REPORT ON FIELD TRIP TOKPAKUNGU AREA OF MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGER STATE BY AMAKE CHRISTOPHER AKPANKE M.TECH/SSSE/11/3099 (GROUP B) SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY, SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY MINNA, NIGER STATE. MARCH, 2013
1.0 INTRODUCTIONUrban planning has a critical role to play in improving people’s wellbeing and the quality oflife. International conferences on sustainable development have highlighted this message,from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in1992 to the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II, the City Summit)in Istanbul in 1996. Spatial planning in both urban and rural areas is a key instrument forworking towards sustainable development at the local level. More specifically, urbanplanning is a potent tool both for reducing the overall impact of settlements on the regionalenvironment and for improving conditions within settlements. Urbanisation is a natural consequence of economic change that takes place as acountry develops. Certain activities are better performed in, indeed require, agglomerations ofpeople while others do not. The location of activities has therefore to be seen in the totalcontext of activities existing in a country and their development in the future. Agglomerationseconomies are very important for the development of new ones as they enter in theindustrialized or manufacturing world. There are also many economies of scale in theprovision of urban infrastructure. Service activities such as banking and insurance alsoexhibit economies of scale. The economic activities thrive in the presence of many othereconomic activities. Hence agglomeration of economic activities and people, that isurbanization should be seen as positive for over all development. Hence, it should besupported by policy actions. The puzzle of India is that, when industry and overall grossnational product grew at unprecedented rates, the rate of growth of urbanization sloweddown.In such a framework, deceleration of urban growth in a developing economy like Nigeria is acause for concern. This could be caused by a deceleration in productivity growth. It ispossible that the slow growth in the productivity especially in agricultural sector, except incertain pockets of the economy, is not releasing labour from the rural areas. This may be due
to various factors such as introduction of inappropriate technology choice, faulty tariffstructure providing greater protection for capital intensive industries, changes in the labourlaws from time to time and mainly inadequate investment in the urban infrastructure etc,Public facilities are those services derived from public work traditionally and supported bythe public sector in order to enhance private sector production and thereby allow forhousehold consumption. Urban planning needs to be transformed to make account of the needto extend infrastructural facilities.STUDY AREAKpakungu is located along the Minna – Bida road. The study area Kpakungu is situated inSouth-West geographical zone of Minna, Niger state. It lies between longitude 60 31’E andlatitude 90 35’N. Kpakungu falls within the Middle Belt of Nigeria (Southern GuineaSavanna). It has an average annual rainfall ranging between 1200mm and 1300mm. InAugust rainfall is at its peak. The range of temperature varies from 19.730C-37.320C and theclimate has excess humidity during greater part of the year. The months of February, Marchand April of every year, the area is at its peak of hotness, during this period the people of thatarea depends on underground water supplies to sustain their life.The people in this area are mostly low income earners while the female are into petty trade.Kpakungu is not planned, land are acquired through community means, local chief, familyheads etc, surprisingly the area that lacks basic amenities even when it lies in the state capital.
Fig 1.0a Google map image of MinnaFig 1.0b Google image of KpakunguThe trip was a short one as the area is not far from Bosso campus of the university. In thecourse of our field work we looked at the challenges the inhabitants are encountering, also on– the – spot assessment of the manifestation of the problems as the occur. We were givenspecific details of what to inquire as assess.
1.1 AIMThe aim of the fieldwork is to expose the students to the challenges of identifying, profilingand finding solution to physical problems in the urban environment.1.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the types of buildings that predominate the area 2. Assess the spaces between the buildings 3. Identify if soak away pits exist 4. Examine if road network exist and if there are side walk 5. Assess if road network exist 6. Assess the drainage systems and identify if erosion problem persist 7. Identify sources of water supply system 8. Identify the sources of energy for domestic use 9. Check availability of dispensaries/health centres. 10. Determine the tourism potentials of the area 11. Check id there are urban parks 12. Determine if the area has educational institutions 13. Assess generally the sanitary conditions of the settlement 14. Make recommendations to problems identified2.0 Data Collection and Methodology
Data were collected through personal interviews, discussion with colleagues and on the spotassessment. Most of the inhabitants are hausa speaking people so most of the peopleinterviewed were done in hausa.Fig 2.0 Interviewing some residentFindings 3.1 The buildings in the area are predominantly constructed of sandcrete blocks and roofed with corrugated roofing sheets, all the houses except a few are not plastered, no ceiling. The housing pattern/layout shows no planning. Most of the buildings are not well ventilated as we notice most rooms have only a window. Some build from the fence wall. Fig 2.1: Stagnant drain at the side of a building
Fig 2.2: typical building with ceiling3.2 The buildings in the area are not adequately spaced. Planning authorities approved a minimum of 3m setback from any wall, but we noticed that most buildings are spaced about 1.5 metres – 2 metres. Some buildings are not spaced up to 900mm and we noticed this space is used as a drain. Fig 2.3: Poorly spaced building3.3 Most building have soak away pits, though we notice few are not put to use ad are not covered. Few buildings especially those close to the drain channel their waste directly to the channel.
Fig 2.4: typical soak-away pit3.4 Internal road network are available though not tarred. Most are make shift access way as in some area the road are not defined. No side walk was seen. Fig 2.5: typical road network3.5 Drainage systems are available though not constructed drains. Individual household create drain for easy access of water to the channel that flows through the town. No major erosion problem was noticed but there are signs of such problems in the future from illegal laterite excavation and sand mining at the bank of river soje.
Fig 2.5: typical drainage system3.6 Water supplies for domestic uses are mainly from wall. We noticed water pipes laid on the ground and only one household have access to pipe borne water. We could not ascertain why most household are not connected to it. Most well are shallow and no consideration is given to the location as some are very close to toilet facility or drainage. We noticed a pond located next to a major waste dump (solid and liquid), though we were told the water is used for washing only and not for drinking. Fig 2.6: Pond (well) Fig 2.7: typical well
Fig 2.8: water pipe Fig 2.9: typical public well3.7 Source of energy for domestic uses are majorly firewood, wood were seen in houses and open spaces for sale. A young man interview told us he uses kerosene. Fig 2.10: fire wood for sale 3.8 One (1) public and one (1) private health centres are I existence. We interviewed a staff of the public clinic who told us that the major sicknesses in the area are malaria, typhoid, cholera, measles and few STDs cases. The clinic has a group of volunteers at ward level from the community that help in sensitizing the people, and reports any sickness and when there are immunizations, these volunteer communicate same to the people. The clinic has a policy of washing your hands before entering the clinic.
Fig 2.11: Hospital Ambulance Fig 2.12: Nurses attending to patient3.9 The people of the area said no tourist attraction in the area, and from our investigation, there are no potential for tourism in the area. The buildings are not planned as such space for tourism will be difficult.3.10 No recreational urban park.3.11 Educational institutions are available although most are at elementary levels. All the schools are privately owned, standards could not be ascertained as it was on Saturday.
Fig 2.13: some schools in the area 3.12 The general sanitary condition of the area is very poor and unhealthy. From the sources of water to waste disposal are so unhealthy.4.0 RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations are therefore made: 4.1 Planning / ConstructionThe planning authorities should redesign the area, creating the road network, access roads,etc. Building development should have approval before construction and building shouldconform to standard. Building should be spaced at a minimum of 3m from and building.
4.2 Energy EfficiencyThere should be rural economy development in the area, if the income of the area isincreased, access to sustainable energy will be handed. Government should key in to newdevelopment of sawn dust as a source of energy, this will reduce the amount of wood logged. 4.3 Water and SanitationGovernment should investigate why households are not connected to water mains, boreholesshould be constructed in areas for public use. a. Landfill disposal is the most common management strategy for municipal solid waste. b. Refuse can be safely deposited in a sanitary landfill, a disposal site that is carefully selected, designed, constructed and operated to protect the environment and public health. c. Governments at all levels should enforce the monthly environmental sanitation. d. Strict measures should be taken against environmental ethics violation. e. The society should be adequately enlightened about ecological apathy. f. The sides of the well should be lined with impervious material to a depth of about three meters to prevent easy influx of waste water through the porous media into the well. g. An area within 15 meters of the well should be kept free from pollution. In this area, there should be no any pit latrines, soak-away should be relocated and refuse dump should be minimum of 200 meters away. h. Local government should designate area where all forms of waste are to be dumped. License should be issued and renewed for permission to dump waste in the specified area.CONCLUSIONSThis trip to this area has revealed that the concentration of waste materials from pit latrines,wastewater canals very close or within the residential households often influencegroundwater pollution and subsequent contamination over a given period. Obviously, theproblems associated with environmental pollution have negative tendencies on the quality oflife of the people within the radius of the affected community
It is found that the water is polluted both physically and biologically. Pollution of the wellsdepends on the nature of the well i.e. its nearness to domestic wastes, depth of the well,fetching technique, well-cover and droppings (organic and inorganic wastes) into the well.Cities need to be more consciously planned if they are to address sustainability appropriately.Urban planning practices also need to be changed to reflect a new awareness and to integrateenvironmental, health, economic and social concerns of the 21st century.