Sustainability Assignment EDP USGSB - The Waste Hierarchy 2012

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Sustainability Assignment EDP USGSB - The Waste Hierarchy 2012

  1. 1. 1 DECLARATION OF PARTICIPATION IN GROUP ASSIGNMENTS EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 2012 GROUP ASSIGNMENT SUSTAINABILITY LECTURER: ARNOLD SMITAMANDA BRINKMANN 17573602 100%IAN C ROSS 16641876 100%RIAAN DE LA REY n/aLUCIANO F HUGHES 14284235 100%VUSI F KHOZA 1498692 100%WYNAND J VAN ZYL 10820892 100% NATURAL CAPITAL TITLE WHAT WOULD THE IMPACT ON SOCIETY BE IF ALL WASTE IS ELIMINATED, RECYCLED, UPCYCLED AND RE-USED WITHIN THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN: THE WHOLE-OF-SOCIETY IMPACT OF DEALING WITH THE WASTE HIERARCHY EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY
  2. 2. 2 CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND AND APPROACH TO ASSIGNMENT – SETTING THE SCENE 2. THE HISTORY OF THE GLOBAL RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING – MOVING TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING SUSTAINABILITY 3. A summary/overview of the objectives of the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change [ UNFCCC] 4. PRINCIPLES AND METHODOLOGIES EMPLOYED TO REACH GLOBAL CONSENSUS AND CO-OPERATION AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS – POST- RATIONILISATION – starting the process of using these to evaluate the existing plans at City of Cape Town level 4.1 HUMAN BEHAVIOUR: What makes us tick and why would we participate in being part of Global change via dealing with the Waste Hierarchy locally? 5. MOTIVATION AND IMPORTANCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT in CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY - SITUATING WASTE MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE GREATER ECOSYSTEM 5.1 GLOBAL WARMING - DEFINITION AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS 5. MOTIVATION AND IMPORTANCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT in CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY - SITUATING WASTE MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE GREATER ECOSYSTEM5.1 GLOBAL WARMING - DEFINITION AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS5.2 Causes of global warming5.2.1 Potential Impacts of Global Warming5.2.2 What is a Carbon Footprint and why is it relevant?5.2.2.1 Carbon offsets5.2.3 Defining Sustainability and Sustainable Development6 DEFINING NATURAL CAPITAL IN CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY and CLIMATE MITIGATION6.1.1 Balancing Social, Economic and Environmental Objectives7 SOUTH AFRICA - THE RESPONSE TO THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY IMPERATIVE7.1 NATIONAL STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
  3. 3. 37.1.1 CONTEXT AND SUMMARY OF ISSUES PERTINENT TO WASTE MANAGEMENT and THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT/MUNICIPAL RESPONSES7.1.2 Solid Waste Management Draft Sector Plan 2012-2013 [SWMDSP]7.1.3 The City of Cape Town Integrated Waste Management By-Law [ CCTIWM]7.2 CITY OF CAPE TOWN INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT BY-LAW: MARCH 2009: A BRIEF OVERVIEW [FULL TEXT ATTACHED]7.2.1 The purpose and objectives of the By-Law [CCIWMB. 2007. Page 1]7.2.2 Definition of waste within the By-Law7.2.3 CURRENT CITY OF CAPE TOWN WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN AND STRATEGY7.2.3.1 The range of projects, programmes and initiatives: As accessed on the City of Cape Town‟s Waste Management website [http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/SolidWaste2/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed August 2012]APPENDIX – see summary of programmes, projects and interventions8 THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN - DEALING WITH THE WASTE HIERARCHY8.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND APPROACH8.2 THE CITY OF CAPE TOWN : HEAD OF WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY: MR BARRY COETZE -A MASTER CLASS IN WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY AND THINKING – FURTHER FOUNDATIONAL CONTEXT8.2.1 DEFINING THE WASTE HIERARCHY – in global as well as local terms8.2.1.1 DEFINITIONS and METHODOLOGIES – THE WASTE HIERARCHY8.2.1.1.1 Definition of Disposal8.2.1.1.2 Methodologies, technologies and common practice used in Cape Town to dispose of waste8.2.1.1.3 Definition of Elimination8.2.1.1.4 Methodologies, technologies and best practice to Eliminate Waste8.2.1.1.4.1 WASTE-TO-ENERGY: OVERVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GLOBAL AND LOCAL SUSTAINABILITY OUTCOMES – WASTE ELIMINATION8.2.1.1.4.2 Broad definition of Waste-To-Energy requirements8.2.1.1.4.3 BATCH OXYDATION SYSTEM [ BOS ™] – CLEANGLOBE8.2.1.1.4.4 CONTINUOUS OXIDATION REACTOR [COR™] – CLEAN GLOBE8.2.1.1.4.5 VACUUM PYROLYSIS8.2.1.1.5 Definition of Re-use8.2.1.1.6 Best Practice models, concepts, opportunities and benefits: Re-use of „waste‟8.2.1.1.6.1 Reducing CO2 emissions and carbon footprint8.2.1.1.6.2 Re-use Centres and Virtual Exchanges8.2.1.1.6.3 Remanufacturing
  4. 4. 48.2.1.1.6.4 Deposit programmes8.2.1.1.6.5 Closed-loop programmes8.2.1.1.6.6 Refilling programmes8.2.1.1.6.7 Re-giving or Re-gifting8.2.1.1.6.8 Re-giving or Re-gifting8.2.1.1.6.9 Printer cartridges and toners re-use8.2.1.1.6.10 Repurposing8.2.1.1.6.11 Waste Exchanges8.2.1.1.6.12 Up-cycling8.2.1.1.7 Definition of Recycling8.2.1.1.8 The relative value of recycling – an on-going debate8.2.1.1.9 Supply of recyclable waste8.2.1.1.10 Government led and mandated demand8.2.1.1.11 Recycling consumer waste8.2.1.1.12 Recycling of Industrial Waste8.2.1.1.13 Cradle to Cradle Waste Management - Up-cycling versus Down-cycling8.2.1.1.14 Energy usage8.2.1.1.15 Public participation in recycling programmes8.2.2 Obligations of the Waste Generator: The provisions of the By-Law8.2.2.1 Definition of a Waste Generator9 CONCLUSIONS10 RECOMMENDATIONS11 And in the final analysisREFERENCESAppendicesAttached: City of Cape Town Integrated Waste Management By-Law
  5. 5. 5 1. INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND AND APPROACH TO ASSIGNMENT – SETTING THE SCENEWe have taken on the ambitious and rather gargantuan task of crafting what we believe would bean appropriate response to effectively managing the Waste Hierarchy and what the potentialimpacts on society could be. We have however narrowed our purview to cover the City of CapeTown only, which does, to some degree, allow us to keep the scope of the project slightlynarrower than if we, for instance, attempted to craft a strategy for the country as a whole. Asour document will hopefully show, whilst we have interrogated and designed for the City of CapeTown, we have used and contemplated all of the disciplines covered during out first study block,as well as drawn from the broad and deep range of skills, experience and expertise of each groupmember, to arrive at our final conclusions regarding Current Future, which in turn informed ourrecommendations in regards to Ideal Future and how to design to get there. It is therefore ourhope that what we have concluded and recommended may well have application beyond theborders of the City of Cape Town.Due to the gravitas of the subject matter and the meta, macro and micro-environments in which itis situated, we have first and foremost applied a systems thinking and design approach, by goingup levels of abstraction first, losing unnecessary details, to construct a picture that shows us theinter-relatedness of all things and how our chosen dimension, waste management, using theWaste Hierarchy, fits into the greater whole. We feel that we cannot deal with wastemanagement in isolation of the much larger system that it forms part of. We have therefore takena couple of steps back and looked at the history and genesis of environmental consciousness, theglobal process surrounding the recognition of the potential impacts of Global Warming and ClimateChange and how this has translated into national and local imperatives in the South Africancontext. We demonstrate that global sustainability outcomes, translated and cascaded down tolocal level strategies and implementation plans, seek to consider and address the whole person‘sdevelopment and therefore, requires a whole-of-society approach. We will show that The City ofCape Town has already used a fully integrated approach to its developmental strategies and plansand that we therefore already have a robust, solid foundational platform to build upon.The Waste Hierarchy is an important part of a much larger eco-system, but one, that whensituated appropriately, in other words, knowing and understanding its place, points us to what itspotential contribution could and should be and how this contribution and its outcomes areleveraged so as to assist in amplified delivery on the broader set of sustainability outcomes. Inother words, The Waste Hierarchy cannot be viewed as being only about managing waste streamsin a one-dimensional manner, but rather, it is viewed as an instrument or mechanism within asystem, that is able to address issues that do not seem to be directly linked to just theappropriate disposal of waste.Whilst we will have a time limit to present our views, opinions, recommendations, insights andfindings [which we will stay within],we felt that we could not place a limit on the number of pagesour written assignment would be – due to the sheer size and context of the subject matter, thegrowth and crafting of our document was in and of itself organic in nature, dealt with the highestlevels of complexity as well as having to drill down into micro-level interventions. We thereforerequest some indulgence from the reader, as we take you on, what we hope will be a fascinatingand instructive journey of discovery.
  6. 6. 6We apply a broad range of models, methodologies and tools to post-rationalise how we, as theglobal community, have reached current status quo, as well as to use these tools to evaluate,critique and [re] design the existing system as we think it should be, to appropriately respond tosocietal sustainability objectives.At the local level, we interrogate existing legislative instruments. The City of Cape Town, in its‖ The Term of Office Five Year Integrated Development Plan [IDP] 2012–2017‖, [City of CapeTown. April 2012. Full document] provides us with a holistic view of the strategic priorities of theCity for the next five year period. In his foreword, the City Manager, Achmat Ebrahim, sets thetone as follows:―The name Integrated Development Plan is made up of three integral words: It represents anintegrated approach to all the activities of local government in consultation with the residents andstakeholders; its focus is on development in the broader sense [economy, infrastructure, people],and it is a structured plan that informs budget priorities, decision making and the allocation ofresources. ―He then goes onto to say that it is not only a blue-print purely based on the legal requirement forit to exist, but that the City views it as a strategic tool that acts as a guide in respect of therunning, improving and growth of the metro area of Cape Town.Within the Introduction of this document, it is stated that to plan for the building of a totalenvironment that will allow individuals to reach their full potential, an expansive view ofdevelopment and the critical importance of a multitude of factors must be taken into account. Allvariables that could influence the equation were factored in so as to ensure that there is thehighest probability of reaching the intended and stated long-term outcomes. This is the City‘slogic behind a consolidated strategy that will work for the people of the City towards achieving acommon aim.This section ends by stating that it is one thing to have a grand concept of government, but that itis quite another to synchronise all efforts within the bureaucracy to realise its vision. The City hastherefore built its vision on five key pillars, which by working together in a concerted manner, willnot only produce the objectives of the administration, but more specifically help to address thestructural inequalities of the past. Lastly, these five pillars help the City to fulfil its constitutionalmandate, as local government, of being the driver of social and economic development with theconsequence of helping to change people‘s lives.[Source: The Five Key Pillars. City of Cape Town. April 2012. IDP 2012-2017. Pg. 1]
  7. 7. 7A raft of departmental plans and strategies were synthesised in order to create the IDP. [City ofCape Town. April 2012. Full document] One of those documents was ―The Solid WasteManagement Draft Sector Plan 2012-2012‖ [Department: Solid Waste Management. 15 Dec 2011].Within this document, the Vision for Waste Management in Cape Town is iterated as follows:― The long-term vision for the City of Cape Town‘s waste management services, is to integratewaste management services in such a way that they are to not only provide basic services, but toaugment economic activity and minimise the effect of waste on human and environmental health.‖This is the shortened version of the vision statement, which then goes further to describe specificpriority areas of intervention. We will deal with these issues later within this document, where ofmore relevance.The City of Cape Town Integrated Waste Management By-Law [Department of Solid WasteManagement.March 2009], for the regulation of waste management activities, was the first of itskind in South Africa and therefore also the first by-law to be aligned to the National EnvironmentalManagement Waste Act. [Government Gazette Vol. 525. Cape Town. 10 March 2009] The By-Lawin turn, informed the crafting and implementation of the City of Cape Town Solid WasteManagement Plan [Department of Solid Waste Management. 2012], which describes the range ofservices, projects and programmes all of which give effect to the City‘s waste managementstrategy, within the context of its overall sustainability objectives.We have not dealt with the analysis of these documents, programmes and plans as separateentities, but have rather chosen to weave the content into our document, so that we build acoherent and inter-woven picture of the inter-relatedness of all things. To give effect to a range ofthe longer-term visions and objectives within the various pieces of legislation, policies, regulationsand implementation plans, we have interrogated the practicality and viability of a selection of newtechnologies, which could achieve the objectives as contained within these documents. Weinclude these technologies as well as our assessment of their potential impacts on reaching oursustainability outcomes. In terms of methodology and flow, we compare current practice at thelocal level with the definitions and practices as defined globally within the Waste Hierarchy toassist us in arriving at our final conclusions.Of course, South Africa is unique in respect of it being a combination of both developed anddeveloping communities. We therefore had to apply our minds to how we use the StrategicMarketing Funnel [Neethling,M. Marketing Trends in the New Economy. EDP 2012] as described inStrategic Marketing [Ford, W. Ibrahim. 2000] to analyse where we are at this moment in time, toplan where we would like to be, to put the plan into action so that we start moving towards wherewe would like to be and finally, to put measures in place to establish whether we are making orwill make progress, towards reaching our end goals.To deal with the diversity and sub-cultures within our various target audiences and marketsegments, we considered the principles of Market Orientation [Neethling, M. EDP 2012. Slide 6] toensure that all functions are directed to create customer [ however we may describe a customer atany point in time] value, as well as being in tune with their changing needs and being able toadapt and respond accordingly.We have kept the definition of complexity, credited to Eliot Jaques, in mind to keep us grounded:―Complexity is a function of the number of variables operating in a situation, the ambiguity of
  8. 8. 8these variables, the rate at which they are changing and the extent to which they are inter-wovenso that they have to be unravelled in order to be seen‖. [Chapman, L. EDP 2012.Slide 4]We will demonstrate that complexity and the transition into the Learning Organisation [Chapman,L. EDP 2012. Slide 47], which speaks to continued and active experimentation, will remain at thevery heart of the achievement of global and local sustainability outcomes. This approach willdifferentiate those who are ultimately successful in finding the ‗silver bullet‘ solution, as those whohave the courage to sail into unchartered waters, assess potential risks and balance those againstbenefits. They will be expected to continually trial and test an array of possible solutions andelements towards eventually arriving at the best possible outcomes.Strategy formulation is of course at the very heart of developing an appropriate response. Wedefine the System by its individual elements, relationships and processes which lead to thecreation of the final structure. [Chapman, L. EDP 2012.Slide 8] The graphic model [ below], uponwhich Steyn Heckroodt based the majority of his lectures on Systems Thinking, does howeverbecome our ultimate guiding tool and structure when physically defining as well as [re] designingor improving the existing system. Defining the system must happen as part of the StrategyFormulation process.In Slide 9, [Chapman, L. EDP 2012], we consider Financial, Customer, Internal, Growth as well asLearning Perspectives necessary in strategy formulation, specifically bearing the BalancedScorecard in mind.We also apply Wilber‘s Integrative Model, which provides us with insights into a framework tointegrated growth and development from a holistic perspective. This model amplifies andcomplements our use of various strains of systems thinking and design, including cyberneticthinking in terms of creating appropriate feedback loops. We include the Evolution ofConsciousness as described by both Jan Smuts and Wilber [Chapman, L. EDP 2012. Slides 22-24]in our thinking. This evolutionary process is of particular relevance to structuring educational andbehavioural change programmes, as it points us to where we should direct more of our efforts toaffect long-term sustainability behaviours.In terms of determining the ideal leadership and corporate culture, we have incorporated Jaques‘Leadership Competency Model [Chapman, L. EDP 2012. Slide 36] and of course, Kolb‘s Experiential
  9. 9. 9Learning Model, the Learning Organisation and Active Experimentation [ Chapman, L. EDP2012.Slide 47] as key pillars in our approach.In their abstract, A survey of market orientation research [Liao, S. H., Chang, W. J., Wu, C. C., &Katrichis, J. M. 2011], to which Martin Neethling also refers, [Neethling,M. EDP 2012. Slide 53], webecome aware that a Learning Organisation refers ―to an organisation-wide activity involved increating and using knowledge to enhance competitiveness‖. These principles will of course haveconsiderable barriers in terms of the sheer size and structure of the three spheres of governmentand how these spheres require integration as well as transformation to adapt and be ready torespond to the global sustainability outcomes. The same would be true of the process ofintegrating a whole-of-society strategy and plan, which has buy-in and support from allstakeholders and role players. We will in fact have to become a learning society. This poses ahuge challenge, but one that is surmountable and achievable over time.In Slide 54, [ Neethling, M. EDP 2012], Neethling directs us to Strategic Learning [Pietersen,W.2010], another seminal piece of thinking and writing. Pietersen advances his theory that thevery rules of success have changed. This success is now inherent in the organisational capacityto be flexible as well as adaptive.He also tells us that strategy now has the new role of providing the practical process as well as thetools to help us build learning as well as adaptive leadership strategies. As we continue linkingthe various strands of thinking, as well as the various inter-related elements, we have found thatPietersen‘s model, which has four linked steps: LEARN, FOCUS, ALIGN and EXECUTE – eachbuilding on one another and repeating in a continuous cycle, not only provides us with the toolsnecessary to ideate and implement strategy, but that it starts creating context for and answers tosome of the barriers to change as iterated by more than a thousand CEO‘s, within A new Era ofSustainability [Lacy, P; Cooper, T; Hayward, R; Neuberger, L. June 2010. ].It also provides us with a framework to deal with barriers to implementation in general, withingovernment and society as a whole. Strategy creation is inherent in the processes of learning andfocusing. The foundations for strategy implementation can be found when one aligns allknowledge, processes and structures towards execution of the strategy.Pietersen converted his theory into a working model, which is depicted in the graphic below. HisStrategic Learning Cycle is ubiquitous and is a practical tool against which to evaluate the existingwaste management system in Cape Town. [Source:Neethling,M.EDP2012.Slide 57]
  10. 10. 10Ralph D Stacey, [Stacey, RD; Griffin, D; Shaw, P. 2000. Pgs 106-109] in the book, ―Complexity andManagement: FAD or Radical Challenge to Systems Thinking: Complexity and Emergence inOrganisations‖, tells us that complex, adaptive systems have a life of their own. We areintroduced to the concept of efficient causality, based on the ‗if/then‘ rules. These rules suggestthat individual components within a system respond as algorithmic entities of a cybernetic kind,however, at a whole-systems level, causality is of the transformative kind. This implies that it isthe evolving local interaction that shapes the behaviour of the system as a whole.Transformative Causality takes a circular form. Changes are not superficial, but rather‗spontaneous‘ or ‗autonomous‘ and arise from the intrinsic, non-linear and interactive nature of thesystem. It incorporates micro-diversity. The application of this theorem is of interest not only tothe system as a whole, but in context of Cape Town, also has bearing on the micro-diversity withingovernment, civil society, business, industry as well as within communities.In new and emerging sectors and spheres, such as green and clean technologies are,management information is of critical importance. One firstly has to have an understanding of thebaseline in terms of what is current and must then integrate and align Management Informationstrategies as being part of the core or central strategy and implementation plan. In hispresentation document, simply named: Management Information Strategies, Martin Butler, [Butler,M. EDP 2012] reminds us of a range of considerations related to integrated information strategies[IS]: * We must consider how IS will help us to achieve our overall objectives * That within theadaptive organisation, infrastructure should ideally be modular, based on sensing, rather thanplanning * That the humble SWOT analysis still plays a pivotal role in integrated IS * IS strategy isa function of the Strategic Intent of the organisation and enables execution of the Businessstrategy * That we will have to develop a common language between the IT department and therest of the business so that there is clear understanding and trust to achieve common goals andoutcomes.In the final analysis, one of the greatest insights that Butler shares with us is that we must designfor future aspirations rather than for what is current. [Butler, M. EDP 2012] This cannot be morerelevant than within the sustainability space, as it has EVERYTHING to do with the future and howthe present will influence that future.Ackoff, widely credited as being the father of systems thinking, reminds us [Ackoff, RL. 1993. OmegaJournal] that corporate visions, or in this case global, national and local government visions, are oftenillusions or even delusions. He furthermore reminds us that the Ideal design or reality must be anoperationally meaningful description of all organisational stakeholders if they could have any organisation- without any constraints. In his book, Re-thinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning from the Unknowable,[Flood, R. 1999], Robert Flood points out that one of the weaknesses of systems thinking is that there isa large ‗bloody hell‘ factor. That it could amount to a very unrealistic wish list that is unachievable andfar removed from reality.We have therefore guarded against designing with lofty, blue-sky and over-idealistic outcomes in mind.We have tried to be led by what is practical and implementable and by what could be extended, scaledand replicated in an incremental manner over time. We have measured the strategies, plans andoutcomes as put forward by the City of Cape Town against our ‗reality‘ barometer.
  11. 11. 11The Business Innovation Model as put forward by the Boston Consulting Group, [Butler, M. EDP 2010]provides guidance in regards to Business, Marketing, Organisational, Service and Supply Innovationsrequired to create new consumer value.Of course, have had to accept and embrace the fact that we are thinking, designing and implementingwithin the 3 basic paradoxes as out by Robert Flood; [Flood, R. 1999] they are: 5.2 We cannot manage over things, but will manage the unmanageable 5.3 We cannot organise the totality, but will organise within the unorganisable 5.4 We will not simply know things, but we will know the unknowable.Within this ever-changing environment, we seek to anticipate and design for the Tipping Point[Gladwell,M.2000] which will herald the moment of critical mass, when we reach the boiling point,because it is at that point that these new ideas, ways of doing and approaches to waste managementwill spread like an epidemic. It is our hope that if, over time, we are able to build a sustainable wastemanagement system in Cape Town, this model could be adapted and replicated not only in municipalitieswithin our own province, but that it could become a framework for all provinces to deal with their wastehierarchy. Indeed, would it not be wonderful to imagine that we may stumble upon a framework whichcould have global application in developing countries.We have also considered the ―Law of the Few‖, which points us to the groups, individuals andorganisations who would be best suited to spread the word and ensure the stickiness of the message.Diffusion Theory, [Rogers, E.M. 1962] the process by which an innovation is communicated through arange of channels over time, amongst members of a social system, has formed part of our thinking.Stacey et al, [Stacey, RD; Griffin, D; Shaw, P. 2000. Pgs 106-109] would call the place that we, asCapetonians, find ourselves in, a Bifurcation Point within the evolutionary system. We have a varietyof different choices, structures, options and different directions to choose from in terms of continuingour journey towards sustainability.In the ―Accenture/UN Global Compact CEO study 2010: A New Era of Sustainability‖, [Lacy, P;Cooper, T; Hayward, R; Neuberger, L. June 2010] it reflects on progress made to date, thechallenges ahead and the impact of the global journey towards a sustainable economy.The insights drawn from this report are very valuable in terms of understanding the levers that areavailable to work in partnership with business. It is extremely encouraging to note that over onethousand CEO‘s, business leaders, members of civil society and academic experts were surveyed.The report indicates that there has been a paradigm shift between 2007, when the last survey wasdone and 2010, which is when the latest survey was undertaken. The results of the survey indicatethat we are being ushered into an era where sustainability issues will be fully integrated into allelements of business and market forces will be aligned with sustainability outcomes.CEO‘s have indicated that environmental, social and corporate governance issues will beembedded within their core business – and that good performance on sustainability will equate togood business overall. On the whole, we feel that we have laid a solid basis from which to build,going forward. The City of Cape Town is in our opinion ahead of its time in African terms and weare fortunate to be working with solid systems thinking and design, strategic planning and robustimplementation plans that are already in place. All that we essentially will be doing, is evaluating
  12. 12. 12the existing plans, strategies and policies against best practice, so that we able to determinewhether we can in fact make any recommendations to improve what is already in place and inmotion. 2. THE HISTORY OF THE GLOBAL RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING – MOVING TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING SUSTAINABILITYAs early as 1972, a pioneering report, The Limits to Growth [J.W Forrester, D.Meadows et al;1972] raised concerns about the unrestrained growth of global population, resource consumptionand pollution. The report stirred considerable debate at the time, due to the fact that a range ofcritics seemed unable to imagine that Western Economic production and consumption could runinto any limits.There were precursors to the Limits to Growth, such as Harrison Brown‘s, The Challenge to Man‘sFuture [Brown, H. Viking.1956]. In his review of the book,[www.foreignaffairs.com. Accessed July2012], Henry L Roberts, concludes that it is one of the more important books that deals with theprojection of the relationship between population and resources and its potential global impact.Rachel Carson‘s, Silent Spring [Carson, R. 1962] is widely credited for being responsible for thelaunching of the Environmental Movement. History Professor, Gary Kroll [ Kroll, G. 2006]commented: ―"Rachel Carsons Silent Spring played a large role in articulating ecology as asubversive subject— as a perspective that cuts against the grain of materialism, scientism, andthe technologically engineered control of nature.‖These authors were the pioneers and visionaries who could foresee a future that few could andwere no doubt in part the inspiration for the writing of the Limits to Growth, which in turn, set thedomino reaction off that led to the articulation of a global sustainability framework, over time.In the Limits to Growth‘s conclusion [http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/node/569; accessed July2012], the authors assert: "If the present growth trends in world population, industrialization,pollution, food production, and resource depletion continue unchanged, the limits to growth onthis planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable resultwill be a rather sudden and uncontrollable decline in both population and industrial capacity.‖The release of this seminal report, catalysed a global process of interrogation, research and finally,Conventions, which bound all citizens in the world to the mitigation of Climate Change. Thisprocess started with the World Climate Conference [WCC], which took place in 1979. Theintroduction of The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC] in 1992and its signatories, marked a defining moment in respect of global recognition of the futureimpacts of climate change and global warming and heralded the beginning of global co-operationto achieve communal and mutually beneficial outcomes.In his summary document titled, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,Professor Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, [De Chazournes, LB. 2008.], deals with the issuesrelated to the human impact on climate change and global warming. At this point in 1990, therewas consensus that the 70% increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases [GHG‘s] from 1970 to2004 was largely due to human activity.
  13. 13. 13The discovery of the ozone hole in the 1980‘s confirmed the gravitas of human-induced climatechange and that a balance would need to be struck in the mitigation process between the need foreconomic growth in developing countries and the need for mitigation by developed economies.In December 1990, the United Nations established the International Negotiating Committee [INC],which embarked on a 17 months process of negotiation, with over 140 countries, to arrive at theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC]. The convention opened forsignature on 14 June 1992 and by 19 June 1993, the United Nation‘s Headquarters in New Yorkcould confirm 165 signatories to the convention. As of August 2008, there has been near globalmembership. South Africa is one of those global members.Since the first World Climate Conference, much has been achieved. However, in his Summarydocument of the UNFCCC, Professor Laurence Boisson de Chazournes [De Chazournes, LB.2008.], further states that ―Subsequent IPCC assessment reports and scientific evidence fromother resources confirmed that commitments established under the Convention and its Protocolare likely not to be sufficient to effectively mitigate anthropogenic [human-induced ]impact onclimate change. In December 2005, a dialogue on long-term cooperative action to address climatechange by enhancing the implementation for the Convention was launched, and a new round ofnegotiations to step up international efforts to combat climate change was launched by the BaliAction Plan.‖This has further driven the global process which has culminated in the latest agreement, TheDurban Platform for Enhanced Action, which was drafted and accepted by the Conference ofParties [COP], at COP 17, and which provides the framework within which progress has beenmeasured as well as paving the way forward.[Refer: THE ROAD TO GLOBAL CO-OPERATION IN REGARDS TO SUSTAINABILITY, CLIMATECHANGE AND GLOBAL WARMING – THE TIMELINE. Appendix A] 3. A summary/overview of the objectives of the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change [ UNFCCC]In his summary document,[De Chazournes, LB. 2008. Pg2], the objectives of the UNFCCC areiterated as follows: ―The long-term objective of the Convention and its related legal instruments is ―to achieve[…] the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that wouldprevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system‖ (article 2). Climate changeis defined by the Convention as ―change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly tohuman activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition tonatural climate variability observed over comparable time periods‖ (article 1 (2)). ―The Convention provides a set of general commitments that are applicable to all parties, whilstthere are certain commitments that apply to developed countries only. These responsibilities arebuilt upon the principle of common, but differentiated responsibilities, based on the state ofdevelopment of a signatory. It is a robust framework which covers all of the bases in terms ofmonitoring, knowledge sharing, co-operation as well as providing for the co-ordination of relevanteconomic and administrative instruments that may increase GHG emissions – such as subsidies
  14. 14. 14and energy pricing. It also provides a platform to review policies constantly, so that they areadaptive to the changing global environment. [Refer: Annexure B: Chazournes, LB. 2008 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTIONONCLIMATE CHANGE] 4. PRINCIPLES AND METHODOLOGIES EMPLOYED TO REACH GLOBAL CONSENSUS AND CO-OPERATION AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS – POST- RATIONILISATION – starting the process of using these to evaluate the existing plans at City of Cape Town levelEssentially, the formulation and subsequent processes and responses to the UNFCCC, are probablyone of the first attempts at using systems thinking and design on a global scale, understanding theinter-relatedness of all things and designing a complex, yet adaptive system, which is able torespond quite rapidly to changes in the environment. As alluded to earlier within this document,the City of Cape Town has most definitely used an integrative, systems design approach todevelop the IDP 2012-2017. [City of Cape Town. April 2012. Full document]Robert Flood in his book, Rethinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning from the Unknowable [FloodR.1999] states that, ‗Systemic awareness begins with a spiritual appreciation of Wholeness‖ and thatthis wholeness could be ascribed to the inter-relatedness of all things or to something that he callsspontaneous self-organisation, which leads to emergence and a new order, or new ways of seeing,organising and doing things. It is true to say that the global community discovered their inter-relatedness and how they are part of the whole in the process of reaching global consensus on arange of issues related to Climate Change mitigation.It is therefore encouraging to note that the City of Cape Town involved the participation of and inputsfrom at least one million citizens over a year-long period to inform the focal areas of its IDP 2012-2017. [City of Cape Town. April 2012. Full document] This implies that there is already buy-in fromthe citizens and this in turn, should ensure that participation is nearly a given.This global process is akin to what Senge [ Senge,P. 1990] describes as the process of personalmastery. This is when we clarify our personal as well as communal view and discover a reality that isas objective as possible. This describes the process of transition from denialism of Climate Changeand Global Warming and its possible dire consequences, to the current status quo of globalaffirmation and co-operation to achieve mutually beneficial, future-focused outcomes.Very encouragingly, the process that was employed to craft the City of Cape Town‘s IDP 2012-2017,[City of Cape Town. April 2012. Full document] indicates that this principle has already been used.Senge further asserts that by meaningfully understanding ourselves,[as citizens, communities,countries] by understanding the whole of which we are a part, we become aware that our actionsare inter-related to other people‘s actions in patterns of behaviour.[Brinkmann. 2012. EDP SystemsThinking Assignment. Pg 5] Given the size of the globe and its population of 7,055,000,000 [NationsOnline Org. July 2012], the continental, cultural, religious and other global micro-diversities anddifferences, the consensus that exists around long-term global sustainability is in actual fact a ratherastonishing phenomenon. It seems to be one of the few issues around which global consensus aswell as a global commitment to a range of imperatives has been reached.
  15. 15. 15When we start to evaluate, critique and include the contents of the IDP, [City of Cape Town. April2012. Full document], The Solid Waste Management Draft Sector Plan 2012-2012 [Department:Solid Waste Management. 15 Dec 2011], The City of Cape Town Integrated Waste ManagementBy-Law [Department of Solid Waste Management. March 2009] as well as the City of Cape TownSolid Waste Management Plan [Department of Solid Waste Management. 2012], we willdemonstrate that we are in the fortunate position to have already come very close to thisconsensus locally, given that collaboration and participation were integral to the crafting of all ofthese documents, strategies and plans.A whole-of-society approach will remain at the heart of strategies and implementation plans andtargets at National, Provincial as well as local levels, so as to ensure that the overall process oftransitioning to a Low-Carbon Economy[Manuel et al. Nov 2011.Pgs 179-193] aligns with global aswell as local needs, outcomes, objectives and realities.Given the fact that global consensus has been reached and we are on a collaborative journey towardssustainability, we also feel that Gregory Mankiv‘s 10 Principles of Economics, as they relate to humanbehaviour [Mankiv, N,G. 2008], would apply and should be kept in mind as we proceed, both globallyand locally.[Refer: Mankiw‘s 10 Economic Principles. Appendix C].4.1 HUMAN BEHAVIOUR: What makes us tick and why would we participate in being part of Global change via dealing with the Waste Hierarchy locally?Gregory N Mankiv is credited with creating what is now, often controversially, known as NewKeynesian Economics. [Refer: Definition of Keynesian Economics: Appendix D]. Mankiv‘s principlesdeal with how people make decisions, how the economy works as a whole and lastly, how peopleinteract.We marry Mankiv‘s principles with lessons learnt from the Commercial Negotiations Module, [Venter,D. EDP 2012. Commercial Negotiations: Negotiation to Add Value] so that we are best equipped to beable to influence all citizens of Cape Town to be involved in playing their part in dealing with theWaste Hierarchy.People – humans – are central to in the first place, causing the conditions in which we find ourselvesat present, but are of course the most important part of the solution. The actions of all of human-kind in the present, will determine the future that later generations will inhabit. We are of the opinionthat Mankiv‘s first seven [7] Economic Principles are of particular relevance in this regard.In Slide 7, [Roux, A. May 2012] we are reminded that to get one thing, we have to give up another.There can be no doubt that individuals, communities and countries would have to be prepared to giveup a certain amount of their comforts and luxuries, to live more consciously and less materialistically,to slowly move from personal, selfish needs and wants, to understanding their impact on the future ofthe planet and life on it. This would be easier for those between and middle and top of the pyramidand by inference, more difficult for those at the bottom.In Slide 27, [Venter, D. EDP 2012] we learn that when making decisions, humans are often drivenmore by the prospect of loss than by the potential gains inherent in their decisions. This is based on
  16. 16. 16the fact that, to the human mind, potential losses ALWAYS look larger than potential gains, therebymaking it our first priority not to lose anything. Gains are in essence secondary to not losing. To gainwhole-of-society buy-in and participation we would do well to demonstrate the consequences of doingNOTHING, as well as the communal benefits of being part of the solution. ―Joint Opportunity Finding‖[Venter, D.EDP 2012.Slide 23] will be used to ensure collaborative engagement and solution seeking.It is clear that the City of Cape Town has employed this approach and that this is more than likely oneof the central reasons why their various plans, strategies and policies are realistic and achievable –they are based on the needs of the people of the province and aligned with National and Provincialimperatives already.In Slide 8, [Roux, A. May 2012], it states that when we make trade-offs, we trade one goal offagainst another. In this instance – efficiency – which ensures that society gets the most from ourscarce resources, traded-off or weighed up against – equity – which implies the benefits of thoseresources being distributed fairly amongst all members of society. In the local context, this particulartrade-off or balance is going to be difficult to achieve, given a range of issues that we will have todeal with, amongst them: Reducing inequality – at 0.7, South Africa has one of the highest Gini Co-efficients in the world. The National Development Plan [Manuel, T; et al. 2011] sets the lofty target of reducing our Gini Co-efficient by 0.1 within 18 years. If one looks at the trajectory of inequality in China over the last 33 years, throughout the last 5 of their 5-year plans, development has meant that their Gini Co-efficient has actually increased, thereby creating a slightly more unstable political environment. This increase in inequality in China is due to the rate of growth and producing millionaires – thereby widening the gap between the have and have-nots. This is according to Sun Liping, a professor at Beijing‘s Tsinghua University. [http://english.caixin.com/2012-01-18/.Accessed July 2012]. According to the professor, China‘s Gini coefficient has risen from 0.302 in 1978 to an estimated 0.46 in 2011/12. In all probability, South Africa‘s Gini Co-efficient will remain stable, or worse, widen, dependent upon the development path chosen. Socially, in 2009, about 5% of the households in Cape Town listed social grants as their main source of income, and for 3% of the total households it was their sole source of income. In addition to high poverty levels, South African cities are among the most inequitable in the world. Of the South African metros, Cape Town is the least inequitable, with a 2010 Gini Co- efficient2 of 0,58, which is better than other major South African metros, including Johannesburg and eThekwini (Durban), which had Gini Co-efficients of 0,62 and higher. [City of Cape Town. April 2012. IDP. Full document]. Whilst this number is still very far from what could be considered acceptable, it is at least encouraging to note that Cape Town starts off at a slight advantage, which may bode well in terms of reducing its Gini Co-efficient over time by striking a balance between job creation, economic and social development as well as resource usage and preservation. [IDP. April 2012] Dealing with the youth bulge – in most developing countries, a youth bulge such as ours, would be of massive benefit to the economy, as it represents a large workforce to drive the economy forward. [Roux, A. EDP 2012. Slide 39] In South Africa‘s case, the fact that the systemic fabric of society has been ripped asunder over the past decades, has led to an environment that has not been conducive to producing citizens that are well and contributing members of society. Systemically, the societal circumstances have had impact on overall educational outcomes. 51%
  17. 17. 17 of 15-24 year old youths in South Africa are unemployed and it is thought that they are more than likely mostly functionally illiterate and not employable. This situation presents the country with a smouldering powder keg that threatens to destabilise the entire country, if not dealt with systemically and practically. Our current youth bulge profile is closer in nature to that of the least developed countries, in that we are dealing with frustrated, disaffected, resentful and volatile youth. [Roux, A. EDP 2012. Slide 40]Ensuring that the youth is an integral part of skills development, growth and sustainability outcomesis at the heart of the IDP 2012-2017. [City of Cape Town. April 2012. IDP. Full document] Notsurprisingly, The opportunity City Pillar, has at its core focus the creation of the economicallyenabling environment in which jobs can be created via investment growth. This is based on thephilosophy that people can make the most of their lives as well as attain dignity, principally, byhaving a job and purpose. The following excerpts from the IDP explain some of the City‘s thinkingand plans:―The City will use numerous levers to attract investment. By attracting investment, we createeconomies of scale in city-based industries, and build a critical capacity that will not only sustainfuture growth, but will create more economic opportunities for individuals to enter employment.The City will also encourage the growth of small businesses and entrepreneurs throughprogrammes such as Activa, where new entrepreneurs can learn skills to aid them in business andplanning procedures.All of these initiatives will be done with a view to building our potential in certain key marketswhere we can develop a competitive advantage. Those markets include agro-processing, tourism,major events, oil and gas, shipping and ship-building, health and medical technology, servicesand the green economy.Being an opportunity city also requires a concerted focus on taking care of the naturalenvironment in which we find ourselves. We must also ensure that future generations areable to enjoy a clean and safe environment, in which biodiversity is conserved and tourismand recreational opportunities are maximised.By managing our natural resources more efficiently and investing in green technologies,we will ensure that there is enough water and energy to go around, and that we do notgenerate more waste than is strictly necessary. It is also important that we continue tostrive towards a more robust and resilient city that is able to respond to the on-going challengeof climate change and other natural hazards.Cape Town residents‟ priority needs according to the Community Satisfaction Survey(CSS), 2007–2011The results of the CSS between 2007 and 2011 show the following shifts and changes amongrespondents:Residents‘ main priorities remain job creation, crime prevention and housing provision.Looking at the change in priorities from 2007 to 2011, one can see that creating jobs hasincreased in importance from 64% to 74%, while preventing crime and providing housing
  18. 18. 18have moved from 58% to 54%, and 34% to 38% respectively. Fighting corruption remains apriority, but showed some decline from 34% in 2010 to 25% in 2011. Access to primary healthcare is becoming increasingly important, which is reflected in an increase from 18% to 23%.Likewise, public transport scores continue to rise. Transport is a basic expectation of Capetonians,so improving these services will always be a priority.Overall perceptions of the City of Cape Town‘s performance have improved significantly overthe four years, with increases in the percentage of residents saying there has been improvementacross most service delivery areas, overall performance, the City‘s performance as a public serviceprovider, and in terms of residents‘ level of trust in the City. This demonstrates that residents arenow more satisfied with the City‘s services.In addition to a range of questions, residents were asked to highlight the three strategicobjectives that were most important in their lives from the list of 23 objectives linked to the fiveSFAs.The responses showed that residents felt most strongly that the City needs to provideopportunities for its residents. Objectives linked to the ‗well-run city‘ and ‗safe city‘ focus areasemerged as second and third priorities respectively Objective 1.1: Create an enabling environment to attract investment that generateseconomic growth and job creationThis objective will be achieved through the implementation of the following leading programmes:Programme 1.1(a): Western Cape Economic Development Partnership (EDP)programmeThe City is a key partner in the EDP. The purpose of the EDP is to ―lead, coordinate and drive theeconomic growth, development and inclusion agenda for Cape Town and the Western Cape‖.20
  19. 19. 19The City of Cape Town and the EDP have agreed to work together in the following areas: *Producing economic and market intelligence * Formulating economic visions and strategies *Creating a common business brand * Reforming the city‘s and region‘s business environment.Programme 1.1(c): Identification and promotion of catalytic sectors, such as oil andgasIn order to stimulate growth and development of the local economy, development in thefollowing catalytic sectors has been identified as critical: Marine, oil and gas, ship repair and boatbuilding Agro-processing and the location of head offices of finance and retail sectors Health and medical technology The green economy, including energy from the sun, wind and waste Tourism and eventsThese will be investigated in partnership with Province and the private sector to determine howand when these will be rolled out in the city.Programme 1.1(d): Small-business centre programme (Activa)The Cape Town Activa (CTA) strategy was initiated by the City to stimulate entrepreneurshipand business activity in the local economy. CTA will create a multi-stakeholder network thatwill make it easy for entrepreneurs and individuals looking for employment support tonavigate and make use of service organisations and practitioners‘ services and resources.The multi-stakeholder network will draw services from the public sector (local, provincial andnational), the private sector (business development, associations, financiers, and so forth) andacademia (the Cape Higher Education Consortium or CHEC, universities, colleges, and the like).CTA‘s strategic goals are to: stimulate the creation of locally owned businesses by linking entrepreneurs with resources, capital, skills and opportunities; develop human capital, addressing the needs of the business community (e.g. innovation support, small-business skills development, career support and placement programmes); and make Cape Town a more competitive business environment by providing better support to incubate and grow local business and attract others.Objective 1.6: Maximise the use of available funding and programmes for training andskills developmentProgramme 1.6(a): SETA and EPWP funding used to train apprentices and create other externaltraining opportunities.Training apprentices for vacant posts in the administration and the city. The City will roll out an apprenticeship programme to the Water and Sanitation, Electricity, Stormwater, Solid Waste, Refuse Removal and Roads departments. These apprentices will meet the demand side of the labour market, using the training the City provides either to become skilled technicians employed by the government, or to move into the private sector as young people with new qualifications. ―
  20. 20. 20“ INFRASTRUCTURE-LED GROWTHThe City will continue to invest in infrastructure to ensure that Cape Town has the capacity tosupport development. As cities expand, their industries and people need to be supported byadequate services, from electricity, water and other amenities to additional services that aidmodern development beyond the basics, such as a broadband network and public transportnetworks.By continuously investing in infrastructure, we will be encouraging growth and, indeed, lead it byalways ensuring physical, supporting capacity for people to build opportunities. Such an approachplaces the City of Cape Town at the forefront of South African metros, and will bring us in line withinternational best practice in terms of development strategiesOver the next five years, the City will be investing in a number of major infrastructure projects.These include the following:  Landfill space and other strategic infrastructure to support waste management  Backyarder service programmes, extending municipal services to backyarder communities in Cape Town  Upgrades to services in informal settlements  Upgrades to, and refurbishment of, electricity services  In the future, a greater balance between investment in infrastructure that supports greenfield development and existing infrastructure maintenance and upgrades will be required.‖These excerpts indicate that there is a commitment to job creation, poverty alleviation, reductionof inequality and that sustainability is a primary driver. The effective and efficient management ofwaste within the Waste Hierarchy very definitely provides a further platform of opportunity, jobcreation and economic opportunities as we will demonstrate later in our document. Threat of nationalisation – this relates to the despair and desperation felt by the youth, given that they have seen very little improvement in their circumstances since the advent of democracy. Nationalisation of our natural resources poses a real threat to long-term sustainability and economic growth and development. Culture of conspicuous consumption – as would be expected from any developing country, South Africans, those emerging and moving into the lower-middle, middle and upper-middle classes, are driven by an aspirational culture, where consumption is encouraged and is seen as characteristic of perceived wealth and prosperity of individuals. At present, this consumption has slowed down due to the indebtedness of a large percentage of the population due to the global economic crisis. Consumption was previously driven by credit extension, facilitated by financial institutions. The more we develop, the more waste will be generated. Based on the fact that we will continue being a developing country for some time to come, the need for incentives and behavioural changes that would lead to dealing with this prospective mountain of waste in an environmentally friendly and sustainable manner, becomes an urgent priority. If we do not put practical systems and structures in place now, the mountain of waste will engulf us over time.We hope to demonstrate how, that by considering and using new technologies, the growingmountain of waste could in fact be put to productive use and how it could become a revenue
  21. 21. 21stream, as opposed to a cost centre. In support of our train of thought, The City of Cape Town, inits ‖ The Term of Office Five Year Integrated Development Plan [IDP] 2012–2017‖, [City of CapeTown. April 2012. Full document] makes the following provisions:―Furthermore, these catalyst projects will include combinations of area revitalisation andinvestment in renewable energy, such as the Atlantis revitalisation scheme. Such projects willhelp us build a competitive advantage in green technology.Increased recycling by the city‘s population, along with improvements in solid wastedisposal, has the potential to decrease the demand for landfill usage. Voluntary recyclingmay account for a portion of the dramatic decline in waste disposed at landfills in 2008 and 2009.However, only a small percentage of Cape Town residents currently recycle their waste,and there is enormous scope for improving recycling practices.Landfill gas-to-electricity projectLandfills generate a flammable gas known as landfill gas. This biogas contains a high percentageof methane, and is produced by biological activity within the landfill. Landfill gas is a greenhousegas, and the methane component has the potential to increase global warming by morethan 21 times that of CO2. The management of this gas is essential to ensure the protection ofboth humans and the environment.Landfill operating permits allow for the biogas to be vented in a controlled manner and for theprocess to be monitored to ensure that there are no dangers. Now, the additional implementationof gas mitigation measures that include the destruction of the methane gas and theharnessing of the energy component as electricity is proposed for the City‟s threeoperating landfills.This process would be regarded as complying with the ‗additionality‘ criteria in terms of CleanDevelopment Mechanism (CDM) projects registered in terms of the Kyoto Protocol. This couldcreate additional income for the City, while generating renewable energyWaste-to-energy projectWaste-to-landfill contains a number of components with energy-generating potential. The Cityis investigating the feasibility of harnessing this energy through the implementation ofwaste-to-energy projects.Direction in this regard has been provided in the Municipal Systems Act (MSA) section 78(3)investigation, which recommended the consideration of future organic-waste treatmentfacilities that use the organic fraction of municipal solid waste as well as sewage sludge toproduce biogas, which can be used as a fuel to generate electricity.In addition, the non-organic high-calorific value components going to landfill can possibly beseparated and potentially used as a fuel in power-generating facilities.The project funded by KfW (the German Development Bank) is looking in more detail at the typeof disposal/treatment technology that can be implemented in Cape Town. This project wouldreduce the amount of waste being disposed of in landfills.Atlantis green-technology industrial parkThe Department of Energy will soon appoint preferred bidders to supply renewable energy. Thus,the downstream capabilities and industry services will need to be in place . A green-technology
  22. 22. 22cluster park can benefit from synergies through co-location, and can serve the industry moreeffectively. Atlantis provides an ideal location with good access to roads, well-priced industrialland and access to port facilities. The deliverables of this initiative will be the following: green renewable-energy hub.criteria. ablishing institutional structures to manage the process.Programme 1.1(f): Development of a „green‟ economyThere is considerable space for investment and growth, now and into the future, as therenewable-energy sector burgeons. The City plays a pivotal role in creating demand for„green‟ services through its programmes, projects and procurement systems, as well asthrough the use of renewable energy in its own operations.The City aims to promote small-scale embedded power generation in Cape Town as well asto ensure that it benefits from regional and national-scale projects where suitable.The City faces skills development challenges, and requires significant investment, land release andbuy-in from various stakeholders. There are opportunities for sustainable industries (such as solarwater heater, photovoltaic and wind turbine manufacturers), whose services and products will berequired for many years. This can result in job creation and skills development from newbusinesses.Solid waste infrastructureThe rehabilitation of the City‟s disused, full landfills and dumps will continue as requiredby the Municipal Finance Management Act (MFMA) and operating permit conditions. Thereplacement of ageing waste collection vehicles will make service delivery more reliable andefficient.The City‘s new northern-region landfill site, the newly commissioned integrated transfer station atKraaifontein as well as the planned facility in Bellville South will assist in diverting some of thewaste to achieve landfill airspace savings.Landfill airspace and strategic infrastructure programmeThis programme entails the development of strategic assets, such as the capping andrehabilitation of closed landfills, the continued development of landfill airspace at currentlandfill facilities, the development of a regional landfill site and the related development ofstrategically located integrated refuse transfer stations and material recovery facilities.Limited airspace is left for waste disposal at the City‘s three operating landfills. Chart 1.1represents the result of the model that was used to determine these airspace predictions.
  23. 23. 23Airspace constraintsThere is limited airspace available at the City‘s three operating landfills, even though it is acceptedthat at least 15 years‘ worth of airspace should be available for a city like Cape Town.Following an extensive technical process and a subsequent scoping and environmental impactassessment (EIA) process on two shortlisted sites, a record of decision was issued during 2007 infavour of a site south of Atlantis. The regional landfill must be able to receive waste by 2015. Thefirst cell of the site will therefore need to be finalised by 2013.Investigating and pursuing alternative methods of energy generation with solar, windand gas powerOptions for electricity generation by the City itself are being pursued, and incentives andregulatory measures will be developed where appropriate. Private project developers will alsobe engaged where large-scale electricity generation projects could add strategic benefitsto the general economy.Encourage cost-effective means of recycling as well as waste minimisation initiativesWaste minimisation programmeThe City is committed to achieving city-wide waste minimisation. Steps in this regard includedeveloping and running waste management facilities, incorporating material recoveryfacilities, public drop-off sites, composting and builder‘s rubble crushing facilities and wasteminimisation promotion and awareness projects (like the Think Twice campaign, the IntegratedWaste Exchange and Waste Wise). The intention is to sustain current waste minimisationpilot initiatives for future learning and benchmarking.The City will focus on waste streams that have the largest impact on airspace – namely greens,recyclables and builder‘s rubble. A separate greens collection service will be considered toincrease the 35% greens diversion currently achieved by means of drop-offs. The City will alsoprioritise waste minimisation options by focusing on high-impact waste diversionactivities.It will also effect institutional changes and set up a separate cost centre with waste information, asa system to ensure that costs and revenue are ring-fenced for each PPP.Such PPPs will be investigated for the Radnor and Bellville composting sites. * Note: Theseare two closed down landfill sites * Budgeting for integrated waste management facilities
  24. 24. 24will be prioritised, and allowance will be made for private-sector involvement through PPPs.These facilities will achieve the highest impact on waste minimisation and effectivediversion of waste from landfill sites.The City will also encourage and engage in cost-effective limitation of the amount of waste sent tolandfill by means of waste reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives.Co-operatives will be considered, which also hold the potential for job creation. TheThink Twice programme will be implemented in Atlantis, the Deep South, Helderberg, Sea Point,Mouille Point, Three Anchor Bay, Kraaifontein, Hout Bay and Camps Bay.Recycling and reuse of treated effluentThe City of Cape Town has numerous treated-effluent reuse schemes at its various WWTWs.These are used for both formal network distribution and informal or private reuse of treatedeffluent. The treated-effluent infrastructure will be expanded to protect naturalresources, prevent current and future potable-water shortages, return the city‘s streams toseasonal flow conditions, and enable unrestricted irrigation during water restrictions. This is in linewith the principles of the City‘s Water Demand Management Policy and the policies of DWA andthe Western Cape Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning.There is an opportunity of securing external funding from a range of institutions and donors,and the establishment of PPPs geared towards the elimination of water wastage. Anumber of private companies are willing to enter into concessions or joint management contractsto manage water services delivery or specific key performance indicators, such as the reduction ofnon-revenue demand. The use of service providers in certain focused projects can providesignificant benefits.Informal settlements refuse collection and cleaning programmeAll informal settlements are serviced and receive a door-to-door refuse collection and on-goingarea cleaning (litter picking and illegal-dumping removal). All residents receive at least two freeplastic bags per week in which to place their refuse. The filled bags are taken to shippingcontainers, where they are stored until they are transported to a landfill site.All containers will be serviced at least twice a week. Local labour will be hired for this purposefrom the City sub-council databases. These services are contracted out for three-year periodsusing the City‘s tender process. The tenders are designed to encourage entrepreneurship.In the coming years, the refuse collection programme will prioritise the following:Quality of service –The City will continue to check that all residents are receiving the correct number of plastic bagsper week, and will undertake a time and motion study to establish whether the current ratio ofrefuse removal labourers to dwellings is correct.Funding from the indigent grant – Increased funding from the indigent grant will beconsidered for this programme.Managing the level of dumping –Although all informal settlements have a door-to-door refuse collection and area cleaning service,the challenge is to ensure that the efficiency and quality of the service are improved. Dedicatedillegal-dumping teams will be established to clear large household items. A schedule of action
  25. 25. 25will be developed for the removal of heavy illegal dumping (such as builder‘s rubble) by theSpecialised Equipment Unit. Increased service delivery to backyard dwellers should also reduceillegal dumping.A more efficient statistical reporting methodology for reporting improvements as indicatedabove will be developed. ―We cannot add much to what is contained within the summary above. We are of the opinion thatthis is a well thought-through, cogent and practical approach to creating the enabling environmentfor the City to deal more efficiently with the Waste Hierarchy. We evaluate and discuss currentimplementation plans within the Section that deals with the Waste Hierarchy in more detail. In her MBA Dissertation, titled: An Exploration of the determinants of South Africa‘s personal savings rate: Why do South African Households save so little [Du Plessis,G. 2011], Germien Du Plessis concludes that government policy with regards to wealth distribution and welfare payments has created and entrenched a culture of dependence. This state of affairs leads us into the next challenge, which is: Cultivating a culture of co-production and personal responsibilities in relation to the range of rights entrenched in our very liberal Constitution and moving away from the expectation that government will deliver all services and that citizens have no responsibility or ability to change their own, localised circumstances.These issues do present as challenges, but we believe that they could be used as drivers of positivechange if approached and used correctly via economic and social incentive projects and programme.In Slide 9, [Roux, A. May 2012], we are confronted with Mankiv‘s second principle, which suggeststhat the cost of attaining something is measured by what you give up to get it.For a great many South Africans, who are already stretched to the limits of their financial, emotional,physical and intellectual boundaries, it would be difficult to be convinced to give anything more up. Agreat many of Capetonians don‘t have anything TO give up. For those who are concerned with dailysurvival, creating economic incentives and opportunities would be the key drivers to ensure theirinterest and involvement.Understanding the fortune at the bottom of the Pyramid [Prahalad, CK. 2006] will be central tocreating economic opportunities and incentives for the majority to care sufficiently and to participatein contributing to a sustainable future.In Slide 10 [Roux, A. May 2012], we engage with the third principle, which states that rational peoplethink at the margin. We can deal with small changes and we make our decisions comparing the costsas well as the benefits at the margin. The timespan that it took humanity to iterate the current GlobalCompacts and action plans is testimony to how the process had to happen in a measured,incremental manner – always keeping the end goal and communal benefits in mind. By making thethreats of Global Warming and Climate Change very real and by placing an emphasis on what wouldhappen if we do NOT act to mitigate, global citizens were able to understand what the cost of aforegone opportunity would be. The extinction of species, further scarcity of water, extreme weatherconditions, the potential of a polar shift – these are all issues that the average human mind can
  26. 26. 26conceive of and understand and therefore, place themselves at the centre of a solution that ensures ahealthy planet for their off-spring and future generations.In Slide 11 [Roux, A. May 2012], the fourth principle tells us what we all know only too well; that isthat we all respond to and are driven by incentives. We want to know, ―What‘s in it for me and whyshould I care?‖ We will have to balance the economic, communal and societal benefits inherent inactive participation against the dire consequences of NOT acting at all.In Slide 12[Roux, A. May 2012],– the fifth principle, which states that trade makes everyone betteroff. There are huge economic as well as social opportunities locked up in the reduction, recycling andre-use of waste. These opportunities may well become the largest incentives and drivers ofparticipation and change.In Slides 13 [Roux, A. May 2012], the sixth principle is revealed: Markets are usually a good way toorganise economic activity. It would therefore be vital to create a market for the products ofsustainability programmes, projects and their products. The City of Cape Town has made a promisingstart in the process of enabling the platform for the creation of a market for sustainably producedgoods, by publishing an Information and Guideline Document on the Implementation of GreenProcurement in the City of Cape Town. [www.capetown.gov.za. Jan 2012.Accessed July 2012].In Slide14, [Roux, A. May 2012] we are introduced to the economic concept of ‗The Invisible Hand‘.This is based on Adam Smith‘s conclusions in his book, The Theory of Moral Sentiments [Smith,A.1759], that all humans subconsciously weigh up self-interest, mutual and societal benefit or theoverall welfare of society against the cost of what they are prepared to buy or sell at. According toSmith, we unknowingly take the social costs of our actions into account when making decisions.In Slides 15 and 16, [Roux, A. May 2012] we reach the seventh principle that states that governmentcan sometimes improve market outcomes. This principle explains that markets fail when resourcesare not used and distributed efficiently and that when the market fails, government is able tointervene to improve efficiency and equity. In terms of creating the ideal, enabling environment andmarket conditions for sustainability outcomes to be achieved, government is central in terms ofdevising robust enabling legislation, policy frameworks, regulations, implementation plans as well assetting measurable outcomes that society as a whole will be held accountable against. The policydocuments that are in place in the City of Cape Town are more than encouraging in this regard. Wewill however have to confront the imperative to change and enable National as well as Provinciallegislation, regulations and policies to enable the environment completely. This does become morecomplex and challenging.When looking at the complete sustainability systems design in South Africa, government will have tobe reminded to understand that market failure can be caused by the impact of one or a fewcommunities or manufacturing sectors who‘s actions or in-action could have adverse impacts onsociety at large. A balance must also be struck in respect of creating a fair and competitiveenvironment, so that there is a balance in the power of the market and so that no one player couldunduly influence the market and its pricing. We will have to bear these sentiments in mind, specifically when we weigh the revenue from tradingin Carbon Emissions Certificates related to the Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] [Kyoto Protocol.
  27. 27. 271995] programmes in our country and City up against societal and other hidden, potentially negativecosts, which are, in some circles, seen as perverse incentives created for developed countries to ‗use‘or even ‗abuse‘ developing countries to mitigate their own unabated growth and development.Once we have taken all of the above into account, we will have to take all of our dichotomies andchallenges into account, so that we arrive at a realistic and achievable vision. We must employcommon sense to arrive at a level-headed, practical, rational and pragmatic strategy to achieve oursustainability objectives. There is no space for impractical idealism. At face value, we are of theopinion that what has been put in place and set in motion by the City of Cape Town, is in fact for themost part based on realistic goals and achievable outcomes. The secret to success does howeverreside in the ability of the City to translate these plans into action and to capacitate itself to do so. 5. MOTIVATION AND IMPORTANCE OF WASTE MANAGEMENT in CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY - SITUATING WASTE MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE GREATER ECOSYSTEM 5.1 GLOBAL WARMING - DEFINITION AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS Global warming is the observed and projected increases in the average temperature of Earths atmosphere and oceans. The Earths average temperature rose about 0.6° Celsius (1.1° Fahrenheit) in the 20th century, see temperature graphs below. Fig. 1: Definition for global warming: Temp. increase in the last 1000 years (graph from http://www.globalwarmingart.com/images/b/bb/1000_Year_Temperature_Comparison.png) [Source: http://timeforchange.org/definition-for-global-warming-what-is-global-warming]
  28. 28. 28 Fig. 2: Definition for global warming: Temp. increase in the last 150 years (graph from http://www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:Instrumental_Temperature_Record_png) Fig 3: Definition for global warming: Temp. increase in the last 25 years (graph from http://www.globalwarmingart.com/images/a/af/Short_Instrumental_Temperature_Record.png)According to different assumptions about the future behaviour of mankind, a projection of currenttrends as represented by a number of different scenarios gives temperature increases of about 3°to 5° C (5° to 9° Fahrenheit) by the year 2100 or soon afterwards. A 3°C or 5° Fahrenheit risewould likely raise sea levels by about 25 meters (about 82 feet). Such a rise would havecatastrophic consequences globally as well as locally, given that we are a coastal city and country.
  29. 29. 29 Fig 4: Definition for global warming: Temp. increase until the year 2100 (graph from http://www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:Global_Warming_Predictions_png. 5.2 Causes of global warmingIt is generally accepted that observed temperature increases over the last 50 years have been dueto the increase in greenhouse gases concentrations, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2),methane and ozone. Burning of fossil fuels is the largest contributing factor, which in turn leads tothe emission of carbon dioxide. This leads to what is now known as the Greenhouse Effect.Simply put, some of the sunlight that reaches the Earth‘s surface is absorbed and warms theearth. The residual heat is radiated back into the atmosphere, but at a longer wavelength thanthe original sunlight. The greenhouse gases absorb some of these longer wavelengths. Thisabsorption warms our atmosphere. This happens because the greenhouse gases act like a mirrorwhich reflects the heat energy back to the Earth. This process of reflecting heat energy back iscalled the ―Greenhouse Effect‘. [http://timeforchange.org/cause-and-effect-for-global-warming.Accessed July 2012]Global warming can be directly linked to human behaviour and to the irresponsible, ineffective andinefficient use of our resources. How we have dealt with our Waste Hierarchy up until now, hashad considerable negative impact on Global warming. The upside to this situation is that weshould see positive impacts by even the smallest improvements in how we manage our waste andlive more sustainably in general. 5.2.1 Potential Impacts of Global WarmingIn their report, titled, Technical Summary: Regional Predictions, [Solomon et al.2007] it ispredicted that warming and the changes related to it will vary from region to region. Some of theeffects of global temperature increase include:* Rising sea levels * Change in patterns and amounts of rain * Probable expansion of sub-tropicaldeserts * Impact on the Arctic, associated with a continued retreat of sea ice, glaciers and
  30. 30. 30permafrost. * More frequency of extreme weather events, including droughts, heat waves andfloods * There is also concern that the oceans will acidify * We are already seeing the extinction ofspecies and it is probable that this trend will continue – extinction is due, in the main, to shiftingtemperatures * Climate Change in general.The predicted direct effects on humans include: * Food security being threatened because ofdecreasing crop yields[Battisti, David; Naylor.2009] * Loss of Human habitats is also highlyprobably.The fear is that if the global mean temperature rises by 4˚C, humans will be unable to adapt inmany parts of the world. It is also feared that natural systems all over the world would not beable to adapt. This would be due to the fact that the very ecosystem upon which humans rely fortheir livelihoods could not be preserved. [Warren, R. 2011]Mitigation by reduction of emissions and adapting to the effects of global warming, are the primarypolicy responses globally. Most countries are now signatories to the United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change [UNFCCC]. We do expand on the convention later in thedocument. At this point, it is sufficient to state that the ultimate objective of this Convention is toprevent dangerous, human-induced climate change. Sustainable living and doing will be at thevery forefront of the mitigation strategy. .The above "burning embers" diagram was produced by the IPCC in 2001. A later revision of the diagram, published in2009, but not approved by the IPCC, shows increased risks. This paints a picture of the possible consequences of doingnothing about Global Warming and Climate Change. 5.2.2 What is a Carbon Footprint and why is it relevant?Greenhouse gases, measured in units of carbon dioxide produced by human activities are knownas our Carbon Footprint calculation. It is typically iterated in tons of CO 2 equivalents per annum.
  31. 31. 31A carbon footprint can be measured per individual, community, organisation, city, province,country and for the earth in totality. This is according to the article simply named, ―CarbonFootprint‘, [Walser, M.L; Nodvin, S.C; Draggan, May 2012] published on The Encyclopaedia ofEarth website. [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Carbon_footprint. Accessed August 2012] Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. (Source: Energy Information Administration)Our individual carbon footprint can then be broken down further into primary and secondaryfootprints. Direction emissions of greenhouses gases from the burning of fossil fuels for energyconsumption as well as transportation add up to be the primary footprint. Worldwide, 82% ofanthropogenic [human-induced] greenhouse gas emissions are in the form of CO 2 from fossil fuelcombustion.The indirect emissions of greenhouse gases during the lifecycle of products used by an individualcreate the secondary footprint. Examples would be: * Energy used to transport water *Greenhouse gases emitted during the production of plastic bottles or aluminium cans. It thereforefollows that more packaged a product is, the higher its secondary footprint.Although carbon footprints are reported in annual tons of CO 2 emissions, they actually are ameasure of total greenhouse gas emissions. A greenhouse gas is any gas that traps heat in theatmosphere through the greenhouse effect. Because of the presence of greenhouse gases in ouratmosphere the average temperature of the Earth is 14 ºC (57 ºF). Without the greenhouse effect,the average temperature of the atmosphere would be -19 ºC (-2.2 ºF).Issues such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels disrupt the natural carbon cycle, bymoving it carbon from its solid form to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the concentration ofcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere.An individual‘s carbon footprint is the direct effect their actions have on the environment in termsof greenhouse gas emissions. In general, the biggest contributors to the carbon footprints ofindividuals in industrialized nations are transportation and household electricity use. An individualssecondary carbon footprint is dominated by their diet, clothes, and personal products. Theprimary and secondary footprints of individuals are generally higher, the more affluent they are.Given that the mitigation of Global Warming and Climate Change is very much premised on thelowering of greenhouse gas emissions, it becomes clear that, as a developing City, we will have to
  32. 32. 32walk a fine line between development, upward mobility and the resultant increase in our CarbonFootprint. That is why dealing with Waste Hierarchy in a manner that eliminates, reduces, re-usesor recycles waste is of such cardinal importance. If managed effectively, it could have the resultof reducing the City‘s Carbon Footprint substantially. We hope to demonstrate how this could beachieved, later in this document. Breakdown of a typical individuals carbon footprint. (Source: Carbon Footprint) 5.2.2.1 Carbon offsetsThere are many ways for individuals and organizations to reduce their carbon footprint, such asdriving less, using energy efficient appliances, and buying local, organic foods as well as productswith less packaging. The purchase of carbon offsets is another way to reduce a carbon footprint.One carbon offset represents the reduction of one ton of CO 2-eq. Companies who sell carbonoffsets invest in projects such as renewable energy research, agricultural and landfill gas capture,and tree-planting. Critics of carbon offsets argue they will be used to absolve any guilt overmaintaining ―business as usual‖ in our lifestyles. Additionally, the current offset market isvoluntary and largely unregulated, raising the possibility that companies will defraud customersseeking to reduce their carbon footprint.The following provisions have already been made in the IDP:“ Promote appropriate climate change adaptation and resilience planningAlthough the City of Cape Town recognises the need to contribute to global efforts to mitigate theeffects of climate change, it also recognises the need proactively to adapt to the unavoidableclimate changes likely to occur in the shorter term.
  33. 33. 33 In so doing, the City has developed the Climate Adaptation Plan of Action (CAPA), a sector-basedapproach that aims to integrate climate change adaptation measures with all of its relevant servicedelivery and planning functions.In order to balance the need for preparedness and proactivity with the many uncertainties aroundclimate change impacts, CAPA will be continuously reviewed and updated as climate sciencedevelops and the City improves its own understanding of the specific climate impacts it needs tomanage. Flexibility in adaptation interventions is an important part of the plan.As of 2011, all sectors have completed a scoping phase of the CAPA process, and will be movingthrough the prioritisation, implementation and review phases over the next five years. CAPA issupported by the City‘s Climate Change Think Tank, a partnership between the City and academicsand specialists in the field of climate change.Examples of adaptation measures that are either currently ongoing or planned for the next fiveyears include  ongoing city-wide ecosystem services (green infrastructure) mapping and costing;  a 15% increase in new stormwater design specifications to accommodate increasing rainfall intensity;  climate change factored into 25-year bulk water supply modelling;  a sea-level rise risk assessment and identification of CPZ; and  the Salt River marine/freshwater flooding interface modelled under various sea-level rise scenarios. This will be rolled out to other city rivers as well. ―The IDP goes on to include:“ Air quality management and pollution controlThe City of Cape Town aims to source at least 10% of the metro‘s energy from renewable sourcesby 2020, and to reduce its dependence on coal-based energy. A key strategy to improve air qualityis to reduce the amount of CO2 and other harmful gases emitted by the excessive amount ofprivate cars on Cape Town‘s roads, and to encourage greater use of mass public transport andnon-motorised modal options.‖“ Objective 3.6: Provide effective air quality management and pollution (includingnoise) control programmesProgramme 3.6(a): Measuring the number of days when air pollution exceeds World HealthOrganisation guidelinesAir pollution is a local government function as per schedule 4B of the ConstitutionThe City‘s Air Quality Bylaw also enabled the City to set local emission standards, declare smokecontrol zones, regulate the installation and operation of fuel-burning equipment, regulateemissions caused by dust and open burning, and regulate emissions from diesel vehicles andemissions that cause a nuisance.
  34. 34. 34The City has adopted the Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP), which outlines the strategies to befollowed to deal with air pollution. The vision of the AQMP is to achieve and maintain clean air inthe city over the next ten to 20 years. This is a statutory plan that is attached to the IDP.City Health also deals with all aspects of noise pollution. Increased court action will be institutedagainst premises without business licenses in an attempt to curtail the number of noisecomplaints. The City will also increase the number of legal actions in terms of the Businesses Act and aStandard Operating Procedure between City Health and Safety and Security to be investigated interms of action against noise‖ 5.2.3 Defining Sustainability and Sustainable DevelopmentGlobal warming and the resultant Climate Change, has led to a global emphasis on Sustainabilityand Sustainable Development. The depletion of natural resources is considered to be central to thecultivation of sustainable development strategies. The landmark definition of SustainableDevelopment [Brundlandt Commission. 1987] is:"Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of futuregenerations to meet their own needs"Two key concepts are contained within this definition:  The idea that the essential needs of the world‘s poor must be given over-riding priority; and  That the state of technology and social organisation imposes limitations on the environment‘s ability to meet present and future needs.  This is encapsulated in the idea that economic development, social development and social protection are the mutually reinforcing pillars of sustainable development.  This has in turn led to the development of the triple bottom line approach by companies, governments and civil society.In her article, titled, Dimensions of Sustainability, published in the Journal of Engineering forSustainable Development, Energy, Environment and Health, Hasna Vancock [ Vancock, H. 2007]speaks to the fact that sustainabillity is a process – this process deals with the development of allaspects of human life that affects sustenance. This process involves constantly trying to balanceconflicting goals, objectives and interests and involves the simultaneous pursuit of economicprosperity, environmental quality and social equity, known as the three dimensions or the Triplebottom line. 6. DEFINING NATURAL CAPITAL IN CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY and CLIMATE MITIGATIONNatural resources are defined as a material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water ormineral deposits that occur in a natural state and have economic value. [ Grabianowksi, E.Defining Natural Resources. HowStuffWorks.com. Accessed July 2012]Some of these resources are required for our basic survival and others are used to satisfy ourmaterial wants. It has become clear that a great many of our natural resources are non-renewable – fossil fuels being one of those resources and that there is a certain amount of

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