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What is Ayurveda

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Discovering Ayurveda Medical System..

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What is Ayurveda

  1. 1. AYURVEDAAYURVEDA Dr. Amali DayanandaDr. Amali Dayananda B.A.M.S (Hons)B.A.M.S (Hons)
  2. 2. (01) What is Ayurveda?(01) What is Ayurveda?  It isIt is the Science of lifethe Science of life ;; thethe ‘‘knowledge of longevityknowledge of longevity ’;’; ‘the‘the Science of Natural & Holistic HealingScience of Natural & Holistic Healing ’.’.  It is way to healthy & long life.It is way to healthy & long life.  It is an ancient art of medicine.It is an ancient art of medicine.  It is more than a system of herbal medicine.It is more than a system of herbal medicine.  Ayurvedic medicine is a system ofAyurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicinetraditional medicine  native to native to the the Indian subcontinentIndian subcontinent  In Western medicine, Ayurveda is classified as a systemIn Western medicine, Ayurveda is classified as a system of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that is used toof complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that is used to complement, rather than replace, the treatment regimen andcomplement, rather than replace, the treatment regimen and relationship that exists between a patient and their existingrelationship that exists between a patient and their existing physicianphysician  It is a vast medical science; it is not an alternative medicine.It is a vast medical science; it is not an alternative medicine.
  3. 3.  It is believed to be the only complete medical system in the world.It is believed to be the only complete medical system in the world.  It was developed 5000 years ago , in India by the spiritual elite.It was developed 5000 years ago , in India by the spiritual elite.  It is one of the oldest forms of Medical science known to man.It is one of the oldest forms of Medical science known to man.  It will be a major component of the future global science ofIt will be a major component of the future global science of medicine.medicine.  It is a fully developed Medicinal art with a number of unique &It is a fully developed Medicinal art with a number of unique & exclusive medicinal therapies & surgical procedures for the variousexclusive medicinal therapies & surgical procedures for the various ailments & diseases.ailments & diseases.  Evolving throughout its history, Ayurveda remains an influentialEvolving throughout its history, Ayurveda remains an influential system of medicine in South Asia & It is a living practice in Indiasystem of medicine in South Asia & It is a living practice in India and Sri Lanka.and Sri Lanka.  Over the following centuries, Ayurvedic practitioners developed aOver the following centuries, Ayurvedic practitioners developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for thenumber of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments and diseases.treatment of various ailments and diseases.
  4. 4. (02) What does the word Ayurveda means?(02) What does the word Ayurveda means? The word ‘The word ‘Ayurveda’Ayurveda’ is derived of two Sanskrit words.is derived of two Sanskrit words. ‘‘ AYUHAYUH’ /’ / āyusāyus + ‘+ ‘VEDAVEDA’’ (the life/ longevity ) (knowledge of science)(the life/ longevity ) (knowledge of science) The science of lifeThe science of life
  5. 5. (03) ‘Ayuh’(03) ‘Ayuh’ ShareeraShareera (Body)(Body) Atma Ayuh indriyaAtma Ayuh indriya (soul) (The Life) (Sensor)(soul) (The Life) (Sensor) SatvaSatva (Mind)(Mind)
  6. 6. (04) Aims of Ayurveda(04) Aims of Ayurveda 1. The promotion of Positive health1. The promotion of Positive health It helps individuals to strength their immune system.It helps individuals to strength their immune system. 2. The cure for the diseases.2. The cure for the diseases. It treats the symptoms of a diseases.It treats the symptoms of a diseases. Ayurveda focuses more on healthy living than treatment of diseaseAyurveda focuses more on healthy living than treatment of disease Immune system ok No disesese : + ve healthImmune system ok No disesese : + ve health Immune system not ok disease : -ve healthImmune system not ok disease : -ve health Ayurveda treats : Body , Mind, soul, sensor (person as a whole)Ayurveda treats : Body , Mind, soul, sensor (person as a whole) It works on the basis that the mind body (effect each other)It works on the basis that the mind body (effect each other) (Mind + Body together can overcome disease(Mind + Body together can overcome disease
  7. 7. (05) Origin & Background of Ayurveda(05) Origin & Background of Ayurveda  Start from theStart from the Vedic periodVedic period (time of the holy books)(time of the holy books) aboutabout 50005000 years ago inyears ago in IndiaIndia..  Before the advent of writing the ancient wisdom of this healing systemBefore the advent of writing the ancient wisdom of this healing system was a part of the spiritual traditionwas a part of the spiritual tradition  The knowledge of Ayurveda is believed to be of Divine origin and wasThe knowledge of Ayurveda is believed to be of Divine origin and was communicated to the saints and sages of India who received itscommunicated to the saints and sages of India who received its wisdom through deep meditation.wisdom through deep meditation.  The hymns, the mantras & medical information contained in theThe hymns, the mantras & medical information contained in the VedasVedas were contribution of Rishis, Munis, sages who devoted theirwere contribution of Rishis, Munis, sages who devoted their life to understanding the world.life to understanding the world.  The native land of Aryans covers large area surrounding theThe native land of Aryans covers large area surrounding the HimalayasHimalayas & is believed to be the place where the Rishis & Munis& is believed to be the place where the Rishis & Munis lived.lived.  Originally only Brahmins were considered as physicians. But laterOriginally only Brahmins were considered as physicians. But later people from other castes also learned this art of healing and a specificpeople from other castes also learned this art of healing and a specific termterm VaidyaVaidya was used for these practitioners.was used for these practitioners.
  8. 8. (06) Ancient Hindu(06) Ancient Hindu Mythological origins of AyurvedaMythological origins of Ayurveda  In India, knowledge is considered sacred since it is believed to have emanatedIn India, knowledge is considered sacred since it is believed to have emanated from the gods. According to Hindu mythology, the harmony of the universe isfrom the gods. According to Hindu mythology, the harmony of the universe is maintained by the Trimurtis :maintained by the Trimurtis : Brahma the CreatorBrahma the Creator Vishnu the PreserverVishnu the Preserver Siva the DestroyerSiva the Destroyer  At the time of creation, Ayurveda is believed to have originated as a ray ofAt the time of creation, Ayurveda is believed to have originated as a ray of enlightenment in the cosmic consciousness ofenlightenment in the cosmic consciousness of BrahmaBrahma.. This self-existent creator composed Ayurveda as a branch of Atharva Veda.This self-existent creator composed Ayurveda as a branch of Atharva Veda. Consisting of aConsisting of a hundred thousand verses in a thousand chaptershundred thousand verses in a thousand chapters,, it was dividedit was divided by him intoby him into eight sectionseight sections or parts, according toor parts, according to SusruthaSusrutha the ancient surgeon.the ancient surgeon.  Brahma is believed to have imparted the knowledge of Ayurveda to his discipleBrahma is believed to have imparted the knowledge of Ayurveda to his disciple Daksha Prajapati,Daksha Prajapati, who passed it on to thewho passed it on to the AswinsAswins,, the twin gods, who in turnthe twin gods, who in turn conferred it onconferred it on IndraIndra,, the king of the gods.the king of the gods.  While all this happened in the heavens, humanity continued to be plagued byWhile all this happened in the heavens, humanity continued to be plagued by pains and illnesses. Great seers meditated upon remedies for the numerouspains and illnesses. Great seers meditated upon remedies for the numerous human maladies but in vain. It was decided that the eminenthuman maladies but in vain. It was decided that the eminent sage Dhanwantarisage Dhanwantari,, reincarnated asreincarnated as DivodasaDivodasa,, and theand the sages Bharadwajasages Bharadwaja andand KashyapaKashyapa be deputedbe deputed to go to heaven to learn the divine science of healing directly fromto go to heaven to learn the divine science of healing directly from IndraIndra..  That, according to legend, was how Ayurveda descended from the skies toThat, according to legend, was how Ayurveda descended from the skies to alleviate suffering on the mortal plane.alleviate suffering on the mortal plane.
  9. 9. According to the another legend; When diseases and death started creating havoc, all great sages gathered in order to find solution to this havoc In Himalaya -creating problem (sage conference). One of the sage from Sri Lanka name Sage Pulasti also represented this conference. During this meeting sage Bharadvaja came forward to learn this art of healing from Indra. Bharadvaja then taught this science to Athreya- who further transmitted this knowledge throughout world through his six disciples. Later Agnivesha who was foremost among the disciples of Athreya wrote Agnivesha Sanhita- the most comprehensive form of Ayurveda. (The oldest compilations of Athreya and Agnivesha are lost).
  10. 10.  Divodasa DhanwantariDivodasa Dhanwantari and his disciples specialized in Shalyaand his disciples specialized in Shalya chikitsa (surgery) and formed the school of surgery. His importantchikitsa (surgery) and formed the school of surgery. His important students includedstudents included Sushruta, Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhadra,Sushruta, Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhadra, Pushkalavata, Nimi, Kara, Karaveerya, Gopurarakshita, Bhoja,Pushkalavata, Nimi, Kara, Karaveerya, Gopurarakshita, Bhoja, Kankayana, Galava and Gargava.Kankayana, Galava and Gargava.  Punarvasu ArtreyaPunarvasu Artreya , who was the disciple of, who was the disciple of BharadwajaBharadwaja hadhad seven pupils -seven pupils -Agnivesa, Charaka, Bhela, Jatukarna, Parasara,Agnivesa, Charaka, Bhela, Jatukarna, Parasara, Hareeta and Ksharapaani.Hareeta and Ksharapaani. They were called the Artreya School ofThey were called the Artreya School of physicians and specialized in Kaya chikitsa (general medicine).physicians and specialized in Kaya chikitsa (general medicine).  TheThe KashyapaKashyapa School specialized in Kumarabhrutya (paediatrics).School specialized in Kumarabhrutya (paediatrics). Foremost among Kashyapa's students wasForemost among Kashyapa's students was Vruddha (the elder)Vruddha (the elder) JeevakaJeevaka who wrote Kashyapa Samhita. His other disciples werewho wrote Kashyapa Samhita. His other disciples were Vasishta, Atri, Bhrigu, Jeevaka, Parvataka and BandhakaVasishta, Atri, Bhrigu, Jeevaka, Parvataka and Bandhaka
  11. 11. (07) Ayurvedic Genealogy(07) Ayurvedic Genealogy LORD BRAHMA – CREATORLORD BRAHMA – CREATOR DAKSHAPRAJAPATIDAKSHAPRAJAPATI ASHWINI KUMARASASHWINI KUMARAS INDRAINDRA BHARADWAJABHARADWAJA ((800-600BC)800-600BC) ATREYAATREYA ((Athreya Sanhita)Athreya Sanhita) DHANAVANTRIDHANAVANTRI (School of Physicians)(School of Physicians) ((school of Surgeonsschool of Surgeons) (900-600BC) (900-600BC)) AGNIVESHAAGNIVESHA SUSHRUTHASUSHRUTHA BC 800-400BC 800-400 (Agnivesha Samhitha)(Agnivesha Samhitha) ((Sushruta Samhita)Sushruta Samhita) CharakaCharaka ADI00ADI00 (Charaka Sanhita)(Charaka Sanhita)
  12. 12. There are three main re-organizers of Ayurveda whose works were compiled in texts. These works are Charaka, Susrutha and Vaghbata Sanhita still exist and in use. Charaka was the first man who based his Sanhita on Agnivesha Sanhita and enlarged it with his interpretations and annotations. It is called Charaka Sanhita. Vaghbata compiled the third treatise called Ashtanga Hridaya that is a concise version of both the works of Charaka Sanhita and Susrutha Sanhita. (These texts still contain the original and complete knowledge of the Ayurvedic world of medicine.) (08)(08) VruddhatrayaVruddhatraya
  13. 13. (09) 4 Vedas/ Vedic Books(09) 4 Vedas/ Vedic Books 1.1. Rig/ RIkRig/ RIk 2.2. SamanSaman 3.3. YajurYajur 4.4. AtharvanAtharvan Contents of Vedas:Contents of Vedas:  HealthHealth  AstrologyAstrology  Spiritual BusinessSpiritual Business  Government/ politicsGovernment/ politics  ArmyArmy  PoetryPoetry  Spiritual livingSpiritual living  BehaviorBehavior The Vedic sages took the passage from the VedicThe Vedic sages took the passage from the Vedic scriptures relating to Ayurveda & compiled separatescriptures relating to Ayurveda & compiled separate books dealing only with Ayurveda.books dealing only with Ayurveda.
  14. 14. (10) Rik Veda(10) Rik Veda  Oldest surviving book of any Indo- European language (3000B.C.)Oldest surviving book of any Indo- European language (3000B.C.)  Rik Veda refers as cosmology known as Sankya Philosophy, which liesRik Veda refers as cosmology known as Sankya Philosophy, which lies at the base of both Ayurveda & yoga.at the base of both Ayurveda & yoga.  Contents:Contents:  Nature of healthNature of health  Nature of diseasesNature of diseases  PathogenesisPathogenesis  Principle of treatmentPrinciple of treatment  Discussions of Three Dosha ConceptDiscussions of Three Dosha Concept  Uses of herbs to heal the diseasesUses of herbs to heal the diseases  Foster longevityFoster longevity Ex.Ex.  Saina Chikitsa (Treatments of the Army)Saina Chikitsa (Treatments of the Army)  The doctors of Gods (Ashvini Kumara) performed many surgeries & bodyThe doctors of Gods (Ashvini Kumara) performed many surgeries & body implantsimplants  The steel legs in place of broken legs of Vishaka, the daughter of king Ravel.The steel legs in place of broken legs of Vishaka, the daughter of king Ravel.  Implantation of a horse’s mouth in place of Dadichi’s head.Implantation of a horse’s mouth in place of Dadichi’s head.
  15. 15. (11) Atharva Veda (1500B.C.)(11) Atharva Veda (1500B.C.)  Contains hymns about treatment & principles of healing of variousContains hymns about treatment & principles of healing of various diseases & ailments.diseases & ailments.  Lists the 8 divisions of Ayurveda.Lists the 8 divisions of Ayurveda. Kaaya-chikitsa – (Internal Medicine)Kaaya-chikitsa – (Internal Medicine) Shalakya – (Diseases above the Clavicle; Surgery of Head andShalakya – (Diseases above the Clavicle; Surgery of Head and Neck, Opthamology & OtorinolaryngologyNeck, Opthamology & Otorinolaryngology Shalya-Chikitsa – (Surgery)Shalya-Chikitsa – (Surgery) Agada tantra – (Toxicology)Agada tantra – (Toxicology) Bhuta Vidya – (Psychiatry)Bhuta Vidya – (Psychiatry) Kaumarabhrtya – (Pediatrics)Kaumarabhrtya – (Pediatrics) Rasayana - (Gerontology or Science of Rejuvenation)Rasayana - (Gerontology or Science of Rejuvenation) Vajikarana – (Science of Fertility)Vajikarana – (Science of Fertility)
  16. 16. (12) MANUSCRIPT PAGE(12) MANUSCRIPT PAGE FROM ATHARVAVEDA TUBINGENFROM ATHARVAVEDA TUBINGEN
  17. 17. (13) Two principle Ayurvedic schools(13) Two principle Ayurvedic schools  Around 1500 BC, various authors took AyurvedicAround 1500 BC, various authors took Ayurvedic passages from the four scriptures and createdpassages from the four scriptures and created Ayurvedic texts for eight specific branches ofAyurvedic texts for eight specific branches of medicine.medicine.  It divided intoIt divided into two principle Ayurvedictwo principle Ayurvedic schoolsschools:: ATREYAATREYA DHANVANTARIDHANVANTARI (The School of Physicians)(The School of Physicians) (The School of(The School of Surgeons)Surgeons) These two schools transformed Ayurveda from aThese two schools transformed Ayurveda from a primarily religious discipline to a scientific medicalprimarily religious discipline to a scientific medical system. This made Ayurveda a more systematicallysystem. This made Ayurveda a more systematically classified medical science, hereafter.classified medical science, hereafter.
  18. 18. (14) DHANVANTARI(14) DHANVANTARI The state of the art of ancient healing was enhanced by the myths and legendsThe state of the art of ancient healing was enhanced by the myths and legends of the, Divodosa Dhanvantariof the, Divodosa Dhanvantari  Dhanvantari, who is considered to be a reincarnation of Lord Vishnu, wasDhanvantari, who is considered to be a reincarnation of Lord Vishnu, was the guiding sage of Ayurveda. He made this science of health and longevitythe guiding sage of Ayurveda. He made this science of health and longevity popular and widely acceptable through experimentation and research.popular and widely acceptable through experimentation and research. Sage Dhanvantari is considered the father of this branch of medicine, almostSage Dhanvantari is considered the father of this branch of medicine, almost considered the God of Indian Medicine/ God of healing / Hindu system ofconsidered the God of Indian Medicine/ God of healing / Hindu system of medicine and well being. It is believed that Dhanvantari, who later wrotemedicine and well being. It is believed that Dhanvantari, who later wrote down the text of Ayurveda, taught the science of medicine to the sagesdown the text of Ayurveda, taught the science of medicine to the sages His birthday two days before the festival of Deepavali is celebrated asHis birthday two days before the festival of Deepavali is celebrated as Dhanvantari -diwasDhanvantari -diwas  An incarnation of Vishnu emerged from the Milky-Ocean at the end of theAn incarnation of Vishnu emerged from the Milky-Ocean at the end of the churning by the devas (Gods) and the asuras (DEMONS) during a tug ofchurning by the devas (Gods) and the asuras (DEMONS) during a tug of war.war.  A Description of Dhanvantari reads as follows:A Description of Dhanvantari reads as follows: "Armed with conch, discus, leach and the golden pot of 'Amrita'-Elixir of"Armed with conch, discus, leach and the golden pot of 'Amrita'-Elixir of Immortality, clad in yellow silk garment, An exquisitely textured cloth aroundImmortality, clad in yellow silk garment, An exquisitely textured cloth around the coiffure, with eyes as dark as the rain-cloud, Who annihilates diseasethe coiffure, with eyes as dark as the rain-cloud, Who annihilates disease and suffering, like the raging forest fire, Which totally consumes the forest".and suffering, like the raging forest fire, Which totally consumes the forest".
  19. 19. (16) Charaka Sanhita(16) Charaka Sanhita  CHARAKACHARAKA ( ADI00 ), The great sage - physician of the( ADI00 ), The great sage - physician of the AthreyaAthreya schoolschool, authored , authored Charaka Sanhita Charaka Sanhita  revising and supplementingrevising and supplementing the text written bythe text written by AthreyaAthreya  Charaka was the first man who based his Sanhita onCharaka was the first man who based his Sanhita on AgniveshaAgnivesha SanhitaSanhita (BC 600) and enlarged it with his interpretations and(BC 600) and enlarged it with his interpretations and annotations.annotations. which has remained the most referred Ayurvedic textwhich has remained the most referred Ayurvedic text on internal medicine till date.on internal medicine till date.  All of the treaties available, Charaka Sanhita is considered the best.All of the treaties available, Charaka Sanhita is considered the best. It consists the details about the elements of Ayurvedic therapeuticsIt consists the details about the elements of Ayurvedic therapeutics and is also the only work that covers Ayurveda comprehensively.and is also the only work that covers Ayurveda comprehensively.
  20. 20. (17) Charaka Acharya compiled(17) Charaka Acharya compiled information oninformation on  Diagnosis and prevention of disease,Diagnosis and prevention of disease,  Internal and external causes of illness, etiologyInternal and external causes of illness, etiology  Herbal prescriptions and medicinal plants and their usage forHerbal prescriptions and medicinal plants and their usage for treatment of ailmentstreatment of ailments  anatomy. physiology,anatomy. physiology,  He stated that all disease - physical, mental and spiritual - isHe stated that all disease - physical, mental and spiritual - is fundamentally caused by a separation from Divine Oneness.fundamentally caused by a separation from Divine Oneness.  He also gave strikingly detailed descriptions of human fetalHe also gave strikingly detailed descriptions of human fetal development month-by month.development month-by month.    pathogenesis and symptoms of diseases.pathogenesis and symptoms of diseases.
  21. 21. (18) SUSHRUTA SANHITA(18) SUSHRUTA SANHITA SUSHRUTASUSHRUTA, who is, who is known as the father ofknown as the father of surgery from thesurgery from the Dhanvantari school,Dhanvantari school, down his life’s teachingsdown his life’s teachings about various surgeries– inabout various surgeries– in his treatise calledhis treatise called Sushruta SanhitaSushruta Sanhita (BC(BC 800-400).800-400). TEACHING INITIALLY BY WORD OF MOUTH –- THEREFORE THE TIME OFTEACHING INITIALLY BY WORD OF MOUTH –- THEREFORE THE TIME OF ORIGIN IS STILL CONTROVERSIAL.ORIGIN IS STILL CONTROVERSIAL. Revised byRevised by NAGARJUNA (2nd – 4NAGARJUNA (2nd – 4thth century BC)century BC) KITAB-I-SUSRURD (8KITAB-I-SUSRURD (8thth Century AD)Century AD)
  22. 22. (19) SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA INCORPORATES IN IT ALL(19) SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA INCORPORATES IN IT ALL THE CLASSICAL 8 LIMBS OF AYURVEDA.THE CLASSICAL 8 LIMBS OF AYURVEDA.  SALYA -SALYA - (MAJOR SURGERY)(MAJOR SURGERY)  SALKYA -SALKYA - (SUPRACLAVICLE SURGERY)(SUPRACLAVICLE SURGERY)  KAYACIKITSA -KAYACIKITSA - (MEDICINE)(MEDICINE)  BHUTAVIDYA -BHUTAVIDYA - (DEMONOLOGY)(DEMONOLOGY)  KUMARABHRTYA -KUMARABHRTYA - (PAEDIATRICS & OBSTETRICS)(PAEDIATRICS & OBSTETRICS)  AGADATANTRA -AGADATANTRA - (TOXICOLOGY)(TOXICOLOGY)  RASAYANATANTRA -RASAYANATANTRA - (STUDY OF ELIXIRS)(STUDY OF ELIXIRS)  VAGIKARNATANTRA -VAGIKARNATANTRA - (SCIENCE OF FERTILITY,(SCIENCE OF FERTILITY, VIRILITY)VIRILITY)
  23. 23. (20) SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA(20) SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA VRADDHA SUSHRUTHAVRADDHA SUSHRUTHA 120 Chapters120 Chapters  SUTRA STHANASUTRA STHANA Fundamental principlesFundamental principles  NIDANANIDANA EtiologyEtiology  SARIRA STHANASARIRA STHANA Anatomy and PhysiologyAnatomy and Physiology  CIKITSA STHANACIKITSA STHANA TherapeuticsTherapeutics  KALPA STHANAKALPA STHANA ToxicologyToxicology Other notable chapters are onOther notable chapters are on # training and attributes of a surgeon# training and attributes of a surgeon # surgical instruments# surgical instruments # dreams# dreams
  24. 24. (21) Rare mention about the Brain?(21) Rare mention about the Brain? --SARIRA STHANASARIRA STHANA  In the fifth month the fetus is endowed with the mind andIn the fifth month the fetus is endowed with the mind and wakes up from the sleep of his subconscious existence.wakes up from the sleep of his subconscious existence.  In the sixth month cognition (Buddhi) comes in.In the sixth month cognition (Buddhi) comes in.  In the seventh month all the limbs and members of itsIn the seventh month all the limbs and members of its body are markedly developed.body are markedly developed.  SANUKA says that probably the head of the fetus is theSANUKA says that probably the head of the fetus is the first developed since head is the only organ that makesfirst developed since head is the only organ that makes the functions of all other organs possible.the functions of all other organs possible.
  25. 25. (22) SHIROROGA --- Disorders of the Head VATAVYADHI --- Disorders of “Vayu” MODERN COMPARISION AKSHEPAKA C0NVULSIONS PAKSHAVADHA HEMIPLEGIA ARDITA TOTAL PARALYSIS DANDA PATANKA ?PARKINSONS MANYA STAMBHA STIFF NECK JIHAVASTAMBHA PARALYSIS OF TONGUE GRIDHARASI SCIATICA MURCHA FAINTING DHANUSH STAMBHA TETANUS APASMARA EPILEPSY UNMADA MADNESS
  26. 26. SUSHRUTHASUSHRUTHA CONSIDEREDCONSIDERED THETHE HEADHEAD AS THE CENTERAS THE CENTER OF ALL SPECIAL SENSES,OF ALL SPECIAL SENSES, AND DESCRIBES CERTAINAND DESCRIBES CERTAIN CRANIAL NERVESCRANIAL NERVES CONNECTED WITH SPECIFICCONNECTED WITH SPECIFIC SENSORY FUNCTIONS.SENSORY FUNCTIONS.  two nerves lower down at thetwo nerves lower down at the back of ear (vidhura) which if cutback of ear (vidhura) which if cut produceproduce deafnessdeafness..  a pair of nerves inside the twoa pair of nerves inside the two nostrils which if cut causenostrils which if cut cause AnsoniaAnsonia..  a pair of nerves below the end ofa pair of nerves below the end of the eyebrow which if cut causesthe eyebrow which if cut causes blindnessblindness.. “Ten nerves maintain the functions of the body by carrying impulses of sound, touch, vision, taste, smell, respiration, sighing, yawning, hunger, laughing, speech, and crying…” “A pair of nerve each responds to sound, touch, vision, taste, & smell.”
  27. 27. (24) Sushrutha Acharya classified(24) Sushrutha Acharya classified  functions of organs,functions of organs,  nerves and joints,nerves and joints,  catalogued various kinds of wounds andcatalogued various kinds of wounds and  details and discussions of various surgeries,details and discussions of various surgeries,  prosthetic surgery to replace limbs,prosthetic surgery to replace limbs,  cosmetic surgery /plastic surgery,cosmetic surgery /plastic surgery,  cataract operations,cataract operations,  caesarian operationscaesarian operations  brain surgery.brain surgery.  He is famed for his innovation of cosmetic surgery on nose or rhinoplastyHe is famed for his innovation of cosmetic surgery on nose or rhinoplasty  burns, fractures, wounds and amputationburns, fractures, wounds and amputation  described sophisticated surgical equipment used in technical procedures.described sophisticated surgical equipment used in technical procedures.  His text also includes the first mention of the science of massage usingHis text also includes the first mention of the science of massage using MARMA points, (massage of vital body points/ vital nerve intersections likeMARMA points, (massage of vital body points/ vital nerve intersections like those used in Chinese acupuncture.)those used in Chinese acupuncture.)  Susrutha divided 1120 diseases into natural and supernatural.Susrutha divided 1120 diseases into natural and supernatural.  He taught palpation and auscultation of heart, lungs, and womb; andHe taught palpation and auscultation of heart, lungs, and womb; and advocated the use of special senses.advocated the use of special senses.  He was the pioneer of most teaching techniques in experimental andHe was the pioneer of most teaching techniques in experimental and clinical surgeryclinical surgery..
  28. 28. (25) SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS DESCRIBED IN(25) SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS DESCRIBED IN SUSRUTHA SANHITASUSRUTHA SANHITA
  29. 29. SUSHRUTA SANHITASUSHRUTA SANHITA:: MARMA POINTSMARMA POINTS
  30. 30. (28) SUSHRUTA SANHITA:(28) SUSHRUTA SANHITA: COSMETIC SURGERY ONCOSMETIC SURGERY ON NOSE(RHINOPLASTY)NOSE(RHINOPLASTY)
  31. 31. (29) SUSHRUTA SAMHITA(29) SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : CATARACT SURGERY: CATARACT SURGERY Cataract in human eye magnified view seen onCataract in human eye magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery wasexamination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery was known to the physician known to the physician SusruthaSusrutha in the first millennium in the first millennium BC, and was performed with a special tool calledBC, and was performed with a special tool called the the jabamukhi salakajabamukhi salaka , a curved needle used to loosen, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision.the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter andThe eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandagedthen bandaged..
  32. 32. (30) SUSHRUTHA(30) SUSHRUTHA-- Learning methods of SurgeryLearning methods of Surgery
  33. 33. (31) SUSRUTHA(31) SUSRUTHA,, Performing an artificial ear lobePerforming an artificial ear lobe
  34. 34. (36) Conclusion(36) Conclusion  To Sushrutha, belongs the honor ofTo Sushrutha, belongs the honor of being called “the FATHER OF SURGERY”being called “the FATHER OF SURGERY” and the ‘PATRON OF A SURGEON INand the ‘PATRON OF A SURGEON IN TRAINING’,TRAINING’, as he was the first before all to emphasizeas he was the first before all to emphasize on practical training in experimental andon practical training in experimental and clinical surgery.clinical surgery.
  35. 35. (37) Other texts…….(37) Other texts…….    VAGHBAT ( AD700 ) compiled the third major treatise onVAGHBAT ( AD700 ) compiled the third major treatise on Ayurveda, Ayurveda, Ashtanga HridayaAshtanga Hridaya .. It contained knowledge comprising the twoIt contained knowledge comprising the two schools of Ayurveda.schools of Ayurveda.  From 500 AD to 1900 AD, sixteen majorFrom 500 AD to 1900 AD, sixteen major  NighantusNighantus   ( supplementary texts)( supplementary texts) on Ayurveda like Dhanvantarion Ayurveda like Dhanvantari BhavaprakashaBhavaprakasha , Raja and Shaligram, Raja and Shaligram among others were written incorporating new drugs, expansion inamong others were written incorporating new drugs, expansion in applications, discarding of old drugs and identification of substitutes.applications, discarding of old drugs and identification of substitutes.  These texts mention about 1814 varieties of plants in vogue.These texts mention about 1814 varieties of plants in vogue.  The Egyptians learnt about Ayurveda long before the invasion of AlexanderThe Egyptians learnt about Ayurveda long before the invasion of Alexander in the 4th century BC through their sea-trade with India.in the 4th century BC through their sea-trade with India.  Greeks and Romans come to know about it after the famous invasion.Greeks and Romans come to know about it after the famous invasion.  The The Unani Unani form of medical tradition came out of this interaction    form of medical tradition came out of this interaction    
  36. 36. Archaeological history of Sri Lanka harks back to at least 30,000 B.C The country has its own indigenous system of medicine which has been practiced for many centuries. Ayurvedic tradition of Sri Lanka is a mixture of the • Ayurveda and Siddha systems of India, • Unani medicine from the Arabs, and most importantly, • Desheeya Chikitsa, which is the indigenous medicine of Sri Lanka (39) THE HISTORY OF AYURVEDIC PRACTICE IN SRI LANKA Historically the Ayurvedic physicians enjoyed a noble position in the country's social hierarchy due to their royal patronage. From this legacy stems a well-known Sri Lankan saying: "If you can not be a king, become a healer." Along with Buddhism, the interrelationship between Ayurveda and royalty continues to influence politics in Sri Lanka.
  37. 37.  Sri Lanka developed its own Ayurvedic system based on a series ofSri Lanka developed its own Ayurvedic system based on a series of prescriptions handed down from generation to generation over a period ofprescriptions handed down from generation to generation over a period of 3,000 years. Buddhism influenced the advent of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka in3,000 years. Buddhism influenced the advent of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka in thethe 3rd century BC3rd century BC. The ancient Kings of Sri Lanka who were also. The ancient Kings of Sri Lanka who were also prominent physicians, sustained its survival and longevity & theyprominent physicians, sustained its survival and longevity & they contributed to the development of Ayurveda.contributed to the development of Ayurveda. e.g.e.g.  King BuddhadasaKing Buddhadasa (398 AD) was an eminent Ayurvedic physician himself(398 AD) was an eminent Ayurvedic physician himself and was famed for treating soldiers, horses and elephants wroteand was famed for treating soldiers, horses and elephants wrote the the Sarartha SangrahayaSarartha Sangrahaya, a comprehensive manuscript which Sri Lankan, a comprehensive manuscript which Sri Lankan physicians still use today for referencephysicians still use today for reference  King PandukabayaKing Pandukabaya set up Ayurveda hospitals in Ritigala.set up Ayurveda hospitals in Ritigala.  King KasyappaKing Kasyappa constructed Ayurveda hospitals in Anuradhapura.constructed Ayurveda hospitals in Anuradhapura.  King ParakramabahuKing Parakramabahu constructed irrigation works and the Royal Hospital.constructed irrigation works and the Royal Hospital. Even to day the ruins of Ayurveda hospitals and medicinal troughs (9thEven to day the ruins of Ayurveda hospitals and medicinal troughs (9th century BC) known ascentury BC) known as 'Beheth Oruwa'Beheth Oruwa' can be seen' can be seen MihintaleMihintale..
  38. 38. Ancient inscriptions on rock surfaces reveal that organized medical servicesAncient inscriptions on rock surfaces reveal that organized medical services have existed within the country for centuries. In fact, Sri Lanka claims to behave existed within the country for centuries. In fact, Sri Lanka claims to be the first country in the world to have established dedicated hospitalsthe first country in the world to have established dedicated hospitals The Sri Lankan mountain Mihintale still has the ruins of what many believe to be the first hospital in the world. Old hospital sites now attract tourists, who marvel at the beautiful ruins. These places have come to symbolize a traditional sense of healing and care, which was so prevalent at that time.
  39. 39. (42) Indigenous wisdom of Sri Lanka written on ola leaves
  40. 40. (42) Eight(42) Eight Divisions of AyurvedaDivisions of Ayurveda (Ashtanga Ayurveda)(Ashtanga Ayurveda)  Ayurveda, being a vast science is divided into eight branches,Ayurveda, being a vast science is divided into eight branches, which are collectively called as Ashtanga Ayurveda.which are collectively called as Ashtanga Ayurveda.  Like any other modern medicinal therapies, Ayurveda believesLike any other modern medicinal therapies, Ayurveda believes in specialized treatment for different body parts.in specialized treatment for different body parts.  Thus, the medicinal art have been categorized under branchesThus, the medicinal art have been categorized under branches that deal with psychiatry, internal medicine, treatment of eyes,that deal with psychiatry, internal medicine, treatment of eyes, ears, nose, throat and head, toxicology and gerentorologyears, nose, throat and head, toxicology and gerentorology separately.separately.  Ayurveda is the first ever medicine system to categorizeAyurveda is the first ever medicine system to categorize pediatrics, aphrodisiacs and surgery as the branches of anypediatrics, aphrodisiacs and surgery as the branches of any medicinal science.medicinal science.  
  41. 41. (43) Eight(43) Eight Divisions of Ayurveda (AshtangaDivisions of Ayurveda (Ashtanga Ayurveda)Ayurveda) There are two main traditions in Ayurveda.There are two main traditions in Ayurveda. Kaya Chikitsa Shalya ChikitsaKaya Chikitsa Shalya Chikitsa (Internal Medicine) (Surgery)(Internal Medicine) (Surgery) Eight divisions of AyurvedaEight divisions of Ayurveda (Ashtanga Ayurveda):(Ashtanga Ayurveda): 1.Kaaya Chikithsa – Internal Medicine1.Kaaya Chikithsa – Internal Medicine 2.Shalya Chikithsa – Surgery Medicine2.Shalya Chikithsa – Surgery Medicine 3.Shalakya Tantra –E.N.T. & Eye3.Shalakya Tantra –E.N.T. & Eye 4.Kaumara Brutya -Pediatrics, Gynecology, Obstetrics4.Kaumara Brutya -Pediatrics, Gynecology, Obstetrics 5.Bhuta Vidya – Psychiatry, Astrology5.Bhuta Vidya – Psychiatry, Astrology 6.Agada Tantra – Toxicology6.Agada Tantra – Toxicology 7.Rasayana Tantra – Rejuvenation Treatment/ Gerentorology7.Rasayana Tantra – Rejuvenation Treatment/ Gerentorology 8.Vajikarana Tantra – Vitiation Theory/ Aphrodisiacs8.Vajikarana Tantra – Vitiation Theory/ Aphrodisiacs
  42. 42. ATREYAATREYA DHANAVANTRIDHANAVANTRI (School of Physicians) (school of Surgeons)(School of Physicians) (school of Surgeons) & 7 other subjects & 7 other subjects& 7 other subjects & 7 other subjects kaya Chikithsa/ Internal Medicine Shalya Chikitsa/ surgery
  43. 43. (45) KAYA CHIKITHSA(45) KAYA CHIKITHSA (Internal Medicine/ General medicine)(Internal Medicine/ General medicine) The word Kaya means body. Another meaning of Kaya is Agni (internal fire). Therefore, Kaya Chikitsa means the management of the disorders of internal fire as well as the body. Defining the scope of Kaya Chikitsa, Susrutha states that the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of the disease such as Jwara (fever), Raktapitta (Bleeding dyscrasias, Hemophilia, etc.)   Shosha (phthisis), Unmada (mania), Apasmara (epilepsy), Kustha (skin disorders) Prameha (urinary disorders), Atisara (diarrhea) etc, occurring in the whole of the body, is Kaya Chikitsa. The specialties of general medicine, pathology, cardiology, neurology, etc are also included in Kaya Chikitsa
  44. 44. (46) SHALYA CHIKITHSA (SURGERY(46) SHALYA CHIKITHSA (SURGERY MEDICINE)MEDICINE) The word Shalya means everything that bothers the psyche and / or soma. While defining Shalya Tanta Susrutha (Su. 1/8) states that Shalya Tantra − surgery − is the branch of Ayurveda which employs •Yantra (blunt surgical instruments and tools) •Shastra (sharp surgical instruments) •Kshara (caustic bio chemical substances), •Agni (cauterization) To extract various types of foreign bodies such as:  grass,  wooden splinters,  stones,  minute particles,  metal pieces,  lumps,  bones,  hairs,  nails,  pus,  exudate,  abnormal foetus, etc.  as well as the study of Vrna (traumatic wounds including inflammation). Shalya Tantra incorporates the specialty of surgery
  45. 45. (47) SHALAKYA TANTRA(47) SHALAKYA TANTRA (Diseases of Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat)(Diseases of Eye, Ear, Nose & Throat) The term Shalakya is derived from the term Shalakya, which means a lancet or probe, implying that the branch of Ayurveda employing the usage of lancet and probe for the management of disease is Shalakya Tantra. In a true sense, though, the scope of Shalakya Tantra is much more than this. Shalakya Tantra deals with the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and treatment of diseases that are located above the neck region such as the head, ear, nose, eye and throat. It is responsible for all types of problems in and around the head. According to Susrutha, Shalakya Tantra encompasses the management of the clavicle bone. The specialties of ENT and ophthalmology are included in Shalakya Tantra.
  46. 46. (48) KAUMARA BRUTHYA(48) KAUMARA BRUTHYA (Pediatrics , Gynecology, Obstetrics)(Pediatrics , Gynecology, Obstetrics) The literal meaning of the word Kaumarabhritya is theThe literal meaning of the word Kaumarabhritya is the Nurturing of Kumara (Child) but in fact comprises muchNurturing of Kumara (Child) but in fact comprises much more.more. According to Sushruta,According to Sushruta, Kaumarabhritya is that branch of Ayurveda which deals withKaumarabhritya is that branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of Nurturing of Kumara, rectifying thethe management of Nurturing of Kumara, rectifying the problems of the mother’s breast milk – Dhatri, as well asproblems of the mother’s breast milk – Dhatri, as well as other diseases of infancy and childhood.other diseases of infancy and childhood. Subsequently, the Kumara Bhritya branch has come toSubsequently, the Kumara Bhritya branch has come to encompass specialties of gynecology and obstetrics together withencompass specialties of gynecology and obstetrics together with pediatrics.pediatrics.
  47. 47. (49) BHUTA VIDYA(49) BHUTA VIDYA (Psychiatry, Astrology)(Psychiatry, Astrology) The word Bhuta means that which came into existence, but over the yearsThe word Bhuta means that which came into existence, but over the years the word has been used in connection with ghosts and other supernaturalthe word has been used in connection with ghosts and other supernatural beings.beings. Sushruta also states that Bbhuta Vidya is - the branch of Ayurveda whichSushruta also states that Bbhuta Vidya is - the branch of Ayurveda which advocates the use of Shanti karma (appeasement rituals), Bali (sacrifice),advocates the use of Shanti karma (appeasement rituals), Bali (sacrifice), etc. to rectify the problems arising out of the harmful influence ofetc. to rectify the problems arising out of the harmful influence of supernatural entities.supernatural entities. While discussing the manner of influence of these supernatural entities,While discussing the manner of influence of these supernatural entities, Sushruta, further states that these entities do not themselves enter into aSushruta, further states that these entities do not themselves enter into a person but rather, innumerable followers of the particular entity enter theperson but rather, innumerable followers of the particular entity enter the body of a person and accordingly produce signs and symptoms.body of a person and accordingly produce signs and symptoms. This discussion brings into sharp focus, the school of thought which equatesThis discussion brings into sharp focus, the school of thought which equates the concept of Bhuta with that of mental disorders. Thus the specialty ofthe concept of Bhuta with that of mental disorders. Thus the specialty of psychiatry is included under Bhuta Vidya.psychiatry is included under Bhuta Vidya.
  48. 48. (50) AGADA TANTRA (Toxicology)(50) AGADA TANTRA (Toxicology) In general the word ‘In general the word ‘GadaGada’ means disease,’ means disease, thereby implying that ‘thereby implying that ‘A-gadaA-gada’ means without disease,’ means without disease, but in particular the word ‘but in particular the word ‘Agad’Agad’ stands for ‘Anti-poison’.stands for ‘Anti-poison’. Sushruta defines:Sushruta defines: Agada TantraAgada Tantra as the branch of Ayurveda which dealsas the branch of Ayurveda which deals withwith the management of disorders arising out of thethe management of disorders arising out of the  bites from snakes,bites from snakes,  insects, spiders,insects, spiders,  rats andrats and  other vermin,other vermin,  as well as the effects of various venoms and poisons.as well as the effects of various venoms and poisons. Agada Tantra incorporates the specialty of toxicology.Agada Tantra incorporates the specialty of toxicology.
  49. 49. (51) RASAYANA CHIKITHSA(51) RASAYANA CHIKITHSA (rejuvenation treatment/ gerentorology)(rejuvenation treatment/ gerentorology) Rasayana Chikitsa is the branch of Ayurvedic science, which deals withRasayana Chikitsa is the branch of Ayurvedic science, which deals with various aspects of preventive health care. This branch of Ashtangvarious aspects of preventive health care. This branch of Ashtang Ayurveda aims at achieving a long and healthy life. It includes longevity,Ayurveda aims at achieving a long and healthy life. It includes longevity, improved memory, health,,improved memory, health,, Chakra defines Rasayana as the measures adopted to achieve the bestChakra defines Rasayana as the measures adopted to achieve the best quality of Dhatus (body tissues).quality of Dhatus (body tissues). Sushruta defines Rasayana Tantra as that branch of Ayurveda which dealsSushruta defines Rasayana Tantra as that branch of Ayurveda which deals with the measures to check the effects of aging as well as to increase lifewith the measures to check the effects of aging as well as to increase life span, youthfulness, glow, complexion, generosity, strength of body andspan, youthfulness, glow, complexion, generosity, strength of body and senses and memory.senses and memory. In the process, there may also be results in the improvement of diseases.In the process, there may also be results in the improvement of diseases. Rasayana Tantra, therefore, is a specialty essentially dealing with theRasayana Tantra, therefore, is a specialty essentially dealing with the management of the phenomena of aging (Geriatrics)management of the phenomena of aging (Geriatrics)
  50. 50. (52) VAJIKARANA TANTRA(52) VAJIKARANA TANTRA (Vitiation Theory/ Aphrodisiacs/ sexology )(Vitiation Theory/ Aphrodisiacs/ sexology ) The literal meaning of the word ‘Vaji’ is stallion, thereby implying that Vajikarana means the process of metamorphosis of an ordinary man into a stallion − especially in terms of his sexual power. According to Sushruta – Vajikarana Tantra is that branch of Ayurveda which deals with the management of the various disorders of Retas (semen). Broadly speaking, Vajikarana Tantra incorporates the specialty of Andrology and Sexology. The art of producing healthy progeny for the creation of a better society. It deals with various diseases like infertility and conditions relating to weak shukra dhatu or the vital reproductive fluids of the body. which means the medicine or therapy by which a man becomes capable of copulating with a woman
  51. 51. PART 2PART 2 FUNDAMENTALS OFFUNDAMENTALS OF AYURVEDAAYURVEDA
  52. 52. THE FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS INTHE FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS IN AYURVEDAAYURVEDA (PANCHA MAHA BHUTA)(PANCHA MAHA BHUTA) According to ancient Vedic scientific thinking, All the matter in theAccording to ancient Vedic scientific thinking, All the matter in the universe is composed of five basic elements. They are known asuniverse is composed of five basic elements. They are known as ‘Pancha Maha Bhuta’. Hence the human body as well as the food‘Pancha Maha Bhuta’. Hence the human body as well as the food and drugs are also made out of these five basic elements.and drugs are also made out of these five basic elements.
  53. 53. THE FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS INTHE FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS IN AYURVEDAAYURVEDA (PANCHA MAHA BHUTA)(PANCHA MAHA BHUTA)  Pritvi -Pritvi -EarthEarth – Solid– Solid  Aap –Aap – WaterWater – Liquid– Liquid  Tejas –Tejas – FireFire – Heat & Light– Heat & Light  Vaayu –Vaayu – AirAir – Motion– Motion  Akasha –Akasha – SpaceSpace – Sound– Sound
  54. 54. The properties and functions of the Basic Elements (Mahabhutas)      AkashaAkasha(Ether)(Ether)                                                                                                VayuVayu (Air)(Air)                                                                                                                         TejaTeja (fire) (fire)                                                                                                            JalaJala (Water)(Water)                                                                                            PrithviPrithvi (Earth)(Earth)                                                       PropertiesProperties Light,  Minute, Light,  Minute,  Clear,  Soft  & Clear,  Soft  &  InactiveInactive Light, Rough, Light, Rough,  Minute & ClearMinute & Clear Light,  Rough, Light,  Rough,  Minute,  Clear  & Minute,  Clear  &  SharpSharp Heavy,  Fluid, Heavy,  Fluid,  Slimy,  Soft  & Slimy,  Soft  &  inactiveinactive Heavy,  Rough, Heavy,  Rough,  Firm,  Hard  & Firm,  Hard  &  inactiveinactive Relation  with Relation  with  senses/sense senses/sense  organsorgans SoundSound (Ear)(Ear)                  TouchTouch (Skin)(Skin) VisionVision (Eye)(Eye) TasteTaste (Tongue)(Tongue) SmellSmell (Nose)(Nose) Relation  with Relation  with  BodyBody Body Cavities & Body Cavities &  passagespassages Body  Cavities, Body  Cavities,  all  movements all  movements  &  pulsation  in &  pulsation  in  the bodythe body Whole  body  is Whole  body  is  concernedconcerned Body fluidsBody fluids Body organsBody organs Taste Taste  responsibleresponsible Not anyNot any Predominantly, Predominantly,  astringent, astringent,  slightly bitterslightly bitter Predominantly, Predominantly,  pungent, pungent,  slightly sour & slightly sour &  saltysalty Predominantly Predominantly  sweet,  slightly, sweet,  slightly,  astringent, salty astringent, salty  & sour& sour Predom-inantly Predom-inantly  sweet,  slightly sweet,  slightly  astringentastringent
  55. 55. PritviPritvi EarthEarth – Solid– Solid Earth represents the solid state of matter in theEarth represents the solid state of matter in the planet. It symbolizes stability, permanence andplanet. It symbolizes stability, permanence and rigidity. The human body consists of bones,rigidity. The human body consists of bones, teeth, cells and tissues, as the manifestations ofteeth, cells and tissues, as the manifestations of the earth. Earth is regarded as a stablethe earth. Earth is regarded as a stable substance. Talking about human being, stabilitysubstance. Talking about human being, stability is the prerequisite for leading a healthy life,is the prerequisite for leading a healthy life, which is focused by Ayurveda.which is focused by Ayurveda.  
  56. 56. AapAap WaterWater – Liquid– Liquid The liquid state is represented by water, another elementThe liquid state is represented by water, another element of Ayurveda. Water is the prerequisite for the survival ofof Ayurveda. Water is the prerequisite for the survival of living creatures, including humankind.living creatures, including humankind. About 70% of human body is made up of water, the veryAbout 70% of human body is made up of water, the very important liquid that is required for smooth functioning. Inimportant liquid that is required for smooth functioning. In addition to water, fluids including our blood and lymphaddition to water, fluids including our blood and lymph move between our cells and through our vessels,move between our cells and through our vessels, thereby providing us the energy required. The bodythereby providing us the energy required. The body temperature is also regulated. Water is a form withouttemperature is also regulated. Water is a form without stability.stability.
  57. 57. TejasTejas FireFire – Heat & Light– Heat & Light In order to convert solids into liquids, to gas andIn order to convert solids into liquids, to gas and back again to the original state, a certainback again to the original state, a certain amount of power is required, which is providedamount of power is required, which is provided by fire.by fire. Fire has the power to change the state of anyFire has the power to change the state of any substance.substance. In human body, fire is present in the form ofIn human body, fire is present in the form of energy that binds atoms together, converts foodenergy that binds atoms together, converts food to fat and muscle.to fat and muscle. In addition, fire creates impulses of nervousIn addition, fire creates impulses of nervous reactions and even our thought process. reactions and even our thought process. 
  58. 58. VaayuVaayu AirAir – Motion– Motion One of the forms of the Pancha Maha Bhuta - air - isOne of the forms of the Pancha Maha Bhuta - air - is mobile and dynamic.mobile and dynamic. Within the human body, air is present in the form ofWithin the human body, air is present in the form of oxygen, which is the basis for all energy transferoxygen, which is the basis for all energy transfer reactions.reactions. Existent without form, air is the prerequisite for fire toExistent without form, air is the prerequisite for fire to burn.burn. Talking about the human body, air is indirectly required toTalking about the human body, air is indirectly required to produce energy, which is the basic requisite for one'sproduce energy, which is the basic requisite for one's survival.survival. Air is also the basic element of Ayurveda. Air is also the basic element of Ayurveda. 
  59. 59. The first element to come into existence, Akasha is  also the subtlest.  It is the most expansive and least dense, and though  it seems a vast expanse of nothingness and its  existence is a paradox of sorts, it is the matrix for all  the other elements.  Having evolved from the Sabda Tanmatra (sound), it  is capable of carrying sound energy.  The entire spectrum of vibration travels in the form  of waves through this medium.  Akasha Ether - space
  60. 60.  AapAap - water; creates the taste sensation (rasa), its sensory organ - water; creates the taste sensation (rasa), its sensory organ being the tonguebeing the tongue  ThejaTheja - fire; creates the visual impute of colour (rupa), its sensory - fire; creates the visual impute of colour (rupa), its sensory organ being the eyesorgan being the eyes  VayuVayu - air; creates the physical sensation of touch (Sparsha), its - air; creates the physical sensation of touch (Sparsha), its sensory organ being skinsensory organ being skin  PruthuviPruthuvi - earth; creates the sensation of smell and odour - earth; creates the sensation of smell and odour (gandha), its sensory organ being the nose(gandha), its sensory organ being the nose  AkashaAkasha - ether (space); creates the auditory sensation of sound - ether (space); creates the auditory sensation of sound (sharsda), its sensory organ being the ear(sharsda), its sensory organ being the ear.. 5 M.B. is the conceptual model that Ayurveda uses to understand the5 M.B. is the conceptual model that Ayurveda uses to understand the principles of nature’s functioning.principles of nature’s functioning. This theory serves as the foundation for all of Ayurveda’s diagnosticThis theory serves as the foundation for all of Ayurveda’s diagnostic and treatment.and treatment. The Ayurvedic physician is trained to successfully detect and treatThe Ayurvedic physician is trained to successfully detect and treat imbalances of these basic elements any where in human life.imbalances of these basic elements any where in human life.
  61. 61. According to Ayurveda, it is believed that the Pancha Maha bhutasAccording to Ayurveda, it is believed that the Pancha Maha bhutas should be balanced, which when disrupted, a number of naturalshould be balanced, which when disrupted, a number of natural calamities such ascalamities such as flood, cyclone and earthquakes occur.flood, cyclone and earthquakes occur. Ayurveda believes that every living creature in theAyurveda believes that every living creature in the universe is made up of the five elements, whichuniverse is made up of the five elements, which serve as the building blocks of life. Life doesn'tserve as the building blocks of life. Life doesn't exist without these five elements. This reveals thatexist without these five elements. This reveals that the ancient medicinal form of Ayurveda is closelythe ancient medicinal form of Ayurveda is closely related to Mother Naturerelated to Mother Nature
  62. 62. The five basic elements of the universeThe five basic elements of the universe
  63. 63. Basic FundamentalsBasic Fundamentals  According to Ayurveda, the human body isAccording to Ayurveda, the human body is composed of four basics-composed of four basics- DoshaDosha DhatuDhatu MalaMala AgniAgni  There is immense significance of all theseThere is immense significance of all these basics of the body in Ayurveda. These are alsobasics of the body in Ayurveda. These are also called thecalled the Moola Siddhanta (basic fundamentals)Moola Siddhanta (basic fundamentals) of Ayurveda Treatmentsof Ayurveda Treatments
  64. 64. Three Doshas in the Human BodyThree Doshas in the Human Body Biological application of Panchamahabhutas reflects in the form of. ‘Tri’ means three ‘Dosha’ represents to humor (bio-entity) Thus the word ‘Tridosha’ denotes to three humors i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kapha. These are said ‘Dosha’ because these have tendency to get vitiated and also to vitiate others. This bilateral tendency of Dosha is cause of health and diseases. State of balance of Dosha represents health while imbalance to the disease.   Every Dosha has definite place/location and functions in our body. All have their five types respectively. VataVata PittaPitta KaphaKapha
  65. 65. Panchabhautic constitutions of Dosha have definite patternPanchabhautic constitutions of Dosha have definite pattern  Akasha + Vayu = VATA= The principle of movement       Teja + Jala  = PITTA  = the principle of transformation  Jala + Prithvi       =  KAPHA  = The principle of stability
  66. 66. Location of the three DoshasLocation of the three Doshas    The verse from Charaka Sanhita willThe verse from Charaka Sanhita will explain the location of the Doshas  explain the location of the Doshas   ““The important sites of location of theseThe important sites of location of these three Doshas are as below;three Doshas are as below; Urinary bladder, rectum, waist, thighs,Urinary bladder, rectum, waist, thighs, legs, bones and colon are the sites oflegs, bones and colon are the sites of vatavata;; among them colon is the mostamong them colon is the most important site. important site.  Sweat, lymph, blood and small intestineSweat, lymph, blood and small intestine are the sites ofare the sites of pittapitta;; among them, small intestine is theamong them, small intestine is the most important site.most important site. Chest, head, neck, joint, stomach and fatChest, head, neck, joint, stomach and fat are the sites ofare the sites of kaphakapha; among them; among them chest is the most important site.”chest is the most important site.”        Caraka sustrasthana Chapter XX,Caraka sustrasthana Chapter XX, verse 8verse 8
  67. 67. Theses three Dosha have contradictory characters and so they are capable of maintaining equilibrium. Dosha of the body are of vital importance because they are responsible for coordinating and directing all the structures and substances of the body. This theory of Dosha, Dhatu, and Mala is the cornerstone of all its diagnostic and treatment modalities
  68. 68. Vata -Vata - 'The principle of Movement ''The principle of Movement '    Vata though not apparently dominant in physicalVata though not apparently dominant in physical structure very much dominant in the function and isstructure very much dominant in the function and is supposed to be the leader of the three Dosha.supposed to be the leader of the three Dosha.  VATAVATA governs all the motor and sensory function. Itgoverns all the motor and sensory function. It can be compared with nervous system. Vatacan be compared with nervous system. Vata  is theis the moving power or principle of movement in the humanmoving power or principle of movement in the human body.body.  In the external universe the wind is the principle of theIn the external universe the wind is the principle of the movement: but Vata should not be compared with themovement: but Vata should not be compared with the wind, as it is a kind of energy, which is an internal forcewind, as it is a kind of energy, which is an internal force
  69. 69. VataVata  Vata is light, minute, and rough, dry, clear and cold in nature.Vata is light, minute, and rough, dry, clear and cold in nature. It can’t be visualized due to its minute character, butIt can’t be visualized due to its minute character, but perceived only by observing their actions. perceived only by observing their actions.  Function:Function: 1. Responsible for all the movements of the body, even at1. Responsible for all the movements of the body, even at cellular level.cellular level. 2. Controls the metabolic processes. But due to its stimulating2. Controls the metabolic processes. But due to its stimulating action it increases the catabolic processes.action it increases the catabolic processes. 3. Controls the movements of other two doshas Pitta & Kapha.3. Controls the movements of other two doshas Pitta & Kapha. 4. Cell division.4. Cell division. 5. Stimulate all the sensory as well as motor centers.5. Stimulate all the sensory as well as motor centers. 6. Controls respiratory process.6. Controls respiratory process. 7. Responsible for normal functioning of the intellect.7. Responsible for normal functioning of the intellect. 8. Originator of zeal and joy.8. Originator of zeal and joy.
  70. 70. 5 Subtypes of Vata:5 Subtypes of Vata: typetype LocationsLocations ActionsActions 1.1. PranaPrana Mouth , Head, Ear,Mouth , Head, Ear, Tongue, Nose &Tongue, Nose & ChestChest Respiration, swallowing,Respiration, swallowing, sneezing, spitting etc.sneezing, spitting etc. 2.2. UdanaUdana Larynx, chest,Larynx, chest, umbilical regionumbilical region Speech, directing mentalSpeech, directing mental activities, physical strengthactivities, physical strength 3.3. SamanaSamana Stomach, duodenumStomach, duodenum Digestion, sweating etc.Digestion, sweating etc. 4.4. VyanaVyana Everywhere in theEverywhere in the bodybody Circulation in the body, closing ofCirculation in the body, closing of eyelids etc.eyelids etc. 5.5. ApanaApana Region of umbilicus,Region of umbilicus, colon, rectum,colon, rectum, bladder, penis, hipbladder, penis, hip joints and thighsjoints and thighs Defecation, micturation,Defecation, micturation, menstruation, seminal discharge,menstruation, seminal discharge, deliverydelivery
  71. 71. PITTA -PITTA - The principle of Transformation'The principle of Transformation'  PITTAPITTA governs all the digestion,governs all the digestion, metabolism and transforming processes. Itmetabolism and transforming processes. It can be compared with all hormones andcan be compared with all hormones and enzymes in the body.enzymes in the body.  The sun is the energy of conversionThe sun is the energy of conversion and is represented by fire: whenand is represented by fire: when anything comes in contact with heatanything comes in contact with heat it changes its appearance. Pitait changes its appearance. Pita Dosha inside the human body is saidDosha inside the human body is said to have this conversion power.to have this conversion power.
  72. 72. PittaPitta  Pitta is hot, light and clear. It moves upwards orPitta is hot, light and clear. It moves upwards or downwards depending upon dominancy of energydownwards depending upon dominancy of energy and water elements, respectively. and water elements, respectively.   FunctionFunction    1   Heat production.1   Heat production. 2   Increase appetite and thirst.2   Increase appetite and thirst. 3   Maintains color, complexion and luster of skin.3   Maintains color, complexion and luster of skin. 4   Maintains vision.4   Maintains vision. 5   Increases the catabolic processes.5   Increases the catabolic processes. 6   Improves the mental activities.6   Improves the mental activities. 7   Concerned with various emotions like joy, fear7   Concerned with various emotions like joy, fear anger and courage.anger and courage.
  73. 73. 5 Subtypes of pitta5 Subtypes of pitta SubtypesSubtypes LocationsLocations ActionsActions 1.1. PachakaPachaka Lower part ofLower part of stomachstomach small intestinesmall intestine DigestionDigestion 2.2. RanjakaRanjaka Liver, spleen,Liver, spleen, stomachstomach Formation of bloodFormation of blood 3.3. SadhakaSadhaka Heart / BrainHeart / Brain Effect on mental function –Effect on mental function – fear/ bravery, calmness /fear/ bravery, calmness / anger confusion / clarityanger confusion / clarity 4.4. AlochakaAlochaka EyeEye VisionVision 5.5. BhrajakaBhrajaka SkinSkin Temperature regulation,Temperature regulation, sweating, color andsweating, color and complexioncomplexion
  74. 74. KAPHA -KAPHA - TheThe principle of Stabilityprinciple of Stability     KAPHAKAPHA which is responsible for cohesionwhich is responsible for cohesion (adhesive power), static energy (strength),(adhesive power), static energy (strength), growth and liquefaction. It can be compared withgrowth and liquefaction. It can be compared with mucous system.mucous system.  Kapha is the force of attraction and helps toKapha is the force of attraction and helps to prevent the disintegration of the human body. Itprevent the disintegration of the human body. It has and is responsible for the formation andhas and is responsible for the formation and maintenance of the body and regulates itsmaintenance of the body and regulates its temperature.temperature.  The moon is responsible for cooling andThe moon is responsible for cooling and regulating the temperature around the universeregulating the temperature around the universe
  75. 75. KAPHAKAPHA  It is heavy, stable, smooth, soft, slimy, viscous and moist inIt is heavy, stable, smooth, soft, slimy, viscous and moist in nature. Due to its slimy, viscid and unctuous character it isnature. Due to its slimy, viscid and unctuous character it is responsible for giving compactness to the body. responsible for giving compactness to the body.  FunctionFunction 1.  Constitutes the main body mass.1.  Constitutes the main body mass. 2.  Responsible for strength, stability and firmness of the body.2.  Responsible for strength, stability and firmness of the body. 3.  Maintenance of body fluid.3.  Maintenance of body fluid. 4.  All the anabolic process including growth and development4.  All the anabolic process including growth and development of the body.of the body. 5.  Healing of wounds.5.  Healing of wounds. 6.  Fertility.6.  Fertility. 7.  Responsible for certain positive mental attitude zeal,7.  Responsible for certain positive mental attitude zeal, knowledge, memory, absence of greed and forgiveness.knowledge, memory, absence of greed and forgiveness. Negative mental qualities like ignorance, laziness, jealouslyNegative mental qualities like ignorance, laziness, jealously etc. are due to dominancy of Kapha.etc. are due to dominancy of Kapha.
  76. 76. 5 Subtypes of Kapha5 Subtypes of Kapha SubtypesSubtypes LocationsLocations ActionsActions 11 KledakaKledaka StomachStomach Moistens and lubricates foodMoistens and lubricates food to help in digestionto help in digestion 22 AvalambakaAvalambaka Chest (heart)Chest (heart) Circulation of bloodCirculation of blood 33 BodhakaBodhaka TongueTongue Perception of tastePerception of taste 44 TarpakaTarpaka Head (brain)Head (brain) Nourishment of senseNourishment of sense organsorgans 55 ShleshakaShleshaka jointsjoints LubricationLubrication
  77. 77. DoshasDoshas The entire body is inThe entire body is in fact the abode of all thefact the abode of all the three Doshas (vata,three Doshas (vata, pitta, kapha) and aspitta, kapha) and as such these Doshas bringsuch these Doshas bring about good and badabout good and bad results according asresults according as they are in normal andthey are in normal and abnormal statesabnormal states respectively. When in arespectively. When in a normal state, they bringnormal state, they bring about good results likeabout good results like growth, strength,growth, strength, complexion, happinesscomplexion, happiness etc. When, in anetc. When, in an abnormal state, theyabnormal state, they cause various types ofcause various types of diseases.  diseases.   Charaka Sanhita   Charaka Sanhita    Sustra sthanaSustra sthana Chapter XXChapter XX verse 8verse 8
  78. 78. Common factor responsible for imbalanced status of DoshasCommon factor responsible for imbalanced status of Doshas    In our day to day life, if we are deviating from naturalIn our day to day life, if we are deviating from natural pattern of living, we are likely to suffer from imbalancedpattern of living, we are likely to suffer from imbalanced state of Doshas. This makes the chance for us to fall illstate of Doshas. This makes the chance for us to fall ill      
  79. 79. Imbalance ofImbalance of VataVata.. Summer & monsoon seasons.Summer & monsoon seasons. Lack of sleepLack of sleep ExcessiveExcessive physicalphysical activityactivity Long hours of fastingLong hours of fasting StressStress
  80. 80. Imbalance of Pitta.Imbalance of Pitta.   (a) Consuming too much spicy or oily food.(a) Consuming too much spicy or oily food.
  81. 81. (b)      Late night dinner(b)      Late night dinner
  82. 82. (c) Excessive consumption of alcohol(c) Excessive consumption of alcohol
  83. 83. (d)   Tension or anxiety(d)   Tension or anxiety
  84. 84. Imbalance of KaphaImbalance of Kapha      Consumption ofConsumption of sweet in excesssweet in excess amount.amount.   ExcessiveExcessive intake ofintake of food rich infood rich in carbohydratecarbohydrate s and fatss and fats.. LessLess PhysicalPhysical activityactivity
  85. 85. The three vital principles of doshas are vata, pitta andThe three vital principles of doshas are vata, pitta and kapha, which together regulate and control the catabolickapha, which together regulate and control the catabolic and anabolic metabolism. The main function of the threeand anabolic metabolism. The main function of the three Doshas is to carry the byproduct of digested foodsDoshas is to carry the byproduct of digested foods throughout the body, which helps in building up the bodythroughout the body, which helps in building up the body tissues. Any malfunction in these doshas causes disease. tissues. Any malfunction in these doshas causes disease.  Doshas play a vital role in the basic foundation ofDoshas play a vital role in the basic foundation of Ayurveda. They are responsible for coordinating andAyurveda. They are responsible for coordinating and directing all the substances and structures of the body.directing all the substances and structures of the body. According to Ayurveda there are three vital principles,According to Ayurveda there are three vital principles, which regulate and control the biological functions of thewhich regulate and control the biological functions of the body.body.
  86. 86. The common origin of the universe and manThe common origin of the universe and man  The human body is also made of these five elements. Accordingly, theThe human body is also made of these five elements. Accordingly, the elements in the universe and the elements in the human body reveal aelements in the universe and the elements in the human body reveal a common origin. These common factors create a harmony between man andcommon origin. These common factors create a harmony between man and the universe and there is a co-relation between the universe and the humanthe universe and there is a co-relation between the universe and the human body. In the external universe there are three main causative factors - thebody. In the external universe there are three main causative factors - the sun, moon, and wind. In the human body there are three constituentsun, moon, and wind. In the human body there are three constituent elements - Vatha, Pitha and Kapha. There are similarities between theseelements - Vatha, Pitha and Kapha. There are similarities between these causative factors.causative factors.  Just as much as theJust as much as the sunsun,, thethe moonmoon,, and theand the windwind have achieved a sensehave achieved a sense of balance to maintain the universe,of balance to maintain the universe, VathaVatha,, PithaPitha andand KaphaKapha have to behave to be in correct balance to maintain the human body and well being of the humanin correct balance to maintain the human body and well being of the human body.body.  As universe and man have a common origin the activities in the universeAs universe and man have a common origin the activities in the universe also takes place inside the human being. In the same way that the Sun,also takes place inside the human being. In the same way that the Sun, Moon, and Wind maintain the world, Vatha, Pitha and Kapha sustains theMoon, and Wind maintain the world, Vatha, Pitha and Kapha sustains the body.body.
  87. 87. Seven Dhatu (tissue elements) in the human bodySeven Dhatu (tissue elements) in the human body The word “dhatu” comes from a Sanskrit word whichThe word “dhatu” comes from a Sanskrit word which means “that which enters into the formation of the body”.means “that which enters into the formation of the body”. Dhatu are basically the body tissues which are responsibleDhatu are basically the body tissues which are responsible for the functioning of the systems and organs and thefor the functioning of the systems and organs and the structure of the body. Each of the Dhatus is built out of astructure of the body. Each of the Dhatus is built out of a previous one and they develop on the nourishment thatprevious one and they develop on the nourishment that comes from the digestive system. (The nutrition of ourcomes from the digestive system. (The nutrition of our foods converts in to Seven Dhatus)foods converts in to Seven Dhatus) It helps in the growth and structure of mind.It helps in the growth and structure of mind. Dosha and Dhatus have relation with each other in healthDosha and Dhatus have relation with each other in health and disease. In pathogenesis of disease these both playand disease. In pathogenesis of disease these both play key role.key role.    Each dhatu consists of countless infinite smallEach dhatu consists of countless infinite small cells which are units of structure and functioncells which are units of structure and function
  88. 88. Blood tissueBlood tissue  Rasa (Plasma tissue element)Rasa (Plasma tissue element)  Rakta (Blood tissue element)Rakta (Blood tissue element)  Mansa (Muscles tissue element)Mansa (Muscles tissue element)  Medas (Fat tissue element)Medas (Fat tissue element)  Asti (Bone tissue element)Asti (Bone tissue element)  Majja (Bone marrow tissue element)Majja (Bone marrow tissue element)  Shukra (Reproductive tissue element)Shukra (Reproductive tissue element)
  89. 89. Rasa DhatuRasa Dhatu   This dhatu comprises of  fluids like chyle,This dhatu comprises of  fluids like chyle, blood plasma, extra cellular andblood plasma, extra cellular and transcellular fluid lymph. Its function istranscellular fluid lymph. Its function is nourishment. - Status of Rasa dhatu cannourishment. - Status of Rasa dhatu can be assessed by the condition of the skin.be assessed by the condition of the skin. Good  condition of Rasa dhatu isGood  condition of Rasa dhatu is demonstrated by smooth , soft anddemonstrated by smooth , soft and delicate skindelicate skin
  90. 90. Rakta  DhatuRakta  Dhatu   This is blood. Its function is invigoration.This is blood. Its function is invigoration. Appearance of mouth ,tongue, lips, palms,Appearance of mouth ,tongue, lips, palms, soles, nails is reddish and full of lusture.soles, nails is reddish and full of lusture. This indicate the wellness of Rakta dhatu.This indicate the wellness of Rakta dhatu.
  91. 91. Mamsa DhatuMamsa Dhatu     This is muscle tissue. Its function isThis is muscle tissue. Its function is holding the skeleton together. A personholding the skeleton together. A person who is having well developed muscles, hiswho is having well developed muscles, his Mamsa dhatu is well in order.Mamsa dhatu is well in order.
  92. 92. Meda DhatuMeda Dhatu This is fat/adipose tissue. Its function isThis is fat/adipose tissue. Its function is lubrication. Unctuousness in complexion islubrication. Unctuousness in complexion is the feature of normal Meda dhatuthe feature of normal Meda dhatu
  93. 93. Asthi DhatuAsthi Dhatu      This is bone tissue. It function is to provideThis is bone tissue. It function is to provide support.support. When Asthi dhatu is in order it makes theWhen Asthi dhatu is in order it makes the body strong and firmbody strong and firm
  94. 94.   Majja DhatuMajja Dhatu This is marrow inside the bone, brain andThis is marrow inside the bone, brain and spinal cord. It’s function is to fill the bonespinal cord. It’s function is to fill the bone joints.joints.
  95. 95. Shukra DhatuShukra Dhatu This is the male and female sexual fluids.This is the male and female sexual fluids. Its function is reproduction and productionIts function is reproduction and production of a fluid (of a fluid (ojasojas) which produces strength,) which produces strength, aura and controls the immunity. In normalaura and controls the immunity. In normal course shukra dhatu is indicated bycourse shukra dhatu is indicated by round, firm and even teeth, goodround, firm and even teeth, good complexion, voice and cheerfulness.complexion, voice and cheerfulness.
  96. 96. Three Main Mala (excretory substances)Three Main Mala (excretory substances) in the human bodyin the human body Mala means waste products or dirty.Mala means waste products or dirty. The human body produces three main waste products thatThe human body produces three main waste products that i.e.i.e. stool, urine and sweat.stool, urine and sweat. It is important that these waste products are expelled from the bodyIt is important that these waste products are expelled from the body regularly, or else they collect as toxins. They are actually by productsregularly, or else they collect as toxins. They are actually by products formed as a result of various physiological activities going on in theformed as a result of various physiological activities going on in the body.body. Purish (stool / Faeces)),Purish (stool / Faeces)), Mutra (urine)Mutra (urine) Sweda (sweatSweda (sweat ) are considered as main excretory product of the body.) are considered as main excretory product of the body. These are also known as Dushya as these tend to be influenced to causeThese are also known as Dushya as these tend to be influenced to cause pathology or disease by imbalanced doshas.pathology or disease by imbalanced doshas. It is third in the trinity of the body i.e. doshas and dhatu. Malas areIt is third in the trinity of the body i.e. doshas and dhatu. Malas are mainly the waste products of the body so their proper excretion from themainly the waste products of the body so their proper excretion from the body is essential to maintain the proper health of the individual. Therebody is essential to maintain the proper health of the individual. There are mainly two aspect of mala i.e. mala and kitta. Mala is about wasteare mainly two aspect of mala i.e. mala and kitta. Mala is about waste products of the body whereas kitta is all about the waste products ofproducts of the body whereas kitta is all about the waste products of Dhatu.Dhatu.
  97. 97.  While Dosha (While Dosha (three body humorsthree body humors) are the most important in) are the most important in the control of the physiological functioning of the body Dhatuthe control of the physiological functioning of the body Dhatu ((Tissue ElementsTissue Elements), Mala (), Mala (Excretory substancesExcretory substances), Agni (), Agni (thethe digestive powerdigestive power), Ojas (), Ojas (Immunological factorsImmunological factors) also play a) also play a vital role.vital role.  All these factors are important to maintain health. And theyAll these factors are important to maintain health. And they get disturbed or affected by various disease conditions. Theget disturbed or affected by various disease conditions. The Ayurvedic Doctors role is to restore the balance or theAyurvedic Doctors role is to restore the balance or the normalcy of these factors using foods, behavioral andnormalcy of these factors using foods, behavioral and medicament remedies which are mostly naturalmedicament remedies which are mostly natural..
  98. 98. What is Prakriti?What is Prakriti? The termThe term PrakrutiPrakruti is a Sanskrit word that literally means,is a Sanskrit word that literally means, ‘‘the science of nature,’ orthe science of nature,’ or ‘‘basic traitbasic trait’’ ,, 'nature','nature', 'creativity''creativity' the first creationthe first creation which determines the innate character,which determines the innate character, physical constitution or disposition of a personphysical constitution or disposition of a person The combination of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha which is present in the  individual at the time of conception is maintained throughout his lifetime Every person is born with a definite genetic constitution.  There are three major types of Prakriti vata, pitta, kapha and these reflect  predominance of that particular Dosha.   The body behaves according to the status of Dosha Prakriti. Different  persons can have different combination of Vata, Pitta and kapha as their  basic constitution . 
  99. 99. PrakritiPrakriti  That is why; two people react differently when exposedThat is why; two people react differently when exposed to a similar situation.to a similar situation. For example,For example, a person is born with Vata Prakriti and his or her diet isa person is born with Vata Prakriti and his or her diet is rich in Vata promoting substances then he or she is likelyrich in Vata promoting substances then he or she is likely to develop a problems like Constipation etc.to develop a problems like Constipation etc.  while the same diet is consumed by a person of Pittawhile the same diet is consumed by a person of Pitta constitution that will keep him or her in order.constitution that will keep him or her in order.  Thus, according to Ayurveda everyone is unique andThus, according to Ayurveda everyone is unique and each one of them has a distinct body constitution, whicheach one of them has a distinct body constitution, which is totally different from each other.is totally different from each other.  
  100. 100. PrakritiPrakriti There are seven possible Prakriti (constitution) types –There are seven possible Prakriti (constitution) types – a)a)  Vata PrakritiVata Prakriti b)b)  Pitta PrakritiPitta Prakriti c)c)  Kapha PrakritiKapha Prakriti d)d)  Vata – Pitta PrakritiVata – Pitta Prakriti e)e)  Vata – Kapha PrakritiVata – Kapha Prakriti f)f)    Pitta – Kapha PrakritiPitta – Kapha Prakriti g)g)    Tridosha PrakritiTridosha Prakriti These are only broad categories. But by variation inThese are only broad categories. But by variation in proportion it may be of innumerable types. We find thatproportion it may be of innumerable types. We find that most people around us have a dual personality.most people around us have a dual personality.
  101. 101. PrakritiPrakriti  One has to develop a good concept of Prakriti analysis,One has to develop a good concept of Prakriti analysis, without knowledge of one’s Prakriti, it is practicallywithout knowledge of one’s Prakriti, it is practically impossible to apply Ayurvedic fundamentals inimpossible to apply Ayurvedic fundamentals in prevention, promotion and cure of diseaseprevention, promotion and cure of disease  The Fundamental approach of treatment in Ayurveda isThe Fundamental approach of treatment in Ayurveda is individual. Diagnosis and treatment is focused on notindividual. Diagnosis and treatment is focused on not only on the symptoms or the disease but on theonly on the symptoms or the disease but on the individual as a whole.individual as a whole.  The diagnosis finds out the prakritiThe diagnosis finds out the prakriti (Body Constitution of(Body Constitution of thethe person), food, habits and behaviors underline theperson), food, habits and behaviors underline the disease , the causative factors of the disease, thedisease , the causative factors of the disease, the affected channels and organs, the affected Dosha,affected channels and organs, the affected Dosha, Dhatu, Mala and etc., the condition of the digestiveDhatu, Mala and etc., the condition of the digestive power, the presence of Ama (Indigested matter or toxicpower, the presence of Ama (Indigested matter or toxic substances), the condition of Ojas and etc.substances), the condition of Ojas and etc.
  102. 102. The diagnosis of the Body Constitution is a very important and vital point to decide on the treatment or to decide on the health promotion measures. There is some unique diagnosis methods used in Ayurveda with the other usual techniques It helps in deciding the ideal life style and therapeutic regimen for an individual. Depending on the predominance of a single Dosha, or different permutations and combinations, Prakriti could be of seven types out of which the three main types are vata, pitta and kapha whereas Vikriti has several types and can be determined only through thorough examinations
  103. 103. Meaning of VikritiMeaning of Vikriti  VikrutiVikruti is the discrepancy that makes our body different from a normal oris the discrepancy that makes our body different from a normal or healthy constitution.healthy constitution.  In simple terms, it is the abnormal or the diseased state. When the DoshasIn simple terms, it is the abnormal or the diseased state. When the Doshas of the body are not in perfect equilibrium, it can be termed as the stage ofof the body are not in perfect equilibrium, it can be termed as the stage of VikrutiVikruti..  Any kind of abnormality (Any kind of abnormality (VikrutiVikruti) in the body can lead to complications in the) in the body can lead to complications in the normal regulation of body functions and thus lead to any seriousnormal regulation of body functions and thus lead to any serious complication or disease.complication or disease.  For treatingFor treating VikrutiVikruti,, – reason or etiology of the disease,reason or etiology of the disease, – the state of Doshas,the state of Doshas, – the state of the dushyas (the dhatus that are vitiated by the dosha),the state of the dushyas (the dhatus that are vitiated by the dosha), – desha (habitat of the person anddesha (habitat of the person and – kala (seasonal time),kala (seasonal time), – bala (strength of the patient and disease) andbala (strength of the patient and disease) and – symptoms of the individual is determined.symptoms of the individual is determined.
  104. 104. Vikriti cont…Vikriti cont…  In Ayurveda, both Prakriti and Vikriti form aIn Ayurveda, both Prakriti and Vikriti form a significant part, the latter being more perused.significant part, the latter being more perused.  In simple words,In simple words, if a doctor is a particular of a person, then heif a doctor is a particular of a person, then he is treating the Vikriti of the person.is treating the Vikriti of the person. Treating a disease = treating the VikritiTreating a disease = treating the Vikriti  The science of life states that if the Doshas ofThe science of life states that if the Doshas of the body are not in equilibrium, then a personthe body are not in equilibrium, then a person suffers from any form of disease.suffers from any form of disease.
  105. 105. VattaVatta Vikriti Vikriti There are various factors responsible for increasing vataThere are various factors responsible for increasing vata::  Excessive intake of food like cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, sprouts, beans,Excessive intake of food like cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, sprouts, beans, dry fruits, mushrooms and raw foods.dry fruits, mushrooms and raw foods.  Travelling too much by any means of transportation.Travelling too much by any means of transportation.  Untimely sleeping hours or late nightsUntimely sleeping hours or late nights  Too much eating of junk food, frozen food and micro waved cookedToo much eating of junk food, frozen food and micro waved cooked  Exposure to sound pollutionExposure to sound pollution  Too much exposure to television and computers or any electric gadgetsToo much exposure to television and computers or any electric gadgets  Indulging more in sexual activitiesIndulging more in sexual activities  Excessive physical labor like sportsExcessive physical labor like sports  Taking too much medicinal, recreational and stimulating drugs.Taking too much medicinal, recreational and stimulating drugs. Symptoms: Symptoms caused by excess of vata in the body are:Symptoms: Symptoms caused by excess of vata in the body are:  Joint PainsJoint Pains  ConstipationConstipation  Dry SkinDry Skin  Loss of MemoryLoss of Memory  Palpitation insomniaPalpitation insomnia  Stiffness of musclesStiffness of muscles  Weight LossWeight Loss  MigraineMigraine  VertigoVertigo  TremorsTremors
  106. 106. Pitta VikritPitta Vikrit There are various factors responsible for increasing vata:There are various factors responsible for increasing vata:  Drinking too much tea, coffee, alcohol and excessive smokingDrinking too much tea, coffee, alcohol and excessive smoking increase pitta in the body.increase pitta in the body.  Eating of hot and spicy foodEating of hot and spicy food  Too intake of chillies, tomatoes, egg plant, spinach, and onions.Too intake of chillies, tomatoes, egg plant, spinach, and onions.  Exposure to sun and heat also increases pitta.Exposure to sun and heat also increases pitta. Symptoms: Some of the symptoms caused by excess of pitta in the body areSymptoms: Some of the symptoms caused by excess of pitta in the body are::  HyperacidityHyperacidity  Skin diseasesSkin diseases  Burning sensationBurning sensation  FeverFever  InfectionsInfections  Ulcers And Liver disordersUlcers And Liver disorders
  107. 107. KaphaKapha VikritiVikriti There are various factors responsible for increasing Kapha:There are various factors responsible for increasing Kapha:  Eating too much sugars, fats, oily and fried foods, iceEating too much sugars, fats, oily and fried foods, ice creams, meats, dairy products and nutscreams, meats, dairy products and nuts  Sleeping during day time and less of physical activitiesSleeping during day time and less of physical activities Symptoms: Some of the symptoms caused by excess of kapha in the body are:Symptoms: Some of the symptoms caused by excess of kapha in the body are:  AsthmaAsthma  Cough and coldCough and cold  Congestion in the chestCongestion in the chest  AnorexiaAnorexia  ObesityObesity
  108. 108. Concept of Agni, AmaConcept of Agni, Ama  The other important principle governing the basic physiology ofThe other important principle governing the basic physiology of Ayurveda isAyurveda is AgniAgni. Ayurveda believes that any disturbance in. Ayurveda believes that any disturbance in digestion and metabolism leads to the formation of toxinsdigestion and metabolism leads to the formation of toxins (Ama),(Ama), which give rise to diseases.which give rise to diseases. AgniAgni governs this disturbance ofgoverns this disturbance of digestion and metabolism.digestion and metabolism.  When there is an imbalance of the Tri Dosha or Saptha Dhatu orWhen there is an imbalance of the Tri Dosha or Saptha Dhatu or AgniAgni, the disease process begins. The balanced state of the things, the disease process begins. The balanced state of the things mentioned above is responsible for the natural immunity of thementioned above is responsible for the natural immunity of the person.person.  AgniAgni All kinds of metabolic and digestive activity of the body takes All kinds of metabolic and digestive activity of the body takes place with the help of the biological fire of the body calledplace with the help of the biological fire of the body called AgniAgni.. AgniAgni can be termed as the various enzymes present in the elementarycan be termed as the various enzymes present in the elementary canal, liver and the tissue cells.canal, liver and the tissue cells.  ((Ama is a peculiar concept in Ayurveda (for which modern chemistry has no correlate). It is an important factor in a cause of disease andAma is a peculiar concept in Ayurveda (for which modern chemistry has no correlate). It is an important factor in a cause of disease and in modification of disease process. Role of Ama - Ama originates from improperly digested toxic particles that clog the channels in yourin modification of disease process. Role of Ama - Ama originates from improperly digested toxic particles that clog the channels in your body. Some of these channels are physical and include the intestines, lymphatic system, arteries and veins, capillaries, and genitourinarybody. Some of these channels are physical and include the intestines, lymphatic system, arteries and veins, capillaries, and genitourinary tract. Others are nonphysical channels called nadis through which your energy flows. )tract. Others are nonphysical channels called nadis through which your energy flows. )
  109. 109. What is Diseases?What is Diseases?  An Example: The concept ofAn Example: The concept of Prakruti and VikrutiPrakruti and Vikruti can be illustrated withcan be illustrated with reference to our body temperature. When healthy, we maintain an averagereference to our body temperature. When healthy, we maintain an average body temperature of about 98.4oF, which can be regarded.body temperature of about 98.4oF, which can be regarded.  As our Prakriti Although different persons can have different baseAs our Prakriti Although different persons can have different base temperatures, it does not change much so long as the person is healthy.temperatures, it does not change much so long as the person is healthy. When we go outside on a winter day, our body temperature may go downWhen we go outside on a winter day, our body temperature may go down slightly; but will come right back to the normal if we are healthy.slightly; but will come right back to the normal if we are healthy.  When we areWhen we are sick or catch a cold, our body temperature will go upsick or catch a cold, our body temperature will go up. This. This indicates that we are sick or outside our normal base condition. We mayindicates that we are sick or outside our normal base condition. We may take medicine to bring the body temperature back to the normal range. Intake medicine to bring the body temperature back to the normal range. In analogy to Ayurveda, our present temperature may be considered asanalogy to Ayurveda, our present temperature may be considered as Vikruti, because Vikruti means the state of disease. So it is important toVikruti, because Vikruti means the state of disease. So it is important to understand theunderstand the Prakriti and Vikruti of our bodyPrakriti and Vikruti of our body. .  Unlike other ancient medical sciences, the science of Ayurvedic healing isUnlike other ancient medical sciences, the science of Ayurvedic healing is not simply based on assumptions and probabilities rather based on logicalnot simply based on assumptions and probabilities rather based on logical examinations and testsexaminations and tests. . 

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