Life Science.Part2.Looking Inside Cells


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Life Science.Part2.Looking Inside Cells

  1. 1. Cells and Heredity <ul><li>“ Looking Inside of Cells” </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>PASS Strand: Structure and Function in Living Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized structures perform specific functions at all levels of complexity (e.g., leaves on trees and wings on birds). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organelles <ul><li>objects inside a cell, which carry out specific functions within the cell. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cell Wall <ul><li>a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Make of touch, yet flexible material called cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to protect and support the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Water and oxygen can pass through the cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Screen on a window </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Located just inside the cell wall in plants . </li></ul>Animals, it is the outside boundary that separates cells from its environment.
  6. 6. Nucleus <ul><li>Acts as the “ brain” of the cell. It directs all the cell’s activities. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organelles in the Cytoplasm <ul><li>Cytoplasm—                                                        </li></ul><ul><li>area between the cell membrane and nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>                                                      </li></ul><ul><li>Gel-like fluid in which many organelles are found. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mitochondria <ul><li>Rod shaped structures </li></ul><ul><li>The “powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Maze of passageways </li></ul><ul><li>Carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ribosomes <ul><li>Grain-like bodies attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Also found floating in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories to produce proteins. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Flattened collection of sacs and tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells “ mail room” </li></ul><ul><li>Receive proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and send them off to other parts of the cell. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Large green structures floating in cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Give plants green color. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vacuoles <ul><li>Large, round, water-filled sac floating in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage area of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells (mostly) have 1 large vacuole. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells may or may not have one. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lysosomes <ul><li>Small round structures that contain chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle old cell parts so they can be used again. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bacterial Cells <ul><li>Smaller than plant or animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Has a cell wall and cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Has no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material (looks like waded string) is found in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Contain ribosomes, but no other organelles </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bacterial cells
  17. 18. Specialized Cells <ul><li>Cells are suited to the functions they carry out. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Blood cells look different than nerve cells and have different jobs. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Lets review the differences between plant and animal cells
  19. 21. Cell No 5 Song <ul><li>(and there’s an easy way to remember it!) </li></ul>
  20. 22. TEXTBOOK: Human Biology and Health “ How the Body is Organized”
  21. 23. <ul><li>PASS Strand: Structure and Function in Living Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Living systems are organized by levels of complexity , i.e. cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, organisms, and ecosystems.) </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems together make organisms. Organisms create ecosystems. </li></ul>
  23. 25. C E L L S <ul><li>LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Cells- -basic unit of structure and function in a living thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular—organism which only has one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular—complex organism made up of several cells </li></ul>
  24. 26. Tissues <ul><li>a group of similar cells that perform the same function. Perform a specific job . </li></ul>
  25. 28. Tissues <ul><li>a.     Muscle tissue—cells can contract or shorten </li></ul><ul><li>b.     Nerve tissue—carries messages between brain and body </li></ul><ul><li>c.      Connective tissue—Support for body, connects all parts of body </li></ul><ul><li>d. Epithelial tissue—Covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out </li></ul>
  26. 29. Organs <ul><li>a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue . Performs a specific job. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Organs <ul><li>Heart —is an organ. Function: pumps blood through your body. Is made up pf 4 kinds of tissue. Each helps with the overall job. </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys -- two bean -shaped organs. Helps keep water volume in body constant. Helps remove wastes from body and helps regulate blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Skin —largest organ . Covers and protects body. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Organ System <ul><li>a group of organs that work together to perform a major function </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Circulatory —carries materials to body cells, carries wastes away from body cells helps fight disease . </li></ul>
  30. 33. Organ System <ul><li>Digestive —takes food into the body, breaks food down , and absorbs the digestive materials </li></ul>
  31. 34. Organ System <ul><li>Immune — </li></ul><ul><li>Fights </li></ul><ul><li>disease </li></ul>
  32. 35. Organ System <ul><li>Muscular —Enables the body to move, moves food through the digestive system, keeps the heart beating </li></ul>
  33. 36. Organ System <ul><li>Nervous —detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body, controls most body functions </li></ul>
  34. 37. Organ System <ul><li>Respiratory —Takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  35. 38. Organ System <ul><li>Skeletal — Supports the body, protects it, and works with muscles to allow movement, makes blood cells and stores some materials </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Examples: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bone cell — responsible for bone growth and repair. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bone tissue — consists of living cells that are separated from one another by a hard non-living material that gives bones their strength. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bone organ — Ex. Thigh bone or femur consists of different kinds of tissues. (also contains blood and nerve tissue) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organ system — Skeletal system. Made up of over 200 bones. Includes cartilage and ligaments. </li></ul>
  37. 41. Organism <ul><li>Organ systems come together to produce a living creature . An individual form of life, such as a plant, animal, bacterium, protist, or fungus; </li></ul>
  38. 42. Ecosystem <ul><li>A community of plants, ___________, and microorganisms that are linked by energy and nutrient flows and that interact with each other and with the physical environment. </li></ul>
  39. 43. Interdependence <ul><li>depending on other things to get a job done. Working together. </li></ul>
  40. 44. Osmosis
  41. 45. Diffusion