Result of one and only person: Mao Zedong More and more inequality“The CR was to provide a revolutionary commitment of anolder generation of party officials.” (MacFarqhar, p. 234) Political crisis“The greatest danger to a successful socialist revolution is notthe threat of attacks from abroad, but rather the restoration ofcapitalism at home” (MacFarqhar, p. 154)
Necessity to intervene to restore the social order First phase: 3 steps in 3,5 years Mao‟s power base: PLA Radical intellectuals Mass base
Red Guards Eradicate „the Four Olds‟“The RG took the streets looking for evidence of bourgeoisculture” (MacFarqhar, p. 182)Chairman Mao teaches us that revolution is not like going todinner […]. We can‟t be so tasteful and rafined. Revolution iswhen one class overthrow another. Let‟s overhrow thisreactionary superstition!” (Gao,Yuan p. 91-92) Consequence: factionalism
16/05/1966 circular: a major escalation of Mao‟s drive against revisionism“the movement began with utopian rhetoric about“overthrowing” bureaucracy and establishing direct democracyalong the lines of the paris commune” (MacFarqhar, p. 221) January revolution 1967: the overthrow of the party committees 3 in 1 combination: 3 networks establishing new revolutionary committees
Reconstruction of political system: much more important role played by military officers“purification of the ranks” of party members, expelling thosewho had been shown to be revisionist, and absorbing “freshblood” from the activists of the CR. (MacFarqhar, p. 224)“education serving proletarian politics and education beingcombined with productive labour, so as to enable thosereceiving an education to develop morraly, intellectually andphysically and to become labourers with social consciousnessand culture.” (Cheng & Letz, p. 429)
Limited impact on agricultural and industrial production Factionalism until the eighties Crisis amoung the young people
Why did Mao launch the Cultural Revolution ? What are the goals of the radicals intellectuals in the Cultural Revolution ? What are the consequences of the worker- peasant system on the rural population ? Why the bourgeoisie‟s youth had been the most active during the Red Guards „s movement ? How Mao did mobilize the mass base ? What was the role of the mass in the Centrale Case Examination Group ? What was the international reaction?