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Colonial mentality in filipino spaces


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A presentation I made for my final paper in my ID 241 class Interior Design and Philippine Society and Culture under Dr. Adelaida Mayo of CTID.

My paper is on Colonial Mentality in Filipino Spaces which aims to put a more positive light on to a sensitive aspect of Filipino Society and Space.

I am hoping that the discussion would help in the decolonization process to pave the way towards true Filipino innovation.

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Colonial mentality in filipino spaces

  1. 1. Colonial Mentality in Filipino Spaces:A vehicle towards vernacularization within globalization. A Presentation by: Andrea R.N. Amador ID241 | Interior Design and Philippine Society and Culture AY 2012-2013
  2. 2. What is Colonial Mentality?It is a form of internal oppression in which the colonizedprefers and thinks highly of the customs, values andbeliefs of their colonizers. (Nadal, 2011)
  3. 3. Objectives This paper is a  To recover and rediscover the role of celebration of Colonialism in the Filipino discoursethe ability of the with spacesFilipino to make  To be able to reconcile our colonized an international language of past with our innovative present and design more future perceptions of Filipino space acceptable and  To bring Colonialism into a more recognizable in positive light as one of the ways in the Filipino which we can find our identity in the setting. We will international stage.discuss how the  And finally to help in the Filipino will associate and decolonization process by branding identify himself our unique experiences andin the discourse discourses with space as our own. of modern spaces.
  4. 4. Colonialism as a stepping stone towards true FilipinoinnovationWith our discussion of the topic, the researcher aims touse this part of our identity as a stepping stone towardstrue Filipino innovation. History Filipino’s New Forms natural tendencies Tradition People Innovation His own unique experiences and influences
  5. 5. HistoryTransitions of architectural vocabulary happened in two phaseswithin the history of Filipino architecture. According to Alarcon(1991), they were the Spanish Colonial and the American Colonialperiods. Urbanism along with new materials and building typescame to change the Philippine architectural and spatial profile. Tradition People Innovation
  6. 6. Picture of a native Filipina taken in a house in Ilocos | January 2008Historical backgroundPre-colonial Filipinos have used a version of the Austronesian model locallyknown as the bahay kubo. They grouped themselves in a baranggay headedby a datu. The houses were formed around the house of the datu which wassignificantly larger than all the other houses.
  7. 7. 370 years under the Spanish 50 years under the American crown Imperialism Agrifina Circle, Manila taken 2007Interior of San Sebastian Church taken December 2008 Historical background The Philippines is the only country in Asia that has been colonized by both Spain and the United States. In total, the Philippines have been colonized for about 420 years. (Nadal, 2011)
  8. 8. ModernismModernism has been used to symbolize a progressivenation. Using modern architecture is a part of nationbuilding where it is used both as a product and an agentof nationalism. (Cabalfin, 2006) Tradition People Innovation
  9. 9. ModernismIn respect with 1. Urbanism and Town Planningthe climacticconditions of the 2. New Building TypesPhilippines,advancements  Spatial Configurationsand adaptations  Transition Spaceswere introducedduring the two  Function-Specific Roomscolonial eras. 3. Materials and Technology  Construction Methods  Sanitation  Hybrid Systems
  10. 10. Associating Modern withColonialismSpanish Colonial American ColonialLas Casas Filipinas de Acuzar taken October 2008 Ilocos Municipal Hall, Manila taken January 2007
  11. 11. Associating Modern withColonialismSpanish Colonial American Colonial Laws of the Indies  Burnham Plan of Town Planning Manila and Baguio  Sanitary BarriosRenaissance Hybrid civic buildingsHumanism and a represented modernity,response to the progress andmedieval citys democracy: a constantproblems of crowding reminder of theand civil strife (results American colonial rule.of incremental growth) (Cabalfin, 2006)(Lico, 2011)
  12. 12. Associating Modern withColonialism It became the incubator and distributor of American ideals thatAmerican Colonial lubricated the modernization of the native. Art Deco  Cinema High-Rise Buildings Streamline Moderne: a testament to the dawn of manufacturing, of new machines and technological breakthrough. Ocean liners, automobiles and airplanes The Metropolitan Theatre. From Lico, G., Montinola, L., Noche, M., Silva, J., Villalon, A.(2010). Art Deco in the Philippines. Montinola, had to be streamlined. L. (Ed.). ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd. (Villalon, 2007)
  13. 13. Spaces and PlacesFilipino spaces have certain qualities similar to westernmodels but as a whole remains distinct. (Lichauco,1995) Tradition People Innovation
  14. 14. Public SpacesThe Plaza Layers of spaces are on top of each other based on the multi- function time dependent use (Cristobal, 2010) Based on a Quiapo Church taken December 2008 Renaissance model (Lico, 2011)
  15. 15. Public SpacesMalls The mall phenomenon was a part of globalization where Filipinos can take part of the trend. The rise of consumerism had influenced this relatively new building type that generally follows a format. (Villalon, 2001) Have become a converging place. It has become our modern equivalent of a park and plaza Both an incubator and a distributor of Western Ideals Trinoma Mall in Quezon City taken June 2007 Keeping us up-to-date with new trends
  16. 16. Public SpacesSubdivisions Western models of these villages are different in comparison with the Philippine model. The Filipino model of a village is a secluded place where the privileged can enjoy security within their walls. The traditional western model is a tightly-knit community with a town center where people can live close to their livelihood within walking Country Villas Subdivision Taken July 2012 distance. (Villalon, 2001)  Territoriality (within the walls)  Walkability (lessened with the use of automobiles)
  17. 17. Public SpacesContinuation of outsidespace In the bahay na bato model where the señorita of the house would simply look over the vollada in order to buy from a passing vendor on the street. Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar taken October 2008
  18. 18. Evolution of SpatialConfiguration in Private SpacesFrom the bahay kubo, bahay na bato, tsaletand the modern small spaces Tradition People Innovation
  19. 19. Private Spaces Bahay KuboBahay Kubo taken April 2010  The physical form of a raised structure on wooden posts  A psychological space below (Lichauco, 1995) Raised on wooden posts taken October 2008
  20. 20. Private Spaces Bahay na Bato  A hierarchy of spaces was introduced with more transition spaces.  The higher one climbed, the more private the space is. (Florendo, 2012) Enriquez House in Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar taken October 2008  No absolute divisions within the second floor of the house
  21. 21. Private Spaces Tsalet  Simplified functions  More sanitary with the introduction of private toilet facilities inside the house  The kitchen was brought in Santa Catalina, Laguna taken April  Garage for the 2010 automobiles
  22. 22. Private Spaces Small Spaces as Modern  Space has become one of the most precious commodities since small is becoming what most people can afford. (Villalon, 2001) Duplex in Fairview, Quezon City taken May 2012
  23. 23. Conclusion History Filipino’s New Forms natural tendencies Tradition People Innovation His own unique experiences and influences
  24. 24. Recap1. To recover and  It has allowed Filipino resourcefulness rediscover the role of Colonialism in the and ingenuity to flourish within Filipino discourse with Colonialism spaces2. To be able to reconcile  Our traditions are the base of our colonized past with innovation. We should never forget our innovative present and future perceptions them. of Filipino space  Colonialism is our stepping stone into3. To bring Colonialism into a more positive having relatable experiences parallel light as one of the ways with the international Modern in which we can find our identity in the movement international stage.  Let us innovate above and beyond the4. And finally to help in the decolonization process expectations of tradition by branding our unique experiences and
  25. 25. ReferencesAlarcon, N., (1991). Philippine Architecture: During the pre-Spanish and Spanish Periods. Manila: UST Publishing House.Alarcon, N., (2008). The Imperial Tapestry: American Colonial Architecture in the Philippines. Manila: UST Publishing House.Alcazaren, P. (2007).The Neoclassic Style in Philippine Architectural. Building modernity: A century of Philippine Architecture and Allied Arts. Intramuros, Manila: The National Commision for Culture and the Arts.Cabalfin, E. (2005). Conquest and Resistance: Intersections of Colonialism and Modernity in Twentieth-Century Philippine Architectures. Modern Asian Architecture Network 5th International Conference. Turkey: mAANCabalfin, E. (2006). Modernizing the Native. Ninth Docomomo International Conference, Istanbul & AnkaraCabalfin, E. (2009). Self-exoticism and national identity in post-colonial Philippine Architectures. Espasyo, 1Cristobal, J. (2010). Space utilization in Filipino culture: The bahay kubo and Quiapo. Espasyo, 2, 63-70.Condello, A. (2011). Filipino Luho and Manilas Metropolitan Theatre. Espasyo, 3, 119-127Fernandez, R. (2011). Chinoy-Hispanic: The Chinese influences in Filipino-Hispanic ancestral houses. Espasyo, 3, 95-106.Florendo, R. (2012). Casas baja de las campanas. Manila: University of Santo TomasPublishing House.Lichauco, D. (1995). A Comparative Analysis of Western and Philippine Spatial Systems: Towards the Development of Philippine Architecture. National Symposium on Filipino Architecture and Design, Quezon City. p.3-15Lico, G. (2007). Building modernity: A century of Philippine Architecture and Allied Arts.Intramuros, Manila: The National Commision for Culture and the Arts.Lico, G. (2011). Domus a la Italiana: The Legacy of Italy in the Philippines. Espasyo, 3, 119-127Lico, G., Montinola, L., Noche, M., Silva, J., Villalon, A.(2010). Art Deco in the Philippines. Montinola, L. (Ed.). ArtPortAsia Pte Ltd.Muñoz, K.A. & Reodique, C. (2010). Buhay Chinoy, bahay Chinoy: A study on religiousacculturation in contemporary Filipino-Chinese homes. Espasyo, 2, 99-106Nadal, K. (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, andClinical Practice. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.Villalon, A. (2001). Lugar: essays on Philippine heritage and architecture. Makati City: The Bookmark Inc.Yap, D. (1995). Transformation of Space in Philippine Traditional Houses: Studies of Morphology of space from the Prehispanic to the American Period. National Symposium on Filipino Architecture and Design, Quezon City. p.19-29