Button stitch sewing machine. • Buttonhole sewing machine. 5.1 Prepare an Assembly Line. Step 1: Operation breakdown – Select a garment for which I want to calculate machine requirement. Analyzing the operations required to sew the garment and list down operations in a spreadsheet in a sequence. For example, I see operation break down of a T-shirt in following table. Step 2: Identify machine type – I observe what stitch class has been used in the operations and according to those select machines against each operation. Step 3: SMV of each operation – I write down SMV or standard minutes at right column of machine type. SMV is the most important part for calculating machine requirement. I use SAM of each operation from database.
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Step 4: Calculate machine requirement – Set the production target for the day (8 hours shift). Example- 400 pieces per line. Use present efficiency level of the factory. Now, calculate machine requirement using the following formula. It is called as calculated machine number. = (Target quantity in pieces* individual operation SMV)/ (8 hours*60 minutes*desired efficiency) 5.2 Sewing Process Flow Chart for T-Shirt with machine:
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e 5.3 Formula for production estimation:  Daily production = Total man minutes available in a day/SAM * Average Line efficiency  Total available man-minutes =Total no. of operator’s X Working hours in a day X 60 If, SAM of the garment is 20 minutes, 30 operators line, works 8 hours shift day. Line works at average 50% efficiency. Operators get total 45 minutes for lunch and tea break. Total available man minutes = 30 X (8 X 60 – 45) = 13050 minutes Daily estimated production = 13050 /20 * 50% = 326 pieces We expect above output from that line if everything is gone well. We can see the production of a line is directly proportional to the line efficiency; no. of operators and working hours. In addition, production is reverse proportional to the garment SAM. If efficiency of a line increases, we can expect higher production. Similarly, if SAM of style reduces at that also we can expect higher output. 5.4 Factors that hamper production: Any one of the following can reduce production of assembly line. Therefore, to get estimated output, we have to take on the following areas.  Machine break down  Imbalance line.  Continuous feeding to the line  Quality problems  Individual operator performance level.  Operator absenteeism.
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e 5.5 Calculate SMV of a Garment: SMV is the standard time allowed to an operator (worker) to complete a task. The term Standard Minute Value (SMV) is mostly used in the garments industry. It is a process of time study and measure standard minute and then calculates the SMV. The calculation of SMV is actually done by the Industrial Engineer. SMV = Basic time + Allowance. 5.5.1 Method: Through Time Study: Step 1: At first, I have selected one operation for which I want to calculate SAM. Step 2 Basic Time: Now, I have taken one stopwatch. Stand by side of the operator. Capture cycle time for that operation. (cycle time – total time taken to do all works needed to complete one operation, i.e. time from pick up part of first piece to next pick up of the next piece). Capture time study for consecutive five cycles. Calculate average of the 5 cycles. Time that I got from time study is called cycle time. To convert this cycle time into basic time I have to multiply cycle time with operator performance rating. [Basic Time = Cycle Time X Performance Rating] Step 3 Performance rating: Now I have to rate the operator at what performance level he was doing the job seeing his movement and work speed. Suppose that operator performance rating is 80%. If cycle time is 0.60 minutes. Basic time = (0.60 X 80%) = 0.48 minutes. Step 4 Standard allowed minutes (SAM): Standard allowed minutes (SAM) = (Basic minute + Bundle allowances + machine and personal allowances). Add bundle allowances (10%), machine, and personal allowances (20%) to basic time. Now I got Standard Minute value (SMV) or SAM. SAM= (0.48+0.048+0.096) = 0.624 minutes.
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e 5.6 Standard Minutes Value of basic products: Product SMV (Average) SAM Range 1 Crew neck T-Shirt 08 6 to 12 2 Polo Shirt 15 10 to 20 3 Formal Full sleeve shirt 21 17 to 25 4 Formal trouser 35 25 to 35 5 Sweat Shirt (Hooded) 45 35 to 55 6 Jacket(Suit) 101 70 to 135 7 Women blouse 18 15 to 45 8 Bra 18 16 to 30 5.7 Calculate efficiency of a production batch: Like individual operator efficiency, efficiency of a production line or batch or section is important for a factory. Daily line efficiency shows the line performance. To calculate efficiency of a line for a day, I will need following data (information) from the line supervisor or line recorder. 1. Number of operators – how many operators worked in the line in a day 2. Working hours (Regular and overtime hours) – how many hours each of the operators worked or how many hours the line run in a day 3. Production in pieces – How many pieces are produced or total line output at the end of the day 4. Garment SAM – What is exact standard minute of the style (garment)
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e I have to calculate following using above information - 1. Total minutes produced by the line: To get total produced minutes multiply production pieces by SAM 2. Total minutes attended by the all operators in the line: Multiply number of operators by daily working hours. Now, calculate line efficiency using following formula: Line efficiency = Total minutes produced by the line/total minutes attended by all operators. 5.8 Efficiency calculation formula: Efficiency (%) = [Total minute produced by an operator/Total minute attended by him *100] Where,  Total minutes produced = Total pieces made by an operator X SAM of the operation [minutes]  Total minutes attended = Total hours worked on the machine X 60 [minutes] Example: An operator was doing an operation of SAM 0.50 minutes. In an 8 hours shift day he produces 400 pieces. So according to the efficiency calculating formula, that operator’s overall efficiency = (400 x 0.50) / (8 X 60) *100% = 200/480*100% = 41.67%
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e Chapter: 06 Project Analysis Result (Increasing productivity by Reducing Bottleneck in sewing line)
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e 6. Productivity Increasing Way Higher productivity gets higher edge a business. What’s more, increase in productivity level decreases article of clothing fabricating cost. Consequently a processing plant can make more benefit through productivity improvement. Some important key points to increase the productivity 1. Hourly operator capacity checks 2. Use best possible line layout 3. Reduce line setting time 4. Reduce bottleneck in sewing line. 5. Improve line balancing 6. Continuous feeding to the sewing line 7. Training for Line Supervisors 8. Training to sewing operators 9. Setting individual operator target 10.Operator motivation. 6.1 What Is BOTTLENECK in Garments Sewing Line? Bottleneck The upper narrow portion of a bottle is called neck (opening side) that is an obstruction to go to the way from large portion of bottle through narrow portion of neck. It is a metaphorical scene of obstruction of production sector. It is an extreme point in a production sector where production is hampered from normal flow of production. In a production sector, bottleneck means lost production and lost profit e.g. the lowest capacity of production.
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e 6.2 Reasons of bottleneck in Sewing line:  Unavailable issue from store  Delay issue from source  Inconsistency of sequence of issue  Mistake of bundling  Wrong issue supply  Pattern problem  Unavailable machine.  Operators selection wrong  Task selection wrong  Wrong works flow  Wrong measurement of task  Works negligence by operator  Machine disturbs  Lack of supply 6.3 How to Find Out Bottleneck? Bottleneck is the extreme point of line where the output / capacity of production is minimum however, it is difficult to find out very quickly where a lot of operators are working together. In this situation we may consider the below factors to find out the bottleneck easily- 1. By performing cycle check: It is very easy and accurate measuring system as well as the best of scientific way to find out the bottleneck at a glance from graph that is made from the data of cycle check. The extreme point of observation time that takes an operator to perform his/her task is the bottleneck point. 2. By checking counter machine: It is easy to find out the bottleneck point by checking counting machine where the production has counted poor. This system may be done time to time like hourly or within an expected time. 3. By observing the gathering of supply: That area is the bottleneck point where a pile of product is observed. Some of operators have a pile of feed but next or side of operator may be relax and it will be treated as bottleneck point or area.
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e 6.4 Example of find out bottleneck Five operators are sewing shirt collar. The table shows how the material is moving, a list of operations their capacities and achieved production. The operations are performed one after another so the next operator can get maximum pieces as made by the previous operator. All operation has the same work content and capacity is the same as 100 pieces. Here forth operator is making 55 pieces, so maximum 55 pieces can only be made in the line per hour and the material will be stuck at fourth operation. This 4th operation is now a bottleneck operation. 6.5 Reducing bottleneck  Arranging pre-production meeting in time  Layout making before input in line  Submitting the layout sheet to maintenance department in time  Checking the fabrics & accessories before issue in the line  By work sharing tricks.  Select right operator for right task.  Reducing excess task from overloaded operator  Reducing ineffective task by production study  Setting up good method instead of bad method by method analyzing  Maintain sequence of task accordingly  Keeping the supply available in time  Should not forward the reject products  Supply should be forwarded after checking
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e 6.6 Using Methods to reduce bottleneck: 1. Add Additional Manpower of Machine: The easiest way to increase production at bottleneck operations is to add labor and machine. This will definitely remove bottleneck operation but this technique is not that feasible because additional labor or machine puts additional cost. Good management never does this mistake. 2. Work for an Extra Hours: Most of the industries follow this method. Labor do overtime to make enough pieces and create work in process for next day. 3. Method Improvement: Industrial engineer do method study to find out a better method, which takes less time for same task. With better method, fewer efforts are needed and more production can be achieved. Improved method can be done with provision of work aids like folders attachment, trolley, or machine automation etc. 4. Improve Work Station Layout: The operator is performing cycle from pick up to pick up if work station is improved with consideration of ergonomics then it reduces material handling time and results into time-saving with increased production. 5. Better Operator Allocation: Allocated high work content job to the highly skilled operator and low skill labor allocated comparatively low work content. To do this effectively operators are graded from A to C class (A for highly skilled operator B is for moderate or C for low skilled labor). Right allocation is important to get better production. 6. Use Time Saving Tricks: Lots of time is spent by operator in materials handling and associated job. Here are some way to time saving bottleneck. 7. Work sharing Tricks: Giving some part of the work (or some of the pieces) of bottleneck operation to share with a nearby operation which has potentially higher capacity than required for line output. Care should be taken that the operator with which work is shared has same machine as that of bottleneck the right skill required for the bottleneck operation.
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e 6.7 Reduce Bottleneck by Work Sharing Method Experimental data (Before & after work sharing) It is clear from the TABLE 01 that in the 6, 10, 12, and 17 number operations, the bottleneck, which occurred at those points’ capacity, was higher than the previous operation. Table 1: Capacity study before Work-Sharing. Efficiency Calculation before Work-Sharing: Given that, Manpower = 23 Working hour = 10 Actual Output = 1380/10 hour SMV = 5.50
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e Table 2: Capacity study after work sharing Efficiency Calculation after Work-Sharing: Given that, Manpower = 19 Working hour = 10 Actual line output = 1600/10 hour SMV = 5.50
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e 6.8 Discussion: Bottleneck reduction is an important issue in RMG sector. Because it is related with productivity improvement. The profit earning of apparel industry largely depends on productivity improvement. This study shows the way of improving the production efficiency by bottleneck reduction. Number of operators is reduced by considering process wise cycle time per head. A final layout for the finishing line is proposed. The proposed layout model has been followed the logic of modular system (worker works on more than two processes who is skilled on all processes and these combination of skilled workers finish their work in piece flow production) and traditional system (one worker works in one process and all the workers who may be skilled or not finish their work in bundle flow production) both together where only modular production system can be applicable with a series of skilled workers to achieve more productivity. This calculation could be justified by considering different line of the production floor. Result would have been more effective if the order considered is larger than the current order. Bottleneck reduction techniques are very important for reducing production time and improving quality.
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e 7. CONCULSION: Industrial engineering is an important and essential part of any apparel industry. We learn all the implementations of the processes, which we have studied theoretically. It gives us an opportunity to compare the theoretical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop our knowledge and skills. This project also gives us an opportunity to enlarge our knowledge of textile administration, production planning, procurement system, production process, and machineries and teach us to adjust with the industrial life.
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e References  engineering-a-new- concept-of-apparel-engineering1.asp     calculate-operator- efficiency.html   THANK YOU
  35. 35. 35 | P a g e