Stained Glasshistorical development of an interior material
Stained glass windows are TYPEStranslucent glass shards cut into adesired shape. It was often done as Leaded glass window.a mosaic during its early years but It is joined with cames or H-shaped leadhas evolved into a mixture of strips. Exterior leaded glass is pressed into atechniques. Additional detailing, bed of glazing sealant or tape.shading or texturing may be doneby painting pigments or acids.(Spence, 2011) Figure 1. Leaded Glass window From Spence, W. (2011). Construction materials, methods and techniques: building for a sustainable future. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning. Faceted glass. It is fashioned from one inch thick colored glass slabs. It is cut into a way where light rays can reflect on to many directions. It has a wide range of translucency, and opacity. It is often set in reinforced concrete or epoxy resin matrix. The panels are then mounted on metal frames or in a masonry wall. Figure 2. Faceted Glass Window From Spence, W. (2011). Construction materials, methods and techniques: building for a sustainable future. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Material Content A glass that is given its desired color during its molten state with the use of chemical admixtures. (Ching, 2012) Traditionally, the glass is Iron Oxide Nickel and Selenium held together with the use • Gives the glass a Cobalt Oxide • Bronze Tint of malleable lead pale blue-green tint • Greyish tint Metals Used to Impart Color to GlassCadmium Sulfide YellowGold Chloride RedCobalt Oxide Blue-Violet Silver Nitrate Silver Nitrate Pot MetalsManganese Dioxide Purple • Yellowish Tint • Yellowish Tint • Red-pot metal wasNickel Oxide Violet the first to be usedSulfur Yellow-Amber to create “RUBY”Chromic Oxide Emerald GreenUranium Oxide Fluorescent Yellow, GreenIron Oxide Greens and BrownsSelenium Oxide RedsCarbon Oxides Amber Brown Amorphous or crystalline materialAntimony Oxides WhiteCopper Compounds Blue, Green, RedTin Compounds WhiteLead Compounds YellowManganese Dioxide A "decoloring" agentSodium Nitrate A "decoloring" agent Modern Colorants Retrieved from http://geology.com/articles/color-in-glass.shtml
International Figure 3. This early fifteenth-century manuscript illumination of The Travels of Sir John de Mandeville, depicts a medieval glass- house at work. From Brown, S. (1992). Stained Glass: An Illustrated History. London: Bracken Books. History and Development 1. Antique glass Antique glass is made by blowing a glass sheet into an annealed cylinder or “muff,” cut down the length with a glass cutter, and reheated to be flattened into a sheet. This type of glass is handmade and also possesses a unique texture. It is favored by artists for its imperfections with character. (Wrigley, 1996) There are different variations available in the market with its varying colors and translucency.
International History and Development 2. Christian Churches and Cathedrals The art of stained glass truly flourished through the Catholic Church. It was incorporated into the design of churches since the topic of “light” has been discussed within the bible. God first created light in Genesis 1:3 in the Story of Creation. Christ describes his children to be the “Children of the Light” and he himself as the “Lux Vera” or the one true light. Stories were imprinted on the windows to help the church-goers understand biblical passages and histories of important people with a short glance. The effect was awe- inspiring as people looked Figure 4. St. Agustine in his study by Hans Suess von Kulmbach upwards within a light-filled From Brown, S. (1992). Stained Glass: An Illustrated History. interior. (Brown, 1992). London: Bracken Books.
International History and Development 3. The Silver Stain Revolution Colors explored up to the time when Silverstain was introduced were only limited to reds and blues. Silver nitrate has the ability to turn white glass into yellow. It is often used to brighten reds and turn blue glass into green. (Moor, 1989) With the addition of this compound, the primary Figure 5. The Presentation in the Temple from the Infancy of colors are made complete Christ window at St. Denis by Suger From Brown, S. (1992). and the color wheel with all Stained Glass: An Illustrated History. London: Bracken Books. its potentials can be used.
International History and Development 4. Sixteenth Century and the Age of Enamels The sixteenth century is marked with political unrest. Oliver Cromwell in England and the French revolution resulted in the mass destruction of religious art. The Protestant Reformation significantly altered the demand for imagery in churches. Plain glazing became a popular choice for Protestant churches (Brown, 1992) This movement lasted up to the eighteenth century.
International History and Development 5. Gothic Revival to Arts and Crafts Throughout Europe, and in England in particular, dissatisfaction with mass produced products of the industrial age led to the Arts and Crafts movement. This age restored stained glass into all its glory. Artists honed their skills in the traditional art and made it their own. Machines were starting to make the glass- making process easier but handmade glass was still preferred. Figure 4. Prior’s Early English glass Retrieved from http://www.benyonstainedglass.com/www.benyonstainedglass.coms/info.php?p=10
International History and Development Different styles emerged in the twentieth century. The west was experiencing a change of artistic vocabulary transitioning into Art Nouveau with its sweeping, curving forms reminiscent of nature’s plant stems, leaves and flora. In America, angular geometric forms were used by Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright and the architects of the Prarie school. England was still into the Arts and Crafts tradition and continued to create in the Gothic idiom. Germany however, had Walter Gropius and his Bauhaus aesthetic with its abstract and figurative traditions. After the Second World War, mainstream artists took on Cubism, Expressionism and Abstraction to the next level. Stained Figure 6. Josef Albers’ Window in Red, made at the Bauhause in glass was used as a material to 1923 Retrieved from Moor, A. (1989). Contemporary Stained express these different kinds of styles Glass. London: Reed International Books Ltd. in different parts of the Western world. (Moor, 1989)
International History and Development There was a shortage of large- scale commissions which pushed artists to work on domestic, small- scale panels. This led to an exploration of detail-oriented additions such as the collage techniques where they fused glass and appliqué. Float glass was used by American Ed Carpenter in tandem with industrial and traditional glass to create screens, skylights and windows. Figure 7. Ed Carpenter’s Kaiser Permenete Medical Center, Portland, Oregon 1985 Retrieved from Moor, A. (1989). Contemporary Stained Glass. London: Reed International Books Ltd.
Figure 8. Trix Hausmann, the Galleria, Hamburg, W. Germany 1983 Retrieved from Moor, A. (1989). Contemporary Stained Glass. London: Reed International Books Ltd.Trix Hausmann, the Galleria, Hamburg, W. Germany 1983
History and Development Stained Glass in the Philippines
Local History and Development 1. Spanish Colonial Period Gothic Churches in the Philippines echo Renaissance details with the presence of Moorish influences. The Spanish Colonial Period in Philippine architectural development is clearly seen in the two most important building types: the church and the bahay na bato. Figure 9. Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar taken October 2008
Local More pictures from Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar Figure 10, 11 & 12. Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar taken October 2008
Local Figure 13,14 & 15. San Sebastian Church exterior and interior shots taken December 2008 San Sebastian Church, Manila Basilica Minore de San Sebastián
Local History and Development 2. The American Colonial and Art Deco Art Deco was popularized in the Philippines by western- educated Filipinos. Art Deco itself was derived from a 1925 exhibition in Paris that had the strongest impact in America. It influenced not only the visual arts but also fashion, jewelry, furniture, sculpture and architecture. It reflected a time for the avant-garde where machine-crisp style was characterized by linear, hard-edge angular composition with Figure 16. The Metropolitan Theatre. From Lico, G., Montinola, L., Noche, M., Silva, J., Villalon, A.(2010). Art Deco in the geometrically stylized Philippines. Montinola, L. (Ed.). ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd. decoration. (Villalon, 2010)
Local Figure 17. Art Deco window by Juan Figure 18. Far Eastern University by Figure 19. Lighting Fixtures inside the Luna From Lico, G., Montinola, L., Antonio Dumlao From Lico, G., Metropolitan Theatre. From Lico, G., Noche, M., Silva, J., Villalon, A.(2010). Montinola, L., Noche, M., Silva, J., Montinola, L., Noche, M., Silva, J., Art Deco in the Philippines. Montinola, Villalon, A.(2010). Art Deco in the Villalon, A.(2010). Art Deco in the L. (Ed.). ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd. Philippines. Montinola, L. (Ed.). Philippines. Montinola, L. (Ed.). ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd. ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd.
Local History and Development 3. Modern Structures: Churches Even if the architectural vocabularies have evolved through time, designers still choose to include stained glass windows in Churches. New technologies and techniques are applied but the general use and purpose of stained glass remains unchanged. This fact clearly shows that stained glass is still relevant in modern structures. Figure 20. St. Therese of the Child Jesus, stained glass depicting her life and struggles taken July 2012
Local History and Development 3. Modern Structures: Houses A house in Quezon City uses stained glass as a feature to add light, ventilation and color to the outdoor space. Figure 21 & 22. House in Quezon City, Exterior and Landscape
Local Figure 13. An accordion partition incorporating stained glass and louvers with grills
InternationalTinted glass1. Also known as heat absorbing 1. Tinted glazing 1. Warm-toned glass, is used for the purposes of bronze/grey glazing can controls glare and affect interior and reflecting and absorbing solar excess solar heat exterior color schemes radiation. When multiple layers are 2. At night time, gain year round used, the outermost layer is the occupants are on one which should be tinted. display while blocking • Increased iron content 2. [For winter days] After occupant views at night produces a green glass with absorbing heat, it 3. Thermal stress may cause the glass to the best transmittance of distributes heat at break from tension daylight nighttime. stresses on the glass • Grey-tinted glazing is neutral edges. in tone, so interior colors are 4. The cost factor. Antique rendered fairly 3. Provides some glass is relatively privacy / undesirable expensive as the cost accurately. Gray glass has varies enormously. the lowest transmittance of views, while allowing Reds are usually the visible and solar light. Light- some view out when most expensive. Rolled transmittance ranges from the illumination is glass is considerably very dark with only 10-15% less expensive than substantially higher genuine antique glass of light passing through to than the inside during whereas float glass is very light with 70-80% of the the most economical. the day. light passing through.
InternationalHeat Treated GlassRegular annealed glass is reheated 1. Patterns can be used 1. Optical distortionand then rapidly cooled. The cooling for aesthetic purposes 2. Heat treated glassprocess causes shrinkage in the glass, or concealing cannot be workedthus placing the outer surfaces into (cut/ drilled) afterhigh compression with the core of the treatmentglass in compensating tension. Heat 3. It is subject totreating methods are either vertical or possible breakagehorizontal. Each method produces a after installation duedegree of bow and warp evident as to subsequentoptical distortion patterns in the treated transformation ofglass. impurities in the batch (compounds of nickel or sulfur)
InternationalDouble Paned Glassusing tinted glass on the outer 1. By using its natural 1. More costly to use ability to absorb heat,pane and using low-emissivity it acts as a barrierglass for the inner pane, when when applied in aa proportion of the heat re- double paned system.radiated inwards from thebody-tinted glass is reflectedback out again by the low-emissivity coating.
ReferencesAlarcon, N., (1998). Philippine Architecture: During the pre-Spanish and Spanish Periods. Manila: UST Publishing House.Alarcon, N., (2008). The Imperial Tapestry: American Colonial Architecture in the Philippines. Manila: UST Publishing House.Binggel, C. (2010). Building Systems for Interior Designers. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 189-190Brown, S. (1992). Stained Glass: An Illustrated History. London: Bracken Books.Cañete, R. (2010). Bathed in Glorious Marian Light: Galo B. Ocampo’s Stained Glass Window at the Manila Cathedral. Bluprint Magazine. Volume 3Ching, F. (2012). Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 37, 112De Leon, C. (2010, March 30) Glass distinction. Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved from http://www.mb.com.ph/node/250343/gla.Dela Paz, C. (2011). Antonio G. Dumlao: The Forgotten Great. Retrieved from http://www.artesdelasfilipinas.com/archives/118/antonio-g-dumlao-the-forgotten-greatHarris, C. (2005). Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. McGraw-Hill ProfessionalLyon, A. (2010).Materials for Architects and Builders. London: RoutledgeLico, G. (2007). Building modernity: A century of Philippine Architecture and Allied Arts. Intramuros, Manila: The National Commision for Culture and the Arts.Lico, G., Montinola, L., Noche, M., Silva, J., Villalon, A.(2010). Art Deco in the Philippines. Montinola, L. (Ed.). ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd.Moor, A. (1989). Contemporary Stained Glass. London: Reed International Books Ltd.Spence, W. (2011). Construction materials, methods and techniques: building for a sustainable future. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning.Wrigley, L. (1996). The complete stained glass course. New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc.