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Taiga telomeres


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Telomeres and the effects of lengthening

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Taiga telomeres

  1. 1. Amanda Schorr (Taiga)
  2. 2.  Sequence of repeating nucleotides  “TTAGGG”  3’ ends of DNA Protection during replication  Shorten over time  Created by telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)
  3. 3.  Telomerase is capable of:  Extending lifespan of a cell  Slowing the process of aging  Extending the Hayflick limit b/nrm1000_072a_F1.html  Hayflick limit: the number of times a normal human cell population will divide until cell division stops
  4. 4. Telomere shortening has been linked to aging process.  Sign of aging  Contribute to aging Telomeres alone do not determine lifespan and aging.
  5. 5.  Cancerous cells produce more telomerase to prevent cell death.  Telomerase could be used as an additional diagnostic marker for cancer.  Inhibiting telomerase in cancer cells can lead to tumor cell death, but there are risks.
  6. 6.  Dyskeratosis Congenita  premature aging  Blood cancers  Intestinal disorders  Cirrhosis of the liver  pulmonary fibrosis  Gray hair  Balding  Progeria
  7. 7.  Smoking  Obesity  Sedentary life style  Excessive sodium intake  Linked to heart disease  Type-2 diabetes  dementia  Stress  Inflammation  Time
  8. 8. •Discovered in 2009(Blackburn and Greider) • longer the Telomeres longer life •Stumbled upon during experiment with statin to lower cholesterol in Italy(2013)
  9. 9.  Mice engineered to lack enzyme telomerase  Barely fertile, suffer from osteoporosis, diabetes, and neurodegeneration  Inactive telomerase switched back on feeding mice 4-OHT  Mice grew to adulthood without it and then the enzyme was reawakened  Dramatic reversal.  Shriveled testes grew back, regained fertility, spleen, liver, and intestines recuperated, and revered aging on brain  -published in “Nature”, study done in 2010
  10. 10.  Since we know for almost certainty that telomerase is the enzyme that lengths telomeres why not make a drug, stop time now?...We have (Not technically a drug, it’s considered a supplement.)  Made from astragalus plant
  11. 11. • Maintaining functionality • Protection • Permits the cell to keep multiplying • Creating more telomerase prevents dealth
  12. 12. • Telomerase-combined with various mutations that promote cell growth and inhibit cell death allows the cancer cells to become “immortal”
  13. 13. • Bladder • Bone • Prostate • Lung • Kidney • Head • Neck
  14. 14. • Telomerase has been detected to be 20 times more active in cancer cells than in a normal body cell • A technique to measure telomerase TRAP
  15. 15. • Scientist believe blocking telomerase can be useful • Inhibiting telomerase would cause the telomerase to actually shorten • Forcing telomerase to make mutant telomeric DNA in cancer cells  omosomes/telomeres/
  16. 16. • Optimum nutrition • Weight control • Stress reduction • Withdrawal of substances of abuse – Simple sugar – Alcohol – Drugs • Restoration of normal sleep patterns
  17. 17. • Pursuit of a balanced protein intake with rotation among meat, dairy, vegetables and fish proteins – Increase intake of omega 3 fatty acids in active forms e.g. cold-water fish, salmon • Decrease intake of saturated fat, hydrogenated oils, and trans-fatty acids • Diet that is high in antioxidants – Decrease in mean telomere length can be the result of severe oxidative damage to telomeres.
  18. 18.  Study done at the University of Utah Department of Human Genetics done on 143 individuals over the age of 60 years of age  Results showed that those individuals with shorter telomere had a higher mortality rate than individuals with longer telomere  Milwaukee Center for Longevity Medicine  They test clients telomere in cells by a blood test to determine biological age and make recommendations for clients:  Hormone replacement therapy  Medical supplementation  Personalized nutrition  Exercise programs
  19. 19.  Should telomere science advance to such a degree, the effect on human life could be far-reaching:  People may be able to know how long they will live until their natural death;  People may be able to know their risk for cancer and other diseases;  Insurance companies may require telomere testing before providing life, health or disability coverage;  Employers may require telomere testing results before hiring
  20. 20.  "Now that I know I'm going to die in 9 years..."  "Do I tell my wife? Do I tell my kids? Do I tell my employer?"  "Do I quit my job and start tackling my bucket list?"  "Do I spend all my money over the next 9 years?"  "Do I start exercising and eating right and try to turn this thing around?" Would you get tested?
  21. 21.      telomeres-aging-a-disease-prevention-do-telomere-targeted-treatments-have-a-role- in-clinical-practice    health   =93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=dlZLU-VfwpXKAd-vgdgB& ved=0CAgQ_AUoAQ&biw=1600&bih=799#q=telomeres+shortening&tbm=isch&f acrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=_IwQ8- 2Fsites%252Fdefault%252Ffiles%252F6_telomere_2.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fww 252Fwhat-happens-when-dna-becomes-damaged%3B400%3B171
  22. 22.  FXN_enUS499US580&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=bnhLU42 mGYThyQHanoHgCg&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAg&biw=1600&bih=756#facrc=_&img dii=_&imgrc=Utvx0NIaZloWSM%253A%3B12fqJ7XqkiAbiM%3Bhttp%253A%252 high-res%252Fdrx-telomere-dna- nding-fall-2013%252F%3B5783%3B3883   to-premature-cellular-aging  http://www.courier-journal. com/story/life/wellness/2014/04/03/booming-live-longer-lengthen- telomeres/7257307/