GROUP 3: EMBA 15.2
Prepared by:
MANDISA MASICHILA-
SEKGALAKANE
AMANDA BRINKMANN
BUSINESS ACUMEN
5 JULY 2013
THE TRAGEDY OF...
THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE
SA FISHING INDUSTRY
THE COMBINATION OF:
• LACK OF STRATEGIC LEAD...
HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING
A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY?
THIS APPROACH TO RESOUR...
EMPIRCAL & ACADEMIC RESEARCH
EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS
PRESENTATIONS BY SPECIALISTS
USING YOUTUBE AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIE...
COLLAPSED FISHING
STOCKSMALNUTRITION, FOOD
INSECURITY &
POVERTY
SOCIETAL, SOCIAL,
INDUSTRY DECAY
AND COLLAPSE
TRAGEDY OF T...
GLOBAL PESTEL ENVIRONMENT
1 A
SADC FISHING
PARTNERS
1E
COMMERCIAL
LIVE CAPTURE
1 D
AQUACULTURE
1C
RECREATIONAL
FISHING
1B ...
• THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED WITHIN THIS MODEL HAVE APPLICATION NOT ONLY IN OTHER NATURAL
RESOURCE INTENSIVE SECTORS
• WE ST...
AS THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED DEMONSTRATES,
THE FUTURE OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY REQUIRES A PARADIGM SHIFT
TOWARDS
SUSTAINABL...
REFERENCES: FISHING & VSM
Basurto, X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Co...
CAUSAL MECHANISM: CURRENT REALITY: NULL HYPOTHESIS
APPENDIX A
Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
SUSTAINABLE
FISHING STOCKS
SUFFIENCT MARINE
RESOURCES TO FEED
AND NOURISH ALL
STAKEHOLDERS
SUSTAINABLE
LIVELIHOODS &
ECONO...
EMBA15.2: MODULE 2: BUSINESS ACUMEN GROUP ASSIGNMENT
SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving...
2
EXECUTIVE MBA
Module 2 Course Code: GSB4222F
Group Position Paper Title : SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry Wit...
3
Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
4
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE STATEMENT
The purpose of this research report is to rethink the South African [SA] Fishin...
5
THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS→EXTRACTED FACT-BASED PROPOSITIONS→CATEGORISED AND
LABELLED→SATURATED CATEGORIES→EXTRACTED...
6
CONTENTS PAGE PAGE NUMBERS
Abstract 4
SCQARE REPORT WITHIN THE RUVE
1. Introduction 9
2. Relevance 9
2.1 Creating the Co...
7
A 5 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 29
TABLE OF FIGURES: APPENDIX A
Fig 1: Status of Global Fishing Stocks: The ...
8
TABLE OF FIGURES: APPENDIX B
Fig 1: Tragedy of the Commons
Fig 2: Status of Global Fishing Stock in 2008
Fig 3: Process ...
9
The purpose of this report is to find ways to improve the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. We studied the
industry,...
10
This situation raises a serious concern, which we will deal with next.
“An economic problem where individuals try to re...
11
 Could lead to total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks
 Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no re...
12
The CLD above demonstrates the benefits of the EAF. It is evidence-based, prioritises the ecosystem, its
sustainability...
13
We feel satisfied that our report as well as the demonstration of the processes employed to ensure validity
and credibi...
14
An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons”
and can be embedd...
15
REFERENCES: GROUP 3 FISHING INDUSTRY VSM PROJECT
Bailey, M; Gakushilshimura; Paisley, R; Sumaila, U, R. 2012. Marine Po...
16
Korten, D.C. 1980. Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach.‖ Public
Administration Re...
17
APPENDIX A: CRAFTING THE PAPER
A 1 ESTABLISHING RELEVANCE
A 1.1 THE SITUATION
A 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE STATEMENT
T...
18
Figure 1: Status of Global Fishing Stocks: The level of resource depletion
Figure 2: Status of Commercial Line Fish in ...
19
Figure 3: Status of Marine Resources in South Africa
Figure 4: Economic View: Common Heritage Resources: Lakes & Oceans...
20
Figure 5: The Tragedy of the Commons: Description [Hardin, G. 1968]
Figure 6: Situation: SA Fishing Industry: In a Nuts...
21
A 1.3 ESTABLISHING RELEVANCE: SITUATING THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION
A 1.3.1 RELEVANCE OF THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SI...
22
Figure 9: The Question: How do we Avoid the Tragedy of the Commons from Becoming a Reality within the
SA Fishing Indust...
23
Figure 11: Scenario 1: Inter-relationship Digraph: Ideal Reality: Long-term Sustainable Fishing Industry
Figure 12: Sce...
24
Figure 13: Scenario 2 ID: Current Reality, Business-as-Usual Scenario
Figure 14: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality, Busi...
25
Figure 15: Scenario 2 outcomes: Pointing to the requirements to be contained within the Answer
Leading to FRAMING THE A...
26
Plan→Do→Study/Check→Act[ion] [ PDCA][ Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] to constantly improve upon the structural
design and functi...
27
Figure 16: Graphic Representation of Methodology for Validity and Data Credibility
Figure 17: Scenario 1: CLD: Confirmi...
28
Figure 18: Redesign of the SA Fishing Industry using VSD within the VSM
We include the redesign of the SA Fishing Indus...
29
A 3.3 TRANSFERABILITY
Given the nature inherent in our solution – focusing upon long-term sustainability, involving all...
30
Figure 21: Conclusions and Recommendations: EAF using VSD and VSM as foundational models
Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consul...
31
Appendix B: DOING THE WORK
B.1 RESEARCHING AND TESTING FOR THE SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE AND
ETHI...
32
Investopedia explains 'Tragedy of The Commons'
“The tragedy of the Commons occurs when individuals neglect the well-bei...
33
redesigning the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSM, we have placed emphasis upon the regulation theory of
cybernetics, ...
34
B.3 PROCESS FLOW
Figure 3: PROCESS FLOW/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: TO ARRIVE AT SITUATION, CONCERN,
QUESTION, ANSWER, RAT...
35
 Given the factual basis of the propositions [Appendix C], we are comfortable that they are
able to accurately describ...
36
meeting, the Minister, under pressure of national government, expressed the need for the industry to
advise her, to hav...
37
Figure 4: MSC Certified Sustainable Seafood Mark; Eco-label
Loss of this certification would have negative impact on th...
38
practice of single species management has failed. Holistic environmental management strategies and
sustainable fishing ...
39
Figure 6: Global Facts: Fishing extraction and consumption; state of the resource [World Wildlife
Organisation. Novembe...
40
Figure 8: Recreational Fishing in SA; Economic benefits and environmental impacts [World Wildlife
Organisation. Novembe...
41
Figure 10: Status of SA Marine Resource [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
Figure 11: Good Practice: Marine ...
42
Figure 12: SA Seafood; Contribution to Export Revenue [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
Figure 13: SASSI – ...
43
Figure 15: SA Fisheries Management Mission Statement [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.]
This is a near perfe...
44
It is estimated that in addition to these formal and direct jobs, the commercial fishing industry creates an
additional...
45
B.3.3.1 SCENARIO PLANNING/TESTING
Using the Scenario one [1] variables contained within Figure 18: Table of Concepts an...
46
Figure 20: Scenario 1: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND FEASIBILITY OF THE SCENARIO
Based on the reinforcing loops ...
47
Using the Scenario two [2] variables contained within Figure 18: Concepts and Variables: Scenario
testing/planning, an ...
48
As is clearly evidenced from Figure 22 above, the consequences of continuing on the current path
within the SA Fishing ...
49
seeks to explore how we avoid the collapse of a vital natural resource and all of the concomitant
consequences.
B.3.3.4...
50
Figure 24: Tracking Tool: EAF implementation in SA Fishing Industry
Implementation of the EAF will however require that...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY -  A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROU...
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AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY - A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROUP PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT

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A Mini-modular EMBA 15 - UCTGSB - Modular Sub-Group Assignment. Based in Business Acumen and with a week to study and interrogate the intricacies of the SA & Global Fishing Industry, various theories/methodologies related to Business Acumen and Archetypes upon which to graft potential long-term solutions to the Wicked Problems of Over-fishing - which is leading us, globally, to the Tragedy of the Commons.

The document starts with the PowerPoint Presentation that we had 5 minutes to present - quite a task for such a large topic. The discussion document, though basic, does perhaps shed some light on the challenges that we are currently facing globally - related to all natural resources.

The requirement - writing only a 1000 word report - using the work and thought done within the Appendices, does not allow for great depth. But perhaps there is value to be found in the simplicity of the recommendations as well as within the simple, yet practical methodological approaches employed.

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AVOIDING THE " TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" IN SA FISHING INDUSTRY - A SIMPLIFIED VIEW AND POTENTIAL SOLUTION EMBA 15 SUB GROUP PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION DOCUMENT

  1. 1. GROUP 3: EMBA 15.2 Prepared by: MANDISA MASICHILA- SEKGALAKANE AMANDA BRINKMANN BUSINESS ACUMEN 5 JULY 2013 THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS defined as: INDIVIDUALS NEGLECTING THE WELL-BEING OF SOCIETY, IN PURSUIT OF PERSONAL GAIN EXAMPLES: OVER-FISHING AND WILDLIFE POACHING HARDIN, G. 1968 SOURCE; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUTURE, FORESTROY AND FISHERIES [ DAFF] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  2. 2. THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY THE COMBINATION OF: • LACK OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP • NON-IMPLEMENTATION OF WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] • NO RESEARCH TO PLAN AND MANAGE THE FISHING ECOSYSTEM • LEADS TO COLLAPSING FISH STOCKS • WHICH WILL BECOME THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS • WITH LARGE NEGATIVE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT ON THE SA ECONOMY EMPLOYMENT & JOB CREATION FOOD SECURITY BUT INDUSTRY ON BRINK OF COLLAPSE
  3. 3. HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? THIS APPROACH TO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IS CHARACTERISED BY: • UNDERSTANDING THE WHOLE ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS WITHIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • SOCIETAL WELL-BEING OF DEPENDENT FISHING COMMUNITIES ARE INCLUDED WITHIN MANAGEMENT ADVICE AND PRACTICE • THE LONG-TERM ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY IS THE COMMUNAL OUTCOME • TRANSPARENT AND PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES • REDUCES OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS • SUFFICIENT SKILLS, CAPACITY, EQUIPMENT & FUNDING • ROBUST SCIENTIFIC DATA COLLECTION POINTING THE NEED FOR A PHASE 1 REDESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY USING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  4. 4. EMPIRCAL & ACADEMIC RESEARCH EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS PRESENTATIONS BY SPECIALISTS USING YOUTUBE AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES GLOBAL BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES FACTUAL PROPOSITIONS, DISTILLED TO CORE VARIABLESSCENARIO PLANNING & TESTING PEER REVIEWSS, SURVEYS, FACE TO FACE I INTERVIEWS & TELEPHONIC/SKYPE WORK SESSIONS DESK RESEARCH, ID & CAUSAL MECHANISMS VSD, VSM, ACTIVITY THEORY, ET AL Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  5. 5. COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKSMALNUTRITION, FOOD INSECURITY & POVERTY SOCIETAL, SOCIAL, INDUSTRY DECAY AND COLLAPSE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING INDIVIDUAL BENEFIT & ROI LACK OF OR WEAK LEADERSHIP & UNSKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY NO OR INFREQUENT RESEARCH DATA IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE CURRENT REALITY = CURRENT FUTURE: SCENARIO 1 TESTING 2 OUT 7 IN 3 OUT 4 IN 6 OUT 1 IN 8 OUT 0 IN4 OUT 4 IN 2 OUT 6 IN 1 OUT 6 IN 1 OUT 6 IN OUTCOME DRIVER DRIVER OUTCOME OUTCOME WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] NOT IMPLEMENTED 7 OUT 2 IN DRIVER OUTCOME THE ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS INDICATES THAT THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS COULD BE PREVENTED BY: • IMPLEMENTING THE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [ EAF] • STRONG INDUSTRY LEADERSHIP • SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY • ROBUST, TIMELY, USEFUL DATA • RESPONSIBLE, COLLABORATIVE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT • DIVERSIFICATION OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY REJECTED THE NULL HYPOTHESIS Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  6. 6. GLOBAL PESTEL ENVIRONMENT 1 A SADC FISHING PARTNERS 1E COMMERCIAL LIVE CAPTURE 1 D AQUACULTURE 1C RECREATIONAL FISHING 1B SMALL- SCALE FISHERIES 1 E 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 1 D 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 1 C 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 1 B 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 1 A 5,4,3,2 RECURSION 2 2 2 2 2 S2 SUSTAINABIL ITY CO-ORD TASK TEAM – COLLECTIVE S3 CROSS-DISCIPLINARY, INTER- SECTORAL, INTER-GOVERNMENTAL PUBLIC PRIVATE SPECIALIST CONTROL SYSTEM S5 MINISTERIAL TASK TEAM: INTER-DEPT, PUBLIC/PRIVATE, CIVIL SOCIETY GENERALIST SPECIALIST STRATEGY, POLICY, TRANSPARENT, COLLABORABITVE, SUSTAINABILITY FOCUSED S4 WWF/INDUSTRY/GOV ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT TEAM INFO GATHERING, MONITORING, STRATEGY ADJUSTMENT , SUSTAINABILITY MILESTONES REPORTING S3 AUDIT ALGEDONIC ALERTS ATTENUATED FUTURE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT ECOSYTTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES STRATEGY EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIRONMENTS EMBEDDED & LOCAL ENVIROBNMENTS Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  7. 7. • THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED WITHIN THIS MODEL HAVE APPLICATION NOT ONLY IN OTHER NATURAL RESOURCE INTENSIVE SECTORS • WE STRONGLY ADVOCATE FOR THE USE OF THE PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHY WITHIN ALL BUSINESSES AND ORGANISATIONS COMMON GOOD PRINCIPLES WHOLE-OF-SOCIETY WORKING TOWARDS COMMON GOOD POLICY, SYSTEMS, SOCIAL SYSTEMS, INSTITUTIONS & ENVIRONMENTS ARE BENEFICIAL TO ALL – NOW AND FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS JUSTICE & FAIRNESS IMPLIES EQUAL BENEFITS AND BURDENS TO ALL = SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE ENSURES FAIR DISTRIBUTION FOR CURRENT & FUTURE GENERATIONS EQUAL AND ECONOMICALLY VIABLE ACCESS TO ALL STAKEHOLDERS Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  8. 8. AS THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED DEMONSTRATES, THE FUTURE OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY REQUIRES A PARADIGM SHIFT TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE, COLLABORATIVE, & TRANSPARENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WE THEREFORE RECOMMEND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN -ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH TO FISHERIES – USING VSD & VSM AS FOUNDATIONAL, EMERGENT MODELLING AND A SYNTHESIS OF SO LONG…..AND THANKS FOR THE FISH ACTIVITY THEORY SCENARIO PLANNING ACTIVITY SYSTEMS INSITUTIONAL ANALYSIS & DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK BUSINESS MODELLING CANVASS LAWS OF CYBERNETICS LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  9. 9. REFERENCES: FISHING & VSM Basurto, X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-Scale Fishing Community. Society & Natural Resource. Vol 18. Pp. 643-659. Taylor & Francis Inc. DOI: : 10.1080/08941920590959631 Blaine, S. 5 March 2013. SA lacks analysis of its fishing markets. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013. Fishing on the brink of disaster. BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012. Status of the South African Marine Fishery Resources. www.nda.agric.za Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series. Vol. 162, No. 3859. Pp.1243 – 1248. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Harris, J.M; Codur, A. Nov 2008. Economics of Fisheries. Global Development and Environment Institute. www.eoearth.org Manuel, T. 19 March 2013. Tie to make the high seas our business – for our future. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Martin, G. 30 April 2013. Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels. www.defenceweb.co.za Ostrom, E. 1999. Coping with the Tragedies of the Commons. Centre of the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change. Indiana University. Bloomington. U.S.A. Annual Reviews. Vecchiatto, P. 21 Mary 2013. Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  10. 10. CAUSAL MECHANISM: CURRENT REALITY: NULL HYPOTHESIS APPENDIX A Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  11. 11. SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS SUFFIENCT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED AND NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRY STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE IDEAL REALITY = IDEAL FUTURE: LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRY 5 OUT 2 IN 3 OUT 4 IN 6 OUT 1 IN 6 OUT 2 IN7 OUT 0 IN 4 OUT 3 IN 1 OUT 7 IN 2 OUT 6 IN DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER DRIVER OUTCOME OUTCOME SA FISHING INDUSTRY: ANALYSIS, DIAGNOSIS, SYNTHESIS & SYSTEMS REDESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT: • VIABLE SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS • VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL • INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS & DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK [ AID] • ACTIVITY SYSTEMS AND ACTIVITY THEORY • BUSINESS MODELLING CANVASS • LEAN & A3 PROCESS MAPPING • CAUSAL LOOP MODELLING • SCENARIO PLANNING • WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] • LAWS OF CYBERNETICS • LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY WHAT WE NEED TO DESIGN USING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: NOT REJECTED APPENDIX B Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  12. 12. EMBA15.2: MODULE 2: BUSINESS ACUMEN GROUP ASSIGNMENT SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving Its Viability EXECUTIVE MBA15.2 Prepared by: Mandisa Mashicila-Sekgalakane MSHMAN001 Amanda Brinkmann BRNAMA005 For and on behalf of Group 3 15 July 2013 STUDENT NAMES: STUDENT NO: Bhadrashil Modi MDXBHA001 Willie Theron THRWIL004 Annie Cohen CHNANN002 Thierry Delvigne-Jean DLVTHIL001 Amanda Brinkmann BRNAMA005 Evan Smith SMTEVA002 Mandisa Mashicila-Sekgalakane MSHMAN001 LECTURER: Tom Ryan WORD COUNT SCQUARE WITHIN RUVE: 927 WORDS Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  13. 13. 2 EXECUTIVE MBA Module 2 Course Code: GSB4222F Group Position Paper Title : SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving Its Viability Group Number: GROUP 3 MODULE 2 Student Names: Amanda Brinkmann BRNAMA005 Mandisa Masichila-Sekgalakane MSHMAN001 For and on behalf of Group 3: Members: Bhadrashil Modi MDXBHA001 Willie Theron THRWIL004 Annie Cohen CHNANN002 Thierry Delvigne-Jean DLVTHIL001 Evan Smith SMTEVA002 Date: 15 July 2013 Lecturer: Tom Ryan Word Count: ~ Words Relevance: Comments 0 - 2 Demonstrates little or no insight into the problem situation. The concern is vague and it is not clear why it is a problem and needs attention. Little or no sense of the relevance of the problem 3-5 6-7 8 Demonstrates good insight into the problem situation. Clearly states the concern and why it is a problem and needs attention. Clearly and compellingly demonstrates the significance and relevance of the problem Utility: Comments 0 - 2 The proposed answer is vague and it is not clear how it answers the question posed and plausibly deals with the concern 3-5 6-7 8 The proposed answer is clearly stated. Clearly shows how the proposed action answers the question posed and plausibly deals with the concern Validity: Comment 0-2 The chains of reasoning leading to conclusions and proposed answers are vague and their underlying logic is not clear – the data is suspect and there is little evidence of the rigorous use of dependable analytic and synthetic methods 3-5 6-7 8 Documents clear and logical chains of reasoning in getting to conclusions and proposed action - based on credible data, the rigorous use of dependable analytic and synthetic methods Ethics: Comment 0-2 Little or no credible consideration of the ethical implications of the proposed action 3-5 6-7 8 Makes a well reasoned judgment of the ethical implications of the proposed action base on a clear ethical framework and empirical data Communication: Comment 0-2 Poorly organised; does not meet project and format requirements. Too many serious spelling and grammatical mistakes 3-5 6-7 8 Well organised; fully meets project and format requirements. No serious spelling and grammatical mistakes Appendix A: Crafting the paper (20%) 0-7 Incomplete; insufficient appropriate detail 8-12 13-17 18-20 Complete with appropriate rich detail Appendix B: Doing the work (40%) 0-14 Incomplete; insufficient appropriate detail 15-25 26-35 36-40 Complete with appropriate rich detail Final mark = REPORT TITLE: SYSTAL- Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry With The View Of Improving Its Viability
  14. 14. 3 Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  15. 15. 4 ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE STATEMENT The purpose of this research report is to rethink the South African [SA] Fishing Industry with the view to improving its viability. The key words that we have focused upon are: “rethink” and “improvement of its viability.” THE SITUATION: SA FISHING INDUSTRY  The SA Fishing Industry is a significant contributor to job creation, government revenue and income generation.  Seafood is a vital source of protein and food security to a great many fishing communities as well as the population as a whole.  Mismanagement of our marine resources over decades has brought the resource to the brink of collapse, which raises the spectre of dire potential socio-economic and societal impacts on SA as a whole.  The industry is fragmented, there is little or no strategic, political leadership and this status quo, if maintained, is increasing the probability that we are steering our way towards “The Tragedy of the Commons” – which implies the complete depletion of a natural resource, because of lack of collaborative, sustainable and holistic management and resource allocation. THE CONCERN THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The relevance of our concern within the situation, is that with continued lack of leadership, a fragmented fishing industry, no research or patrol vessels being active and the unabated extraction of this already threatened, depleted and over-exploited resource, fishing stocks will collapse, leading to “The Tragedy of the Commons”, which will in turn have dire social, societal and economic impacts on South Africa as a whole. THE QUESTION HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? THE ANSWER: STARTING THE PROCESS OF FRAMING AN ANSWER OR LONG-TERM SOLUTION BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE This approach is evidence-based, considers the ecosystems and its future sustainability in totality and takes the needs of all stakeholders into consideration. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] is a practical tool to both diagnose and redesign the SA Fishing Industry, as it allows for emergence, adaptation and is by nature, structured so as to deal with complex, unitary systems, where stakeholders have a vested interest in communal, mutually beneficial outcomes and objectives. [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] RATIONALE AND DATA CREDIBILITY To ensure the credibility and veracity of our conclusions and recommendations, we followed the following, rigorous, non-linear processes: EMPIRICAL AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH→EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS→EXTRACTS FROM PRESENTATIONS BY INDUSTRY SPECIALISTS→ADDITIONAL DESK RESEARCH→INTERROGATION OF GLOBAL CASE STUDIES, METHODOLOGIES, BEST PRACTICE→STUDYING, UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF THE VSM AND OTHER RELEVANT Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  16. 16. 5 THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS→EXTRACTED FACT-BASED PROPOSITIONS→CATEGORISED AND LABELLED→SATURATED CATEGORIES→EXTRACTED TWO SETS OF EMPIRICAL VARIABLES→RAN TWO SCENARIOS USING ID’S AND CAUSAL MECHANISMS→TOOK INTO ACCOUNT THE PRINCIPLES AND OUTCOMES OF THE FISHBANKS GAME→ →To test for the validity and credibility of our situation, concern, question, answer as well as for the ethical implications of what we are proposing. We concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS The solution or answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social well-being as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and its stakeholders. We tested our conclusions and recommendations against the principle of ethical decision-making, but emphasised the following areas of ethics:  Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations.  The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  17. 17. 6 CONTENTS PAGE PAGE NUMBERS Abstract 4 SCQARE REPORT WITHIN THE RUVE 1. Introduction 9 2. Relevance 9 2.1 Creating the Context 9 2.2 The Situation 9 2.3 Conclusion 10 2.4 The Tragedy of the Commons 10 2.5 The Concern 10 2.6 The Argument for Relevance 10 2.7 Conclusion 11 3. Utility 11 3.1 The Question 11 3.2 The Answer 11 3.3 The Argument for Utility 12 4. Rationale and Data Credibility 12 4.1 Methodological Approach 12 4.2 The Argument for Validity 13 5. Ethics 13 5.1 Ethical Implications 13 5.2 The Argument for Ethics 13 6. Conclusions and Recommendations 14 7. References 15 TABLE OF FIGURES: Fig 1: State of Global Fishing Stocks Fig 2: Tragedy of the Commons Fig 3: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality Fig 4: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality towards a sustainable SA Fishing Industry Fig 5: Process Flow/Methodological Approach Fig 6: Tracking Tool for EAF Implementation – Argument for Ethics APPENDIX A: CRAFTING THE PAPER 17 A 1 Establishing Relevance 17 A 1.1 the Situation 17 A 1.2 Introduction: Purpose Statement 17 A 1.3 The Situation: SA Fishing Industry 17 A 1.3.1 Relevance of the Concern within the Situation 21 A 2 Establishing Utility – The C<>Q<>A Link 21 A 2.1 The Question 21 A 2.2 Process to Substantiate the Concern, Framing the Answer and Validating 22 the Question A 2.2.1 The Answer; The Framing Process 22 A 2.3 Establishing Utility 25 A 3 Establishing Validity and Credibility 26 A 3.1 Rationale and Data Credibility 26 A 3.2 Argument for Validity 26 A 3.3 Transferability 29 A 4 Ethical Implications & the Argument for Ethics 29 Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  18. 18. 7 A 5 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 29 TABLE OF FIGURES: APPENDIX A Fig 1: Status of Global Fishing Stocks: The level of resource depletion Fig 2: Status of Commercial Line Fishing in SA Fig 3: Status of Marine Resources in SA Fig 4: Economic View: Common Heritage Resources Fig 5: The Tragedy of the Commons: Description Fig 6: Situation SA Fishing Industry: In a Nutshell Fig 7: The Immediate Concern Fig 8: Establishing Relevance: Placing the Concern within the Context of the Situation Fig 9: The Question Fig 10: Outcome: Scenario 2: Business as Usual Fig 11: Scenario 1: ID: Ideal Reality Fig 12: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality Fig 13: Scenario 2: ID: Current Reality: Business-as-Usual Fig 14: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality: Business-as-Usual Fig 15: Scenario 2 Outcomes Fig 16: Graphic Representation of Methodology for Validity & Data Credibility Fig 17: Scenario 1: CLD Confirming the SCQARE within the RUVE Fig 18: Redesign of SA Fishing Industry using VSD within VSM Fig 19; Transferability of the Solution Fig 20: Considering Ethics: Common Good as well as Justice and Fairness Fig 21: Conclusions & Recommendations: EAF Using VSM, VSD as Foundational Models APPENDIX B: DOING THE WORK B 1 Researching and Testing for the SCQARE: Rethinking the SA Fishing Industry with a 31 view to Improving its Viability B 1.1 Contextual Introduction 31 B 2 Project Purpose Statement 31 B 2.1 Overview of Tragedy of the Commons 31 B 2.2 The Viable Systems Model in Context 32 B 2.3 Broad and Defined Project Purpose Statements 33 B 3 Process Flow 34 B 3.1 Establishing the Situation within the Context of Relevance 34 B 3.2 The Situation 34 B 3.2.1 Substantiating our Analysis and Statement of the Situation: A summary of Data & Facts 35 B 3.3 Establishing the Concern within the Situation 44 B 3.3.1 Scenario Planning/Testing 45 B 3.3.2 The Concern 48 B 3.3.3 Relevance of the Concern within the Situation 48 B 3.3.4 Establishing Utility: The C<>Q<>A Link 48 B 3.3.4.1 The Question 48 B 3.3.4.2 The Answer: The Framing Process 49 B 3.3.4.3 Phase 0 Re-Design of SA Fishing Industry using VSM B 3.3.4.3.1 The Viable Systems Model: Validity as Core Methodology for Re-design of SA Fishing 51 Industry B 3.3.4.3.2 Revisiting the Viable Systems Model 51 B 3.3.4.3.3 Phase 0 Re-design of the SA Fishing Industry using the VSD and VSM 59 B 3.3.4.3.4 The Argument for Utility – the C<>Q<>A Link 65 B 3.4 The Argument for Validity and Credibility 65 B 3.5 Ethics 68 B 3.5.1 Ethical Implications 68 B 3.5.2 The Argument for Ethics 68 B 3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 68 B 3.7 Reference 69
  19. 19. 8 TABLE OF FIGURES: APPENDIX B Fig 1: Tragedy of the Commons Fig 2: Status of Global Fishing Stock in 2008 Fig 3: Process Flow: Methodological Approach Fig 4: MSC Certified Mark Fig 5: Tracking Tool: EAF Implementation Fig 6: Global Facts: Fishing Extraction and Consumption: State of Resource Fig 7: State of Global Fishing Stocks 2008: Level of Depletion Fig 8: Recreational Fishing: Economic Benefits and Environmental Impacts Fig 9: State of Commercial Line Fish in SA: State of Over-exploitation and Collapse Fig 10: Status of SA Marine Resource Fig 11: Good Practice: Marine Protected Areas Fig 12: SA Seafood Contribution to Export Revenue Fig 13: SASSI: Eco-labelling Fig 14: Three Pillars of Food Security Fig 15: SA Fisheries Management; Mission Statement Fig 16: Contribution of SA Fishing to Revenue & Job Creation Fig 17: Direct Employment within SA Commercial Fishing Industry Fig 18: Table of Concepts & Variables for Scenario Testing Fig 19: Scenario 1: ID: Ideal Reality Fig 20: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality Fig 21: Scenario 2: ID: Current Reality Fig 22: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality Fig 23: Scenario: How to avoid the Tragedy of the Commons: Argument for Utility Fig 24: Tracking Tool for EAF Implementation Fig 25: Tools, Theorems, Methodologies: Re-design of SA Fishing Industry Fig 26: Three Cybernetic Laws: Management Implications Fig 27: Law of Requisite Variety Fig 28: The Viable System: Basic Design Fig 29: VSM Indices of Performance Fig 30: Phase 0 Re-design of SA Fishing Industry: Embedding EAF into the System Structure Fig 31: Methodology to Assure Data Credibility and Validity Fig 32: Concept Map: Process Flow of Methodological Rigour: Establishing Validity Fig 33: Considering Ethics: Common Good, Justice & Fairness APPENDIX C: PROPOSITION LOG 71 APPENDIX D: CATEGORISATION, LABELLING, SATURATION: PROPOSITIONS 86
  20. 20. 9 The purpose of this report is to find ways to improve the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. We studied the industry, the VSM and other methodologies to reach our conclusions and recommendations. This section of the report provides a snapshot of the current SITUATION within the SA Fishing Industry, in context of the global situation. From a report titled, “Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa” , we extracted the summary below:  The SA Fishing Industry is a significant contributor to job creation, government revenue and income generation.  Seafood is a vital source of protein and food security to many fishing communities as well as to the general population.  Mismanagement of marine resources over decades has brought it to the brink of collapse. The SA fishing stocks track with the statistics contained in Figure 1, above.  The industry is fragmented, there is no strategic leadership and this situation, if maintained, is increasing the probability that we are moving towards “The Tragedy of the Commons” – the complete depletion of our fish stocks.  This would have dire socio-economic consequences to fishing communities and the SA economy as a whole. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  21. 21. 10 This situation raises a serious concern, which we will deal with next. “An economic problem where individuals try to reap the greatest benefit from a given resource. Demand overwhelms supply. All indications within our research point towards the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry, based on the current unknown state of our marine resources, no current research and patrol vessels at sea and data that indicate the depletion and over-exploitation of more than 50% of our resources. THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The SITUATION:  A lack of leadership  No clear policies to manage and sustain the SA Fishing Industry  No research data to manage the SA marine ecosystem sustainably; the state of biomass of fishing stocks is unknown  We therefore cannot accurately allocate fishing rights/quotas and could already be in a state of total depletion of important marine resources  No patrol vessels at sea to regulate, monitor and protect the SA marine resources – creating conditions for exploitation and poaching  Marine resources which are mostly depleted, over-fished, over-exploited or on the verge of collapse  Exacerbated by the non-implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  22. 22. 11  Could lead to total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks  Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return for our marine resources  Creating large, negative, socio-economic impacts and devastating impacts on the SA Economy as a whole The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction. We need to urgently question how we deal with this concern and find sustainable answers and solutions so as to avert a national socio-economic crisis. HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? The CLD below demonstrates the dire outcomes if we do not find an answer to our question. The CLD and ID for Scenario 1: Ideal Reality: A Sustainable SA Fishing Industry led us to include the additional variable, the EAF into Scenario 2. The first part of our answer is therefore: MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT LACK OF/WEAK/ABSENT LEADERSHIP NOT ADOPTING THE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES and therefore NO OR INFREQUENT DATA ARE COLLECTED AND ANALYSED CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL ROI which leads to ENVIRONMENTAL, MARINE ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADATION which in turn leads to creating the PERFECT STORM COLLAPSING/COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS which ultimately leads to THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS as a consequence of which THE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLAPSES contributing significantly to thereby leading to the COLLAPSE OF A VITAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN & FOOD SECURITY INCREASED POVERTY THROUGH UNEMPLOYMENT INCREASE IN LOCAL MALNUTRITION which all adds up to SOCIO-ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS FOR FISHING COMMUNITIES AND SA AS A WHOLE which manifests as further SOCIAL & SOCIETAL DECAY & INEQUALITY AT A HUGE COST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT SA AS A WHOLE INTER-RELATED COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS HOMEOSTASIS AND HUMAN ESCHATOLOGY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  23. 23. 12 The CLD above demonstrates the benefits of the EAF. It is evidence-based, prioritises the ecosystem, its sustainability and takes the needs of all stakeholders into consideration. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] is a practical tool to both diagnose and redesign the SA Fishing Industry, as it allows for emergence, adaptation and is by nature, structured so as to deal with complex, unitary systems, where stakeholders have a vested interest in communal, mutually beneficial outcomes and objectives. BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE To ensure the credibility and veracity of our conclusions and recommendations, we followed the following, rigorous, non-linear processes as demonstrated within Figure 5 below: STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH ensure the availability of which, when coupled with assures and contributes to via which in combination create the conditions for with the ultimate outcome of which provides the incentives for the continued leading to long-term + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + R R R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  24. 24. 13 We feel satisfied that our report as well as the demonstration of the processes employed to ensure validity and credibility, which are contained within our Appendices, satisfy all criterion in respect of validity. We also concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. The answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social well- being as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and all its stakeholders. We tested our conclusions and recommendations against the principles of ethical decision-making. Figure 6 makes the case for the under-lying ethical implications of our answer.  Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations.  The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  25. 25. 14 An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  26. 26. 15 REFERENCES: GROUP 3 FISHING INDUSTRY VSM PROJECT Bailey, M; Gakushilshimura; Paisley, R; Sumaila, U, R. 2012. Marine Policy. Elsevier Ltd. Basurto, X. 2005. How Locally Designed Access and Use Controls Can Prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in a Mexican Small-Scale Fishing Community. Society & Natural Resource. Vol 18. Pp. 643-659. Taylor & Francis Inc. DOI: : 10.1080/08941920590959631 Beer, S. 1972. Brain of the Firm. The Penguin Press. London. Blaine, S. 5 March 2013. SA lacks analysis of its fishing markets. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Business Day Editorial. 22 March 2013. Fishing on the brink of disaster. BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15. Three Key Cybernetic Laws. Crawford, S; Ostrom, E.1995. A Grammar of Institutions. American Political Science Review 89(3)(Sept.):582- 600. Denyer, D; Tranfield, D; Van Aken, J.E. 2008. Developing Design Propositions through Research Synthesis. Organisation Studies Vol. 29: 393 Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2012. Status of the South African Marine Fishery Resources. www.nda.agric.za Engestrom, Y. 2009. From Learning Environments and Implementation to Activity Systems and Expansive Learning. An International Journal of Human Activity Theory. No.2. Pp. 17-33. The Centre of Human Activity Theory. Kansai University. Espejo, R. 2003. The Viable System Model: A Briefing about Organisational Structure. Syncho Limited. www. syncho.com Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011. On Managing Complexity: Variety Engineering: Chapter 4; Organisational Systems. Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg. Flood, R.L. July 1991. Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention. Chapter 5: Viable Systems Diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons. Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series. Vol. 162, No. 3859. Pp.1243 – 1248. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Harris, J.M; Codur, A. Nov 2008. Economics of Fisheries. Global Development and Environment Institute. www.eoearth.org Helmy, H. November 1990. Decision Rule Theory and its use in the Analysis of the Organisation’s Performance. Baligh Organisation Science, Vol.1, No. 4. www.enotes.com Herbert, S. 1957. A Behavioural Model of Rational Choice; Extracted from Models of Man, Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behaviour in Social Setting. New York. Wiley & Sons. Hurwicz, L. 1994. Economic Design, Adjustment Processes, Mechanisms, and Institutions.‖ Economic Design 1(1):1-14. Investopedia US. 2013. Definitions: The Tragedy of the Commons. A Division of ValueClick, Inc. www.investopedia.com/terms/t/tragedy-of-the-commons.asp Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  27. 27. 16 Korten, D.C. 1980. Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach.‖ Public Administration Review (Sept./Oct.): 480-511. Manuel, T. 19 March 2013. Tie to make the high seas our business – for our future. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Martin, G. 30 April 2013. Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels. www.defenceweb.co.za Ostrom, E. 1999. Coping with the Tragedies of the Commons. Centre of the Study of Institutions, Population and Environmental Change. Indiana University. Bloomington. U.S.A. Annual Reviews. Ostrom, E; Gardner, R; Walker, J. 1994. Rules, Games and Common-Pool Resources. Ann Arbor. MI University. University of Michigan Press. Pauly, D; Alder, J; Bennett, E; Christensen, V; Tyedmers, P; Watson, R. 21 November 2003. The Future of Fisheries. Science Vol 302. www.sciencemag.org Polski, M.M; Ostrom,E. 1999. An Institutional Framework for Policy Analysis and Design. Department of Political Science. Indiana University. USA. Sauer, W.H.H; Hecht, T; Britz, P.J; Mather, D. 2003. An Economic and Sectoral Study of the South African Fishing Industry. Economic and regulatory principles, survey results, transformation and socio-economic impact Report. Volume 1. Prepared for Marine and Coastal Management by Rhodes University. www.envirofisharica.co.za Scholtes, P.R. 1998. The Leader’s Handbook. United States of America. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Trochim, W,M,K. 2006. Deduction & Induction. Web Center for Social Research Methods. Research Methods Knowledge Base. www.socialresearchmethods.net Van Aken, J. E. 2005. Improving the Relevance of Management Research by Developing Tested and Grounded Technological Rules. Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies. Eindhoven University of Technology. Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013. Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry. Business Day BDLive. www.bdlive.co.za Velasquez, M; Andre, C; Shanks, T; Meyer, M.J. Ethical Decision Making: Introduction to Ethics. www.scu.edu World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  28. 28. 17 APPENDIX A: CRAFTING THE PAPER A 1 ESTABLISHING RELEVANCE A 1.1 THE SITUATION A 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION: PURPOSE STATEMENT The defined purpose of this research report is to rethink the South African [SA] Fishing Industry with the view to improving its viability. The key words that we have focused upon are: “rethink” and “improvement of its viability.” The purview of this research paper does not allow for, nor require, finding of the panacea in respect of proposing an ultimate solution, but it does provide the scope to do the following:  Gain a working understanding of the SA Fishing Industry and the current reality that it is faced with.  To situate the state of the SA Fishing in context of the global fishing industry, so as to gain perspective and draw from best practice, as well as compare and contrast the SA situation with the general global trends within the industry.  To grasp the concept of “ The Tragedy of the Commons” which is related and has potential impact on all finite, natural resources; and to consider the impact it could have on the SA Fishing Industry and the SA economy as a whole.  To understand the theory and practice of the Viable Systems Model [VSM] [Flood, R.L. July 1991.] as both a Diagnostic and Organisational/Systems Design tool.  To make connections with complementary and related theorems, methodologies and tools to aid in the diagnostic and solutions or answer ideation process.  To arrive at the Situation, Concern, Question, Answer, Rationale and Ethics [SCQUARE] in regards to the SA Fishing Industry and to apply the VSM, in its most basic form, together with other tools, to provide a snapshot of what the SA Fishing Industry could look like if it departed from its Current Reality or “Business as Usual” approach and moved to a more Ideal Reality, so as to create a more Ideal, sustainable future for generations to come. A 1.1.2 THE SITUATION: SA FISHING INDUSTRY From its in-depth report titled, “Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa”, the World Wildlife Organisation [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.], we extract the following snapshots to paint a picture of the precarious situation that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in:  The SA Fishing Industry is a significant contributor to job creation, government revenue and income generation.  Seafood is a vital source of protein and food security to a great many fishing communities as well as the population as a whole.  Mismanagement of our marine resources over decades has brought the resource to the brink of collapse, which raises the spectre of dire potential socio-economic and societal impacts on SA as a whole.  The industry is fragmented, there is little or no strategic, political leadership and this status quo, if maintained, is increasing the probability that we are steering our way towards “The Tragedy of the Commons” – which implies the complete depletion of a natural resource, because of lack of collaborative, sustainable and holistic management and resource allocation. The various graphics in the form of numbered figures, as well as the detailed workings within Appendices B, C and D, provide a detailed and empirical foundation that describes the situation that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in at present. We have summarized the state of industry as succinctly, yet powerfully, as possible. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  29. 29. 18 Figure 1: Status of Global Fishing Stocks: The level of resource depletion Figure 2: Status of Commercial Line Fish in South Africa Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  30. 30. 19 Figure 3: Status of Marine Resources in South Africa Figure 4: Economic View: Common Heritage Resources: Lakes & Oceans treated as Free Resources Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  31. 31. 20 Figure 5: The Tragedy of the Commons: Description [Hardin, G. 1968] Figure 6: Situation: SA Fishing Industry: In a Nutshell 1.2 THE CONCERN From the extensive data that were interrogated and the scenarios that we ran, all indications are that we are being steered towards the complete depletion of our marine resources and the collapse of the industry. Our concern is therefore expressed as: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The relevance of our concern within the situation, is that with continued lack of leadership, a fragmented fishing industry, no research or patrol vessels being active and the unabated extraction of this already threatened, depleted and over-exploited resource, fishing stocks will collapse, leading to “The Tragedy of the Commons”, which will in turn have dire social, societal and economic impacts on South Africa as a whole. Figure 7: The Immediate Concern: Potential Impact of the Tragedy of the Commons on the SA Fishing Industry The Scenarios that we ran, using Inter-relationship Digraphs as well as Causal Loop Diagramme Mechanisms, served as further validation of our concern within the situation. All indications within our research, methodological rigour, diagnosis, analysis and synthesis pointed towards the very real possibility and probability of the Tragedy of the Commons being a threat to the SA Fishing Industry – if not already a done deal for certain marine resources, given the dearth of credible and current scientific research data. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  32. 32. 21 A 1.3 ESTABLISHING RELEVANCE: SITUATING THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION A 1.3.1 RELEVANCE OF THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION The SITUATION is characterised by:  A lack of leadership at strategic as well as institutional level as a whole  No clear or stable policies to manage and sustain the SA Fishing Industry  No research data available to plan and manage the SA marine ecosystem sustainably; which further implies that the state of biomass of fishing stocks is unknown  This in turn means that we cannot accurately allocate fishing rights and quotas and could already be in a state of total depletion of important marine resources  No patrol vessels at sea to regulate, monitor and protect the SA marine resources – which creates the conditions for exploitation of all marine resources as well as poaching  Marine resources which are mostly depleted, over-fished, over-exploited or on the verge of collapse  Exacerbated by the non-implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF]  Could lead to the total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks  Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return for our marine resources  Creating large, negative, socio-economic impacts, by the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry and therefore, devastating impacts on the SA Economy as a whole The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction or continuing on the current path as is prevalent within the current SITUATION. Relevance is further clearly states within the outcomes of the two [2] scenarios which we ran. Figure 8: Establishing Relevance; Placing the Concern within the context of the Situation A 2 ESTABLISHING UTILITY – THE C<>Q<>A LINK A 2.1 THE QUESTION Based on our findings and research, the logical question to ask, would be; HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? Given the state of the SA Fishing industry, its already depleted and over-exploited stock, the lack of research data for planning and resource management, our question is particularly useful, in that it seeks to explore how we avoid the collapse of a vital natural resource and all of the concomitant consequences. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  33. 33. 22 Figure 9: The Question: How do we Avoid the Tragedy of the Commons from Becoming a Reality within the SA Fishing Industry/ A 2.2 PROCESS TO SUBSTANTIATE CONCERN, START FRAMING THE ANSWER AND VALIDATE THE QUESTION A 2.2.1 THE ANSWER: THE FRAMING PROCESS In starting the process of framing our answer, we felt that the EAF offers the most practical and cogent long-term, sustainable solution to the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 10: Outcome: Scenario 2; Business as Usual: Leading to the Framing of our Answer Our answer, or at least part of it, specifically the move to the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] was rationalised and brought forth by the entire methodological process employed, but more specifically, by the two scenarios that we ran, using two sets of variables to create two ID’s and two Causal Loop Diagramme Mechanisms. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  34. 34. 23 Figure 11: Scenario 1: Inter-relationship Digraph: Ideal Reality: Long-term Sustainable Fishing Industry Figure 12: Scenario 1: CLD: Ideal Reality: Long-term Sustainable Fishing Industry STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH ensure the availability of which, when coupled with assures and contributes to via which in combination create the conditions for with the ultimate outcome of which provides the incentives for the continued leading to long-term + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + R R R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  35. 35. 24 Figure 13: Scenario 2 ID: Current Reality, Business-as-Usual Scenario Figure 14: Scenario 2: CLD: Current Reality, Business-as-Usual outcomes LACK OF/WEAK/ABSENT LEADERSHIP NOT ADOPTING THE WWF ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES and therefore NO OR INFREQUENT DATA ARE COLLECTED AND ANALYSED CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL ROI which leads to ENVIRONMENTAL, MARINE ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADATION which in turn leads to creating the PERFECT STORM COLLAPSING/COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS which ultimately leads to THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS as a consequence of which THE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLAPSES contributing significantly to thereby leading to the COLLAPSE OF A VITAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN & FOOD SECURITY INCREASED POVERTY THROUGH UNEMPLOYMENT INCREASE IN LOCAL MALNUTRITION which all adds up to SOCIO-ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS FOR FISHING COMMUNITIES AND SA AS A WHOLE which manifests as further SOCIAL & SOCIETAL DECAY & INEQUALITY AT A HUGE COST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT SA AS A WHOLE INTER-RELATED COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS HOMEOSTASIS AND HUMAN ESCHATOLOGY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  36. 36. 25 Figure 15: Scenario 2 outcomes: Pointing to the requirements to be contained within the Answer Leading to FRAMING THE ANSWER THIS APPROACH TO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IS CHARACTERISED BY: • UNDERSTANDING THE WHOLE ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS WITHIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • SOCIETAL WELL-BEING OF DEPENDENT FISHING COMMUNITIES ARE INCLUDED WITHIN MANAGEMENT ADVICE AND PRACTICE • THE LONG-TERM ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY IS THE COMMUNAL OUTCOME • TRANSPARENT AND PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT STRUCTURES • REDUCES OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS • SUFFICIENT SKILLS, CAPACITY, EQUIPMENT & FUNDING • ROBUST SCIENTIFIC DATA COLLECTION POINTING THE NEED FOR A PHASE 1 REDESIGN OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY USING THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL A 2.3 ESTABLISHING UTILITY This empirically proven, best practice model [The EAF] takes a holistic approach, which includes consideration of whole ecosystems impacts, the well-being of fishing communities as well as the long- term socio-economic well-being of the Fishing Industry as its ultimate outcome. With the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] and the United Nations as its progenitors and the WWF as the specialist implementation partners globally, the EAF Management System carries gravitas and inherent credibility from successes that have already been achieved in a variety of other fishing territories. An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. Having studied a large range of theorems, methodologies, frameworks and tools, it was found that the Viable Systems Model [Flood, R.L. July 1991.], with specific reference to the Viable Systems Diagnostics tools that are built into this model, are most appropriate as a point of departure. The VSM and VSD aided with the confirmation of the diagnosis of the current system and structure and with a Phase 0 re-design of the SA Fishing Industry. In addition to the VSM, a range of other tools, methods and methodologies would be employed as part of the emergent process of adapting, improving, checking, adjusting, measuring, communicating, co-ordinating and rebuilding the SA Fishing Industry. At the heart of this emergent process, that is inherent in using the Viable Systems Model to re-design the structure of the SA Fishing Industry, would be the use of the Deming Wheel or Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  37. 37. 26 Plan→Do→Study/Check→Act[ion] [ PDCA][ Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] to constantly improve upon the structural design and functional systems and their interactions. The control [System 2] and co-ordination systems [ System 3] [Beer, S. 1972.]will be specific areas of emphasis, so as to ensure that communication of any variances are dealt with as swiftly as possible and the system as a whole adjusted and adapted to deal with complexity, variety and variances. The more comprehensive first framing of the ANSWER is therefore expanded as: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE A 3 ESTABLISHING VALIDITY AND CREDIBILITY A 3.1 RATIONALE AND DATA CREDIBILITY To ensure the credibility and veracity of our conclusions and recommendations, we followed the following, rigorous, non-linear processes: EMPIRICAL AND ACADEMIC RESEARCH→EXTENSIVE LITERATURE REVIEWS→EXTRACTS FROM PRESENTATIONS BY INDUSTRY SPECIALISTS→ADDITIONAL DESK RESEARCH→INTERROGATION OF GLOBAL CASE STUDIES, METHODOLOGIES, BEST PRACTICE→STUDYING, UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF THE VSM AND OTHER RELEVANT THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS→EXTRACTED FACT-BASED PROPOSITIONS→CATEGORISED AND LABELLED→SATURATED CATEGORIES→EXTRACTED TWO SETS OF EMPIRICAL VARIABLES→RAN TWO SCENARIOS USING ID’S AND CAUSAL MECHANISMS→TOOK INTO ACCOUNT THE PRINCIPLES AND OUTCOMES OF THE FISHBANKS GAME→ →To test for the validity and credibility of our situation, concern, question, answer as well as for the ethical implications of what we are proposing. A.3.2 ARGUMENT FOR VALIDITY We feel satisfied that our report as well as the demonstration of the processes employed to ensure validity and credibility, which are contained within our Appendices B, C and D, satisfy all criterion in respect of validity. We also concluded that the application of our answer is transferable not only to other natural resource intensive industries, but that it could be employed within businesses and organisations in any industry or sector. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  38. 38. 27 Figure 16: Graphic Representation of Methodology for Validity and Data Credibility Figure 17: Scenario 1: CLD: Confirming the SCQARE within the RUVE STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH ensure the availability of which, when coupled with assures and contributes to via which in combination create the conditions for with the ultimate outcome of which provides the incentives for the continued leading to long-term + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + R R R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  39. 39. 28 Figure 18: Redesign of the SA Fishing Industry using VSD within the VSM We include the redesign of the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSD within the VSM within this section, as we firstly, within our Appendix B workings, investigated and substantiated the use of the VSD and VSM as appropriate tools for complex unitary systems. These systems are subject to constant environmental changes, yet are by nature able to be unified towards achieving mutually beneficial goals and objectives. The methodology therefor works perfectly for the fishing industry, which has the characteristics as described above. Within Appendix B, we demonstrate our understanding of the VSM as well as the practical applications of the tool, so as to arrive at a new design for the SA Fishing Industry. Within our very basic, Phase 0 re-design, we use the Institutional and Development Framework [AID] to aid in our diagnosis and to guide our design. The scope of this paper does not allow for a detailed diagnosis and resultant diagnostic report, nor for a comprehensive narrative regarding how each of the systems should ideally be structured, using the array of methodologies, tools, methods and frameworks at our disposal. We did however, within Appendix B, provide a snapshot of our diagnosis, as well as a summary of the key areas that we believe would have to be dealt with, addressed, monitored and measured, so as to evolve the VSM structure of the SA Fishing Industry over time, so as to reach the end goal – which is a long-term, sustainable marine resource and a thriving fishing industry and economy. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  40. 40. 29 A 3.3 TRANSFERABILITY Given the nature inherent in our solution – focusing upon long-term sustainability, involving all stakeholders, collaborating in the interest of the greater good and being adaptable, emergent and evolving by nature, transferability to other natural resource management systems seems natural. We do however believe that this model of long-term sustainability has application across sectors, industries, businesses and organisations. In fact, it is particularly relevant in the era where we have reached the Limits to traditional growth and where total organisational wellness will lie at the heart of its future existence. Figure 19: Transferability of the Solution A 4 ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS AND THE ARGUMENT FOR ETHICS The solution or answer that we propose is aimed at securing the long-term sustainability, economic and social well-being as well as ecosystems health of the SA Fishing Industry and all of the stakeholders affected by its well-being and/or who may have an impact on its long-term well-being. We therefore tested our conclusions and recommendations against all of the principle of ethical decision-making, but emphasised the following areas of ethics:  Our approach finds resonance with the “Common Good” principle, in that it implies that all policy, systems, social systems and society as a whole work towards a common good – which ensures that the benefits accrue to all – now and for future generations.  The “Justice and Fairness” principle, which implies that equal benefits and burdens accrue to all stakeholders holds true. A Sustainable resource will ensure the fair distribution for current and future generations in an equal, environmentally sensitive and economically viable manner. Figure 20: Considering Ethics: Common Good as well as Justice & Fairness A 5 OVERALL CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management will ensure that we avert “The Tragedy of the Commons” and can be embedded within the organisational systems of the SA Fishing Industry, by using the Viable Systems Model to redesign and adapt this emergent, future-focused solution. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  41. 41. 30 Figure 21: Conclusions and Recommendations: EAF using VSD and VSM as foundational models Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  42. 42. 31 Appendix B: DOING THE WORK B.1 RESEARCHING AND TESTING FOR THE SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE AND ETHICS: RETHINKING THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY WITH THE VIEW OF IMPROVING ITS VIABILITY B.1.1 CONTEXTUAL INTRODUCTION The nature of the assignment requires that we have to firstly understand the situation in as much detail as possible, before we are able to formulate our concern and from there, the question and answer that would flow from the concern. Given the dynamic complexity of the SA Fishing Industry, it is patently clear that there are a range of concern variables that could be dealt with. We felt strongly that we needed to find a concern variable that carried gravitas and that had the potential, if dealt with in a holistic manner, to positively impact the future sustainability and viability of the industry in a meaningful manner. Our approach has therefore been to research and test for these core issues, so as to ensure that relevance, utility and validity are assured, before we are able to delve deeper into the concern, question and answer variables. B.2 PROJECT PURPOSE STATEMENT B.2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS The South African Fishing Industry forms part of the Regional [Southern Africa] as well as Global Fishing Industries; all of whom are reliant on a resource which could deplete completely, if not managed in a collaborative and sustainable manner. It is fair to state that any natural resource is finite by nature and as such, susceptible to what is known as “The Tragedy of the Commons.” [Hardin, G. 1968.] The Tragedy of the Commons is defined as: Figure 1: Tragedy of the Commons [ Source: World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay.] Investopedia [Investopedia US. 2013.] offers the following two adjuvant definitions; Definition of 'Tragedy of the Commons' “An economic problem in which every individual tries to reap the greatest benefit from a given resource. As the demand for the resource overwhelms the supply, every individual who consumes an additional unit directly harms others who can no longer enjoy the benefits. Generally, the resource of interest is easily available to all individuals.” Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  43. 43. 32 Investopedia explains 'Tragedy of The Commons' “The tragedy of the Commons occurs when individuals neglect the well-being of society (or the group) in the pursuit of personal gain. For example, if neighboring farmers increase the number of their own sheep living on a common block of land, eventually the land will become depleted and not be able to support the sheep, which is detrimental to all.” As we will demonstrate within this Appendix as well as within our core thesis, the data are clear in that the SA Fishing Industry is standing on the precipice of collapse. The current status quo is the result of a large variety of internal as well as external factors and variables interacting with one another over a prolonged period of time; all of whom have conspired to create the situation that we are faced with currently. We expound on the current Situation in greater detail within the body of this document. However, to demonstrate the relevance of expounding on The Tragedy of the Commons, Figure 2 below paints a disconcerting picture of the status of global fish stocks. At the time of releasing these statistics, 53% of the global marine resources were described as being fully fished, 3% completely depleted and 28% over-fished. Given the fragmented nature of the local as well as global fishing industries, the lack of co-ordination, communication and resource management, we fear that this situation may have become far worse in the ensuing five[5] years. These statistics speak to an industry teetering on the brink of collapse and therefore, susceptible to The Tragedy of the Commons. Figure 2: Status of Global Fishing Stocks in 2008; [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011. Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa. Sponsored and published by Pick ‘n Pay.] B.2.2 THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL IN CONTEXT A Viable systems is by inference one that is able to function autonomously and which is organized so that it is able to deal with dynamic complexity in order to survive. [. Beer, S. 1972.] Adaptability and emergence are two core features of viable systems. As the environment changes, so the system must be designed so as to adapt to the internal and external dynamics that affect it. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] [Beer, S. 1972.] is based upon an abstracted cybernetic description that is applicable to any viable system; implicit within this system is the fact that regulation theory underpins the design of the system. As we hope to demonstrate within our first attempt at Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  44. 44. 33 redesigning the SA Fishing Industry, using the VSM, we have placed emphasis upon the regulation theory of cybernetics, as well as other tools and methodologies to ensure that the control, co-ordination and strategic systems are equipped so as to ensure the high-functioning of System One [1], which is where the actual work is done with in the VSM. In Systems Theory, this system one would be akin to the GEMBA – defined as GEM – specific work – BA – the place – or the core system that produces the customer’s value and work. [Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] Using Viable Systems Diagnosis [Flood, R.L. July 1991], which provides the foundation for creative problem solving and total systems intervention, our aim was to arrive at a broad systems diagnosis and to re-design the existing SA Fishing Industry, using the Viable Systems Model. We remain fully alive to the fact that such a diagnosis and Phase 0 re-design are the mere beginnings of an on-going, organic and emergent process. The Deming Wheel or PDCA [ Plan→Do→Check→Action]process [Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] should be one of the methodologies or tools used to ensure the constant cycle of planning, doing, checking and action so as to adapt, improve, adjust and shape the SA Fishing Industry into a high- functioning, sustainable and independently functioning, self-organising system. The Viable Systems Model [VSM] [Espejo, R. 2003.] is a foundational instrument via which we are able to observe collective behaviours from a systemic or holistic perspective. It is a useful tool to gain a comprehension of why a system, business, organisation or institution is as it is at a given moment in time. Most importantly, it provides the methodologies and theory of practice to enable systems interventions so that it works optimally and in the interest of all stakeholders or role players. It is however one tool in a much larger toolbox of theorems, methodologies, processes and frameworks – and would be used in combination with a range of methodologies, such as: inter-relationship diagraphs [ID’s], Causal Loop Diagramme [ CLD] mechanisms, Activity Systems & Activity Theory[Engestrom, Y. 2009.], The Law of Requisite Variety[Espejo, R; Reyes, A. 2011.], Scenario planning, The Laws of Cybernetics[Clemson, B. 2013 – EMBA 15.], Institutional and Analysis Framework [AID][ Polski, M.M; Ostrom,E. 1999.] as well as the Context, Mechanism, Outcome [ CMO] model and its companion model, the CIMO[Denyer, D; Tranfield, D; Van Aken, J.E. 2008.], which includes the Intervention that is proposed so as to change the behaviour of the concern variable and bring it back into the envelope of acceptance. Bounded Rationality [Herbert, S. 1957.], Decision Rule Theory [Helmy, H. November 1990.], Technological Rules [Van Aken, J. E. 2005.] as well as Design Propositions are taken into account during this process of redesign. The successful re-design and the implementation of a new functional structure, may take years of learning, development, adaptation, updating, expansion, analysis and synthesis – so as to finally arrive at a fully functioning system. Given the value of the fishing industry, in respect of its contribution to export revenue, job creation, food security as well as socio-economic impacts, there can be no doubt that urgent interventions are required in the now, so as to secure the long-term sustainability of this resource. Our responsibility is not confined to the present, but has specific bearing on the ability of future generations to continue benefiting from the rich bounty of the oceans. B.2.3 BROAD & DEFINED PROJECT PURPOSE STATEMENTS  TO GAIN A WORKING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY – CURRENT SITUATION  TO GAIN AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE VIABLE SYSTEMS MODEL AS A DIAGNOSTIC AS WELL AS SYSTEMS DESIGN TOOL  TO MAKE THE CONNECTIONS WITH COMPLEMENTARY AND RELATED THEOREMS, METHODOLOGIES AND TOOLS TO AID IN THE DIAGNOSTIC & SOLUTIONS/ANSWER IDEATION PROCESS  TO ARRIVE AT THE SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE AND ETHICS IN REGARDS TO THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY AND TO APPLY THE VSM IN ITS BASIC FORMAT TO PROVIDE A PHASE 0 RE-DESIGN ENCAPSULATED AS: DEFINED PROJECT PURPOSE STATEMENT: RETHINKING THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY WITH THE VIEW OF IMPROVING ITS VIABILITY Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  45. 45. 34 B.3 PROCESS FLOW Figure 3: PROCESS FLOW/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: TO ARRIVE AT SITUATION, CONCERN, QUESTION, ANSWER, RATIONALE & ETHICS [SCQARE]: WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE RELEVANCE, UTILITY, VALIDITY AND ETHICS [RUVE] FRAMEWORK Before we were able to embark upon the construction of our core thesis within the Relevance, Utility, Validity and Ethics [RUVE] framework, we had to first establish as well as validate the constituent parts of the SCQARE within the context of the RUVE. The following non-linear, non-concurrent processes were employed: B.3.1 ESTABLISHING THE SITUATION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF RELEVANCE  The collecting of our propositions required the study of: * various research reports *peer- reviewed articles and research papers *extracts from presentations made by Fishing Industry Specialists * additional desk research to source news reports, press statements and additional research data related to Global Resource Management Best practice models. This provided a sound foundation to sufficiently understand the fishing industry as a whole [systemic view] and the SA Fishing Industry in context of the global marine ecosystem as a whole.  It furthermore ensured that the current SITUATION that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in, which we describe within our report, is factually based and based upon sound, deductive as well as inductive [“bottom-up” logic] reasoning. In other words, we constructed and evaluated our general propositions which were drawn from specific, empirical sources, by using ‘bottom up” logic, also known as induction. We naturally did the opposite, which involved using some of the more general propositions, to derive more specific propositions, via a process of deduction. [Trochim, W.M.K. 2006.]  As such, the propositions used are empirical and factually based, in contrast to subjective, opinion-based propositions. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  46. 46. 35  Given the factual basis of the propositions [Appendix C], we are comfortable that they are able to accurately describe and validate the SITUATION that the SA Fishing Industry finds itself in.  These propositions were thereafter categorised and labelled [Appendix D]; within the limited scope and timeframe of this assignment, the categories were saturated so as to be able to extract the core variables that are responsible, via their inter-play with one another, for the sustainability [or not] of the SA Fishing Industry.  In terms of the elements contained within our Broad Project Purpose Statement, the process as described above, allowed us to achieve the objective: TO GAIN A WORKING UNDERSTANDING OF THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY – CURRENT SITUATION. B.3.2. THE SITUATION Based on the methodological approach described above, we populated a comprehensive fact- based Proposition Log [See Appendix C: Proposition Log] as well as Categorising, labelling and saturating the categories [See Appendix D: Categorisation, labelling and category saturation: Propositions] to arrive at a succinct summation and conclusion about the current state of the SA Fishing Industry; we describe the SITUATION as follows: “The SA Fishing Industry is a vital component of the SA economy as a whole, provides substantial employment and job creation opportunities, contributes to the country’s export revenues as well as local economy and provides food security and subsistence to a great many coastal fishing communities. Due to decades of resource mismanagement, a dearth of strategic leadership, a general lack of credible research data, no patrol vessels in operation and the inability to unite the industry around the collaborative, sustainable management of our marine resources, the SA Fishing industry stands on the precipice of collapse. This is particularly true of its in-shore fishing resources, which are by nature more accessible to subsistence fishers, small-scale fisheries as well as recreational fishing. The off-shore marine resources are in a slightly better position due to an attempt by the large commercial fishing companies to co- manage the resource. As the data will show, urgent interventions are required to prevent the complete collapse of the marine resource, which would in turn lead to the Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return and complete collapse of both the resource and therefore the fishing industry. This would have dire socio-economic consequences for the country as a whole.” B 3.2.1 SUBSTANTIATING OUR ANALYSIS AND STATEMENT OF THE SITUATION: A SUMMARY OF DATA AND FACTS Our description of the SITUATION is based upon the analysis and synthesis of the information contained within Appendices C and D and is further validated within the body of this section. In the Business Day article, “Minister insists there is no crisis in fishing industry”, [Vecchiatto, P. 21 May 2013.] the author provides the following information:  Forestry and Fisheries Minister, Tina Joemat-Pettersson and fishing industry CEO’s have insisted there is no crisis in the sector.  Almost no fishery protection patrols have been performed over the past year [+].  There has been a disruption of the economically important fishing surveys. [ Required and used to calculate fishing density, so as to inform the allocation of fishing rights and quotas and to ensure the sustainable regeneration of fishing stocks so as to keep the industry viable]  There is confusion around the issuing of fishing quotas. [ A great many long-term quotas/rights are expiring at the end of 2013 and into 2014; without credible research data and the required institutional skills and capacity, it is doubtful whether new long-term rights will be issued by the due deadline – further placing economic pressure on the fishing industry and creating further insecurity as well as the impetus for over-fishing and maximal extraction of the resource]  The Minister of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry [ DAFF] took office in 2009 and met with the fishing industry for the first time in 2013 – four [ 4] years after taking office. At this Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  47. 47. 36 meeting, the Minister, under pressure of national government, expressed the need for the industry to advise her, to have their valued voice hear and to look at how opportunities for both commercial and small-scale fishers can be expanded. She furthermore spoke to a ‘game change’ within the industry. She also made a commitment that the fishing patrol and research vessels, currently in the custody of the SA Navy, would be made operational as soon as possible. [ As at July 2013, these vessels have not left the harbour in Simon’s Town, Cape Town – and given their state of disrepair, it is estimated that it will take another year before they are ready and seaworthy] In an article titled, “Nautic Africa supporting DAFF patrol and research vessels”, [Martin, G. 30 April 2013] the author confirms that Nautic Africa has signed an agreement with DAFF to support its four fisheries protection and two fisheries research vessels, as part of the attempt of DAFF to get the fleet to full operational status again. Before Nautic Africa can however assist in vessel operations, which will include bunkering, crewing and other logistics to ensure that the vessels are put to see as quickly and efficiently as possible, DAFF has contracted with a service provider to repair the fleet for sea[use]. According to Shaheen Moola, during his presentation titled, “Managing Commercial Fisheries in SA”, Nautic Africa has no experience in patrolling and managing marine resources. He furthermore contends that the company that DAFF has contracted with to repair the existing fleet, built the original ships, but is not schooled in the repair of vessels. Their primary focus is manufacturing of new boats, not the repair of unseaworthy vessels. He expressed his concern about their ability to fulfill the task, including the fact that this will more than likely delay the readiness of the vessels further. According to Shaheen Moola, MD of Feike Natural Resource Management Advisors, [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] industry CEO’s have no choice but to co-operative with the Minister of DAFF, as she had threatened to withdraw their fishing rights. He furthermore indicated that DAFF still had to allocate 1000 fishing-right quotas, but had not yet appointed a service provider. It is therefore unlikely that this process will be completed by year-end [2013]. It goes without saying that regular surveys of South Africa’s fishing resources are important for the country to prove that it has sustainable fishing stocks in order to keep export markets. [Martin, G. 30 April 2013.] These surveys have not happened for at least two [2] or more years, placing our marine resources under extreme threat. According to Shaheen Moola, from Feike, extracted from his presentation to the EMBA 15.2 class during Module 2, the SA Fishing Industry faces a large range of challenges:  With the rise of populist, political rhetoric, there has been the accompanying emergency of failed fishing policy. Cadre deployment has paralysed DAFF and a failed Minister, who is, in Moola’s opinion completely lacking in understanding of the fishing industry. There has been rampant corruption under her watch; there is a need for strong political leadership to nurse the fishing industry back to optimal health. There is a general lack of political leadership, policy and vision for the SA fishing industry.  With the collapse of in-shore fisheries, this has led to greater unemployment, poverty and social instability. Fishing co-operatives create further and deeper poverty as well as resource degradation; this is due to the ownership of the resource being unclear; it is spread thinly between too many stakeholders and their portion of the resource cannot sustain them. This leads to over-fishing, poaching and further exploitation of the resource just to survive.  There is no fisheries patrol and research capacity and the potential loss of the Marine Stewardship Council [MSC] sustainable fishing certification for hake trawl Fisheries. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  48. 48. 37 Figure 4: MSC Certified Sustainable Seafood Mark; Eco-label Loss of this certification would have negative impact on these fisheries having access to export markets, where consumers are the drivers of ecosystems approaches to fisheries and want confirmation that they are consuming seafood that has been sustainably managed and caught.  There is a high cost attached to extracting and processing seafood; the biggest investment is in the technology to find the fish in the first place. The large commercial fishing companies trade together in respect of the market. They co-operate so as to be able to collaboratively meet market demands and have access and marketing capabilities.  3000 artisanal fisheries quotas where allocated – out of these quotas, 250 of the quota holders earned nothing more than R 350; these quotas are in essence paper quotas and are generally ‘ hawked’ to the larger fishing companies.  The 8-15 year quotas are distributed between 3222 quota holders and on an ad hoc, random basis by the Minister. There are currently no specialists within DAFF, with the 11th Deputy Director-General being in the acting position in the past 4 years.  Undue political pressure is exactly what is not required in fisheries management. Government intervention has in fact contributed to the collapsed state of fishing stocks. Because of the ad hoc, populist nature of the allocation of rights, key sustainable management methodologies have been abandoned.  DAFF presented to the National Parliament and admitted that they have no idea as to state of the SA marine resources and admitted that the impact of not having functioning patrol and research vessels means that no-one is certain about where we stand as an industry. Trevor Manuel, in his role as a Commissioner on the Global Ocean Commission, [Manuel, T. 19 March 2013.] made the following statements: The task that the Global Ocean Commission has set itself is to demonstrate how the ocean can be sustainably and equitably managed. All evidence will be assessed, from sectors of society, including science, economics, business and law. This will be distilled into a to-do list for global leaders – a list of practical and efficient measures that via their implementation will reverse the degradation of marine resources in the high seas and restore them to full health and productivity. He reiterates that the large rewards lie in the high seas and that this where the largest challenges are. He goes on to confirm that 80 million tonnes of food is extracted from the world’s oceans annually. The United Nations [UN] Food and Agriculture Organisation calculates that half of the world’s fisheries are providing as much as they sustainably can, whilst one-third are being exploited beyond that limit, leading to diminishing returns. In its publication, ‘Fisheries: Facts and Trends: South Africa”, the World Wildlife Organisation [WWO] [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.], the following facts emerge: Morne Du Plessis, CEO of the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] states that this report provides a clear picture of the precarious state of the SA Fishing Industry after decades of mismanagement of our marine systems. For him, this report and its findings, underscores the drive to promote an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries [EAF]. This approach recognises the pivotal role that marine ecosystems play in maintaining resilient, socio-cultural systems in the face of growing threats of climate change and food security. SA has a coastline stretching 3000 km; our oceans support both commercial and artisanal fisheries. In order to ensure the social and economic well-being of South Africa’s coastal people, collaborative and responsible management is required to create a long-term, sustainable marine resource. The historical Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  49. 49. 38 practice of single species management has failed. Holistic environmental management strategies and sustainable fishing practices, taking the whole ecosystem into consideration, are now imperative. An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. An EAF aims to: “balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries” (FAO 2003).[ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 5: Tracking Tool: EAF implementation in SA Fishing Industry Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  50. 50. 39 Figure 6: Global Facts: Fishing extraction and consumption; state of the resource [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 7: Status of Global Fish Stocks in 2008: Level of Resource Depletion [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  51. 51. 40 Figure 8: Recreational Fishing in SA; Economic benefits and environmental impacts [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 9: Status of Commercial Line fish in South Africa: State of over-exploitation and collapse [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  52. 52. 41 Figure 10: Status of SA Marine Resource [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 11: Good Practice: Marine Protected Areas in South Africa[World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] From the data provided and the propositions log, it is clear that this good practice is absent within the SA Fishing Industry. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  53. 53. 42 Figure 12: SA Seafood; Contribution to Export Revenue [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 13: SASSI – Fish markets in SA; Eco-labelling and awareness [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Consumer awareness programmes are starting to pay off in terms of providing the incentives for the SA Fishing Industry to commit to sustainable fishing practices. Consumers are demanding eco-products and want to be assured that they are not contributing towards the denigration of the ecosystem. Figure 14: Three [3] pillars of Food Security: A Complex system [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  54. 54. 43 Figure 15: SA Fisheries Management Mission Statement [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] This is a near perfect example of a vision and mission statement that has been devised at the highest level, which has good intentions, but that is far removed from the realities on the ground and falls far short of being implemented or implementable, given the current situation of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 16: Contribution of the SA Fishing Industry to Revenue and job creation [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Figure 17: Direct employment within SA Commercial Fishing Industry [World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  55. 55. 44 It is estimated that in addition to these formal and direct jobs, the commercial fishing industry creates an additional 100 000 jobs within ancillary sectors. All of these factual propositions, with additional propositions extracted from an array of additional resources are contained within our Proposition log [Appendix C] as well as our Categorisation, labelling and saturation log [Appendix D]. All of these facts were analysed and synthesised so as to establish and confirm the current SITUATION within the SA Fishing Industry. B.3.3 ESTABLISHING THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION After analyzing, synthesising, categorising, labelling and saturation of the propositions, two sets of variables were created, so as to test two [2] scenarios, which served as the basis to establish and validate our: Concern, Question, Answer or C<>Q<>A statements as well as their linkages. These variables were drawn from Appendix D: Categorisation, labelling and category saturation: Propositions. LABEL CONCEPT VARIABLES SCENARIO 1 VARIABLES SCENARIO 2 STATE OF FISHING STOCKS UNCERTAIN/ UNDER THREAT SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS COLLAPSED/COLLAPSING FISHING STOCKS AQUACULTURE GROWTH INDUSTRY SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE IRRESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE RESEARCH IMPERATIVE TO REBUILD & MANAGE MARINE RESOURCES ROBUST, TIMELY, CREDIBLE RESEARCH DATA NO OR INFREQUENT RESEARCH DATA INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY REQUIRED TO REBUILD RESOURCE & PREVENT TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY-SKILLED CAPACITY FRAGMENTED, UNSKILLED CAPACITY INDUSTRY COHESION/COLL ABORATION INTEREST OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS COHESIVE INDUSTRY – STRONG LEADERSHIP FRAGMENTED INDUSTRY – SEEKING INDIVIDUAL BENEFIT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABLE, RESPONSIBLE, COLLABORATIVE GLOBAL MANAGEMENT REBUILDING OF LONG- TERM SUSTAINABILITY OF FISHING INDUSTRY TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS SOCIO- ECONOMIC SITUATION & IMPACTS HEALTH & WELL-BEING OF COMMUNITIES, INDUSTRY AND ECONOMY SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH SOCIETAL & INDUSTRY COLLAPSE & DECAY FOOD SOURCE/SECURITY SOURCE OF NUTRITION AND INCOME SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES FOR HEALTH AND WELLNESS MALNUTRITION & POVERTY Figure 18: Table of Concepts and Variables for Scenario testing/planning The set of variables was used to create two [2] Inter-Relationship Digraphs [ID] – these were in turn used to test the Scenarios within Causal Loops Diagramme [CLD] Mechanisms. Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  56. 56. 45 B.3.3.1 SCENARIO PLANNING/TESTING Using the Scenario one [1] variables contained within Figure 18: Table of Concepts and Variables for Scenario testing/planning, an ID was constructed to interrogate and understand the drivers of the long-term sustainability and viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 19: Scenario 1: IDEAL REALITY LEADING TO IDEAL FUTURE: SUSTAINABLE SA FISHING INDUSTRY The following was deduced from the analysis of Figure 19: Scenario 1: IDEAL REALITY LEADING TO IDEAL FUTURE: SUSTAINABLE SA FISHING INDUSTRY:  The three [3] primary drivers of the future sustainability and viability of the SA Fishing Industry, in descending order, are: * Strong leadership & Cohesive, Collaborative Fishing Industry * Robust, Credible, Timely Research Data * Collaborative, Highly Skilled, Institutional Capacity.  These drivers in turn lead to three [3] primary outcomes, in ascending order: * Sustainable Fishing Stocks, leading to * Sufficient Marine Resources to feed and nourish all stakeholders, which in turn assures * Sustainable Livelihoods and Economic Growth. Using the same variables from Scenario one [1], a Causal Mechanism was constructed to verify the veracity of the deductions made from the ID. Figure 20: Scenario 1: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND FEASIBILITY OF THE SCENARIO below confirms that Scenario one [1] creates the foundation for the design, adaptation and implementation of a Viable SA Fishing Industry, by taking a Collaborative, Integrated, Sustainable and Holistic Approach to Resource Management. Such a system is described by the World Wildlife Organisation’s Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF], to which South Africa is a signatory, but with limited implementation having taken place to date. [ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  57. 57. 46 Figure 20: Scenario 1: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND FEASIBILITY OF THE SCENARIO Based on the reinforcing loops contained within the Causal Mechanism above, it points towards the benefits of the Implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries to ensure the long-term sustainability and viability of the SA Fishing Industry. This in turn led to the inclusion of the Non- implementation of the EAF as an additional variable within our “Business as Usual” Scenario 2 testing below. Figure 21: Scenario 2: CURRENT REALITY “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO STRONG LEADERSHIP & COHESIVE, COLLABORATIVE FISHING INDUSTRY ROBUST, CREDIBLE, TIMELY RESEARCH DATA COLLABORATIVE, HIGHLY SKILLED INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY SUSTAINABLE FISHING STOCKS REBUILDING OF LONG-TERM SUSTAINABLE FISHING INDUSTRTY SUSTAINABLE & RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE SUFFICIENT MARINE RESOURCES TO FEED & NOURISH ALL STAKEHOLDERS SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS & ECONOMIC GROWTH ensure the availability of which, when coupled with assures and contributes to via which in combination create the conditions for with the ultimate outcome of which provides the incentives for the continued leading to long-term + + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + + + + R R R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  58. 58. 47 Using the Scenario two [2] variables contained within Figure 18: Concepts and Variables: Scenario testing/planning, an ID was constructed to interrogate and understand what the probable outcomes of a Current Reality, “Business as Usual” scenario would be. The following was deduced from the analysis of Figure 21: Scenario 2: CURRENT REALITY “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO:  In descending order, the drivers of the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry are: * Lack of or weak leadership & unskilled institutional capacity leading to the * WWF Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF] NOT being implemented, allied to which * No or infrequent research data being available with an Adjuvant Driver * Fragmented Fishing Industry seeking Individual Benefit & ROI  Leading to the following disturbing and disconcerting outcomes: * Collapsed Fishing Stocks * The Tragedy of the Commons * Societal, Social, Industry Collapse & Decay, culminating in * Malnutrition, Food Insecurity & Poverty From the scenario above, it seems patently clear that if the SA Fishing Industry continues on its current trajectory, it is doomed to complete failure and collapse. Such a situation would have dire socio- economic impacts on the 147 fishing communities along our 3000 km coastline as well as to the economy as a whole. Using the same variables as per the ID above, a Causal Mechanism was constructed to verify the conclusions drawn from the ID above. Figure 22: Scenario 2: CAUSAL MECHANISM: TESTING THE ID AND “BUSINESS AS USUAL” SCENARIO LACK OF/WEAK/ABSENT LEADERSHIP NOT ADOPTING THE WWF ECOSYSTEMSAPPROACH FORFISHERIES and therefore NO OR INFREQUENT DATA ARE COLLECTED AND ANALYSED CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR IRRESPONSIBLE EXPANSION & MANAGEMENT OF AQUACULTURE FRAGMENTED FISHING INDUSTRY SEEKING HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL ROI which leads to ENVIRONMENTAL, MARINE ECOSYSTEMS DEGRADATION which in turn leads to creating the PERFECT STORM COLLAPSING/COLLAPSED FISHING STOCKS which ultimately leads to THETRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS as a consequence of which THE FISHING INDUSTRY COLLAPSES contributing significantly to thereby leading to the COLLAPSE OF A VITAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN & FOOD SECURITY INCREASED POVERTY THROUGH UNEMPLOYMENT INCREASE IN LOCAL MALNUTRITION which all adds up to SOCIO-ECONOMICHARDSHIPS FORFISHINGCOMMUNITIESAND SA ASA WHOLE which manifests as further SOCIAL & SOCIETAL DECAY & INEQUALITY AT A HUGE COST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT SA AS A WHOLE INTER-RELATED COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS HOMEOSTASISAND HUMAN ESCHATOLOGY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - R Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  59. 59. 48 As is clearly evidenced from Figure 22 above, the consequences of continuing on the current path within the SA Fishing Industry has the potential to lead to an array of dire consequences. These include: * The Tragedy of the Commons which means that * The Fishing Industry collapses or has collapsed, leading to * Collapse of a vital source of protein and food security; Increased poverty through unemployment; increase in local malnutrition with all add up to * Socio-Economic Hardships for Fishing Communities and SA as a whole. The knock-on effect of the situation as described above, further leads to social and societal decay and inequality, at a huge cost to Economic Growth and Development, SA as an inter-related system and community and lastly, poses a real threat to ecosystems homeostasis and human eschatology. In fact, it would be safe to say that the latter two issues would be in a state of crisis. B.3.3.2 THE CONCERN All of the work done, the analysis of the data as well as the collaborative management of the marine resource within the Fishbanks Game and the positive outcomes thereof, point towards the possibility or probability of The Tragedy of the Commons being a real threat to the continued viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Our CONCERN is therefore expressed as: THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ON THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY B3.3.3 RELEVANCE OF THE CONCERN WITHIN THE SITUATION The SITUATION is characterised by:  A lack of strategic leadership at strategic as well as institutional level  No clear or stable policies to manage and sustain the SA Fishing Industry  No research data available to plan and manage the SA marine ecosystem sustainably; which further implies that the state of biomass of fishing stocks is unknown  This in turn means that we cannot accurately allocate fishing rights and quotas and could already be in a state of total depletion of important marine resources  No patrol vessels at sea to regulate, monitor and protect the SA marine resources – which creates the conditions for exploitation of all marine resources as well as poaching  Marine resources which are mostly depleted, over-fished, over-exploited or on the verge of collapse  Exacerbated by the non-implementation of the Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [ EAF]  Could lead to the total collapse of SA Fishing Stocks  Which will become The Tragedy of the Commons – the point of no return for our marine resources  Creating large, negative, socio-economic impacts, by the collapse of the SA Fishing Industry and therefore, devastating impacts on the SA Economy as a whole The CONCERN is centrally situated as an outcome of the SITUATION and made relevant, due to the dire consequences of inaction or continuing on the current path as is prevalent within the current SITUATION. Relevance is further clearly states within the outcomes of the two [2] scenarios which we ran. B.3.3.4 ESTABLISHING UTILITY: THE C<>Q<>A LINK B.3.3.4.1 THE QUESTION Based on our findings and research, the logical question to ask, would be; HOW DO WE AVOID THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS FROM BECOMING A REALITY WITHIN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY? Given the state of the SA Fishing industry, its already depleted and over-exploited stock, the lack of research data for planning and resource management, our question is particularly useful, in that it Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  60. 60. 49 seeks to explore how we avoid the collapse of a vital natural resource and all of the concomitant consequences. B.3.3.4.2 THE ANSWER: THE FRAMING PROCESS In starting the process of framing our answer, we felt that the EAF offers the most practical and cogent long-term, sustainable solution to the viability of the SA Fishing Industry. Figure 23 : Scenario: How to avoid The Tragedy of the Commons: The argument for Utility ANSWER in PART: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT This empirically proven, best practice model takes a holistic approach, which includes consideration of whole ecosystems impacts, the well-being of fishing communities as well as the long-term socio- economic well-being of the Fishing Industry as its ultimate outcome. With the World Wildlife Fund [WWF] and the United Nations as its progenitors and the WWF as the specialist implementation partners globally, the EAF Management System carries gravitas and inherent credibility from successes that have already been achieved in a variety of other fishing territories. An Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries [EAF] is being adopted globally. This approach considers all marine organisms and the processes that inter-connect them. It recognises that alterations in any processes are difficult to recognise and even more difficult to restore, once disrupted. An EAF aims to: “balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries” (FAO 2003).[ World Wildlife Organisation. November 2011.] Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting
  61. 61. 50 Figure 24: Tracking Tool: EAF implementation in SA Fishing Industry Implementation of the EAF will however require that it is embedded within the very organisational structure of the SA Fishing Industry, which implies the redesign of the current organisational structure and system, so as to allow for change management and improvements, with the ultimate outcome of a long-term, sustainable resource and industry. Having studied a large range of theorems, methodologies, frameworks and tools, it was found that the Viable Systems Model [Flood, R.L. July 1991.], with specific reference to the Viable Systems Diagnostics tools that are built into this model, are most appropriate as a point of departure. The VSM and VSD aided with the confirmation of the diagnosis of the current system and structure and with a Phase 0 re-design of the SA Fishing Industry. In addition to the VSM, a range of other tools, methods and methodologies would be employed as part of the emergent process of adapting, improving, checking, adjusting, measuring, communicating, co-ordinating and rebuilding the SA Fishing Industry. At the heart of this emergent process, that is inherent in using the Viable Systems Model to re-design the structure of the SA Fishing Industry, would be the use of the Deming Wheel or Plan→Do→Study/Check→Act[ion] [ PDCA][ Scholtes, P.R. 1998.] to constantly improve upon the structural design and functional systems and their interactions. The control [System 2] and co-ordination systems [ System 3] [Beer, S. 1972.]will be specific areas of emphasis, so as to ensure that communication of any variances are dealt with as swiftly as possible and the system as a whole adjusted and adapted to deal with complexity, variety and variances. The more comprehensive first framing of the ANSWER is therefore expanded as: BY MOVING TO AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH FOR FISHERIES [EAF] MANAGEMENT which includes use of the VSM AND OTHER METHODOLOGIES, TOOLS AND METHODS TO REDESIGN THE SA FISHING INDUSTRY FROM A STRUCTURAL, SYSTEMS & ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Amanda Brinkmann Indigo Consulting

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