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DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY &
MICROBIOLOGY
SUBJECT- MICROBIOLOGY (Paper 3)
GUIDED BY :-
MAM CHITRANSHI KHANDELWAL
PRESENTED BY:-
ANKIT SHARMA
M.Sc 1st sem
LIFE CYCLE OF ASPERGILLUS &
PENICILLIUM
 Introduction
 History
 Classification
 Occurrence
 Mode of reproduction
 Economic value
 Conclusion
 Current research
 Reference
 Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred
mould species found in various climates worldwide.
 Aspergillum is an asexual spore-forming structure
common to all Aspergillus species; around one-
third of species are also known to have a sexual
stage.
 Penicillium is a genus of ascomycetous fungi that is
of major importance in the natural environment, in
food spoilage, and in food and drug production.
 Some members of the genus produce penicillin, a
molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or
stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria.
 Aspergillus :-
 1729- Michele noted
pattern of conidial head
of Aspergillus with
spore head of structure
resembling aspergillum.
 1809- link named
Aspergillus flavos
 1842- John hinges
Bennett described
aspergillosis
 1965- Raper & Fennel
reported 151 species.
18 groups
 Penicillium :-
 1928 – ALEXANDER
FLEMING Bread mold (
Penicillium notatum )
growing on petridish.
 1939 – FLOREY , Chain,
and Associates Began
work on isolating and
synthesizing large
amounts of penicillin.
 1941 – introduced in
antibacterial therapy
 1944 – penicillin has been
at the disposal of all
people
 Kingdom : Fungi
 Division : Ascomycota
 Sub division : Eumycotina
 Class : Eurotiomycetes
 Order : Eurotiale
 Family : Trichocomaceae
 Genus : Aspergillus
 Kingdom : Fungi
 Division : Ascomycota
 Class : Eurotiomycetes
 Order : Eurotiales
 Family :Trichocomaceae
 Genus : penicillium
 Aspergillus species are highly aerobic
 It is found in almost all oxygen-rich environments, where
they commonly grow as molds on the surface of a
substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension.
 There are 200 species of Aspergillus.
 Several species of Aspergillus, including A. niger and A.
fumigatus, will readily colonise buildings,favouring warm
and damp or humid areas such as bathrooms and around
window frames.
 Saprophytic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus are
among the best-known representatives of the Eurotiales
and live mainly on organic biodegradable substances.
 Penicillium species are present in the air and dust of
indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings.
MODE OF REPRODUCTION IN
ASPERGILLUS
Conidiophores :-
 Cells vigorously grow and
mycelium become thick walled.
 Thick walled t shaped cells called
foot cell.
 Each t cell produce erect branch
called conidiophores.
 Length of conidiophores is around
2.5mm.
 Swells at the tip and form globose
called vesicle.
 Lumen of vesicle is continuous
with upper part of conidiophores.
 From the surface of vesicle
tubular cells grows outwards
called stigmata or phialides.
 Phialides cover the whole surface
of vesicle.
 Sexual reproduction is rare.
 Female sex organ is called ascogonia or
archicarp.
 Male sex organ is called pollonidium or
anthridium
 Plasmogamy Fusion of ascogonium and
anthredium.
 Tip of anthredium fuse with trochogyne.
 Then intervening wall is dissolved.
 Content of anthredium pass into the
trochogyne.
 Here haplophase ends.
 Male nuclei pair with female nuclei.
 Each pair is called dikaryon and phase is
called dikaryophase.
 Diplophase Diploid nucleus undergoes three
successive division.
 1st and 2nd division are meiosis.
 3rd division is mitotic
 As a result 8 haploid daughter nuclei form.
 Each haploid nucleus is surrounded by
cytoplasm.
 Then formation of wall occur called
ascopores.
 So 8 ascospores are formed.
MODE OF REPRODUCTION IN
PENICILLIUM
 It takes place by formation of
conidia
 Conidia are produced on
special hyphae called
conidiophores
 The conidia are erect , brown
and broom like in fashion
 Each branch bears short
branch at its tip , called
metulae
 At each metula , there are
bottle shaped sterigmata
 Conidia are produced in
chains at these sterigmata
 Whole group of metulae and
sterigmata are called -
pencillus
 Each conidia is tiny, uninucleate, spore like
structure,
 May be globose and ovoid in shape
 The spore wall is pigmented and it is made
up of two layers
 The outer layer is thick, pigmented is called
exine
 The inner layer smooth, and thin called as
intine
 Inside the spore wall plasma membrane is
present , which encloses the mitochondria ,
ribosomes in embedded for
 It is the perfect state of Penicillium
 All the species are homothallic
 The sexual reproduction is oogamous
 Male sex organ is called antheridia
 Female sex organ is called ascogonia
 It’s a long , erect, multinucleate , tubular
structure , with curved upper end
 It arises from a uninucleate , septate hypha as
a finger – like lateral outgrowth which
elongates in to an ascogonium
 The nucleus of the ascogonium divides many
times mitotically to produce 32 to 64 nuclei.
 While the ascogonium is developing,
 A slender uninucleate branch originates from
a cell of the same hypha adjacent to the
developing ascogonium, or from neighboring
hypha.
 This is called antheridial branch
 It grows up and coils around the ascogonium
 The tip of the antheridial branch swells up
and cut off from rest of the branch to form a
uninucleate antheridium
 The tip of the antheridia comes into contact
with the wall of the ascogonium and the wall
of contact between the two dissolves to form
a pore
 The protoplast of the gametangia come in
contact with each other through this pore
 The antheridial and ascogonial nuclei arrange
themselves in pairs
 Each pair is called a dikaryon
 Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium
roqueforti are the molds on Camembert, Brie,
Roquefort, and many other cheeses.
 In addition to their importance in the food
industry, species of Penicillium and
Aspergillus serve in the production of a
number of biotechnologically produced
enzymes and other macromolecules, such as
gluconic, citric, and tartaric acids, as well as
several pectinases, lipase, amylases,
cellulases, and proteases.
 As an organism, fungi influence our life
knowingly or unknowingly.
 It proves to be beneficial as it helps in maintain
balance of the ecosystem by serving as an
integral component in the ecological recycling
 It contribute to the economy also
 However, the negative face of these organisms
should also be well understood, its ability to
spoil thing and cause disease to other organisms.
 Through proper understanding and management
few follies of the Fungi could be prevented and
made to good use.
 Aspergillus-specific antibodies - Targets and applications.
Schubert M, Spiegel H, Schillberg S, Nölke G.Biotechnol Adv.
2018 Jul-Aug;36(4):1167-1184. doi:
10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.016. Epub 2018 Mar
30.PMID: 29608951
 Azole resistance mechanisms in Aspergillus: update and recent
advances. Pérez-Cantero A, López-Fernández L, Guarro J, Capilla
J.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jan;55(1):105807. doi:
10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.09.011. Epub 2019 Sep
19.PMID: 31542320
 Penicillium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins Perrone G,
Susca A. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1542:107-119. doi:
10.1007/978-1-4939-670 PMID: 27924532
 The diversity and ecological roles of Penicillium in intertidal
zones.Park MS, Oh SY, Fong JJ, Houbraken J, Lim YW. Sci Rep.
2019 Sep 19;9(1):13540. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49966-
5.PMID: 31537866
 Ragland Annie, Kumaresan V., Arumugam N.
A textbook of botany volume-1, SaraS
publication
 Singh Dr. N. B. , Singh Dr. N.K. , textbook of
botany first year book, page no. 191.
LIFE CYCLE OF ASPERGILLUS & PENICILLIUM ppt

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LIFE CYCLE OF ASPERGILLUS & PENICILLIUM ppt

  • 1. DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY SUBJECT- MICROBIOLOGY (Paper 3) GUIDED BY :- MAM CHITRANSHI KHANDELWAL PRESENTED BY:- ANKIT SHARMA M.Sc 1st sem
  • 2. LIFE CYCLE OF ASPERGILLUS & PENICILLIUM
  • 3.  Introduction  History  Classification  Occurrence  Mode of reproduction  Economic value  Conclusion  Current research  Reference
  • 4.  Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mould species found in various climates worldwide.  Aspergillum is an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergillus species; around one- third of species are also known to have a sexual stage.  Penicillium is a genus of ascomycetous fungi that is of major importance in the natural environment, in food spoilage, and in food and drug production.  Some members of the genus produce penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria.
  • 5.  Aspergillus :-  1729- Michele noted pattern of conidial head of Aspergillus with spore head of structure resembling aspergillum.  1809- link named Aspergillus flavos  1842- John hinges Bennett described aspergillosis  1965- Raper & Fennel reported 151 species. 18 groups  Penicillium :-  1928 – ALEXANDER FLEMING Bread mold ( Penicillium notatum ) growing on petridish.  1939 – FLOREY , Chain, and Associates Began work on isolating and synthesizing large amounts of penicillin.  1941 – introduced in antibacterial therapy  1944 – penicillin has been at the disposal of all people
  • 6.  Kingdom : Fungi  Division : Ascomycota  Sub division : Eumycotina  Class : Eurotiomycetes  Order : Eurotiale  Family : Trichocomaceae  Genus : Aspergillus  Kingdom : Fungi  Division : Ascomycota  Class : Eurotiomycetes  Order : Eurotiales  Family :Trichocomaceae  Genus : penicillium
  • 7.  Aspergillus species are highly aerobic  It is found in almost all oxygen-rich environments, where they commonly grow as molds on the surface of a substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension.  There are 200 species of Aspergillus.  Several species of Aspergillus, including A. niger and A. fumigatus, will readily colonise buildings,favouring warm and damp or humid areas such as bathrooms and around window frames.  Saprophytic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus are among the best-known representatives of the Eurotiales and live mainly on organic biodegradable substances.  Penicillium species are present in the air and dust of indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings.
  • 8. MODE OF REPRODUCTION IN ASPERGILLUS
  • 9. Conidiophores :-  Cells vigorously grow and mycelium become thick walled.  Thick walled t shaped cells called foot cell.  Each t cell produce erect branch called conidiophores.  Length of conidiophores is around 2.5mm.  Swells at the tip and form globose called vesicle.  Lumen of vesicle is continuous with upper part of conidiophores.  From the surface of vesicle tubular cells grows outwards called stigmata or phialides.  Phialides cover the whole surface of vesicle.
  • 10.
  • 11.  Sexual reproduction is rare.  Female sex organ is called ascogonia or archicarp.  Male sex organ is called pollonidium or anthridium
  • 12.
  • 13.  Plasmogamy Fusion of ascogonium and anthredium.  Tip of anthredium fuse with trochogyne.  Then intervening wall is dissolved.  Content of anthredium pass into the trochogyne.  Here haplophase ends.  Male nuclei pair with female nuclei.  Each pair is called dikaryon and phase is called dikaryophase.
  • 14.  Diplophase Diploid nucleus undergoes three successive division.  1st and 2nd division are meiosis.  3rd division is mitotic  As a result 8 haploid daughter nuclei form.  Each haploid nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm.  Then formation of wall occur called ascopores.  So 8 ascospores are formed.
  • 15. MODE OF REPRODUCTION IN PENICILLIUM
  • 16.  It takes place by formation of conidia  Conidia are produced on special hyphae called conidiophores  The conidia are erect , brown and broom like in fashion  Each branch bears short branch at its tip , called metulae  At each metula , there are bottle shaped sterigmata  Conidia are produced in chains at these sterigmata  Whole group of metulae and sterigmata are called - pencillus
  • 17.  Each conidia is tiny, uninucleate, spore like structure,  May be globose and ovoid in shape  The spore wall is pigmented and it is made up of two layers  The outer layer is thick, pigmented is called exine  The inner layer smooth, and thin called as intine  Inside the spore wall plasma membrane is present , which encloses the mitochondria , ribosomes in embedded for
  • 18.  It is the perfect state of Penicillium  All the species are homothallic  The sexual reproduction is oogamous  Male sex organ is called antheridia  Female sex organ is called ascogonia
  • 19.  It’s a long , erect, multinucleate , tubular structure , with curved upper end  It arises from a uninucleate , septate hypha as a finger – like lateral outgrowth which elongates in to an ascogonium  The nucleus of the ascogonium divides many times mitotically to produce 32 to 64 nuclei.
  • 20.  While the ascogonium is developing,  A slender uninucleate branch originates from a cell of the same hypha adjacent to the developing ascogonium, or from neighboring hypha.  This is called antheridial branch  It grows up and coils around the ascogonium  The tip of the antheridial branch swells up and cut off from rest of the branch to form a uninucleate antheridium
  • 21.
  • 22.  The tip of the antheridia comes into contact with the wall of the ascogonium and the wall of contact between the two dissolves to form a pore  The protoplast of the gametangia come in contact with each other through this pore  The antheridial and ascogonial nuclei arrange themselves in pairs  Each pair is called a dikaryon
  • 23.  Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti are the molds on Camembert, Brie, Roquefort, and many other cheeses.  In addition to their importance in the food industry, species of Penicillium and Aspergillus serve in the production of a number of biotechnologically produced enzymes and other macromolecules, such as gluconic, citric, and tartaric acids, as well as several pectinases, lipase, amylases, cellulases, and proteases.
  • 24.  As an organism, fungi influence our life knowingly or unknowingly.  It proves to be beneficial as it helps in maintain balance of the ecosystem by serving as an integral component in the ecological recycling  It contribute to the economy also  However, the negative face of these organisms should also be well understood, its ability to spoil thing and cause disease to other organisms.  Through proper understanding and management few follies of the Fungi could be prevented and made to good use.
  • 25.  Aspergillus-specific antibodies - Targets and applications. Schubert M, Spiegel H, Schillberg S, Nölke G.Biotechnol Adv. 2018 Jul-Aug;36(4):1167-1184. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.016. Epub 2018 Mar 30.PMID: 29608951  Azole resistance mechanisms in Aspergillus: update and recent advances. Pérez-Cantero A, López-Fernández L, Guarro J, Capilla J.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Jan;55(1):105807. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.09.011. Epub 2019 Sep 19.PMID: 31542320  Penicillium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins Perrone G, Susca A. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1542:107-119. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-670 PMID: 27924532  The diversity and ecological roles of Penicillium in intertidal zones.Park MS, Oh SY, Fong JJ, Houbraken J, Lim YW. Sci Rep. 2019 Sep 19;9(1):13540. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49966- 5.PMID: 31537866
  • 26.  Ragland Annie, Kumaresan V., Arumugam N. A textbook of botany volume-1, SaraS publication  Singh Dr. N. B. , Singh Dr. N.K. , textbook of botany first year book, page no. 191.