Notes for _____________________ Living Things, “What is Life.” Henley
PASS Strand: 5. Diversity and Adaptations of Organisms
Objectives: By classifying organisms, biologists consider details of internal and external structure.
Local extension: A five or six-kingdom classification system will be used to classify living things.
I. What is Life?
A. The Characteristics of Living Things
All living things have
a. ____________ organization
b. Contain similar chemicals
c. Use __________
d. Grow and Develop
e. Respond to their _________________
1) Cellular Organization
a. All organisms are made of tiny building blocks called __________
b. Fit a million cells on the __________________ at the end of this sentence.
c. Unicellular or Multicellular
i. Unicellular—single-celled organisms
ii. Multicellular—organisms composed of _____________ cells. Cells are specialized and perform
different ___________ for the organism.
2) Contain Similar Chemicals
a. Water—most abundant chemical in __________.
b. Carbohydrates—_______________ source
c. Proteins and lipids—building materials of the cell. (like wood and ___________ for houses)
d. Nucleic acids—_____________ material. Directs the cells activities.
3) Use Energy
a. Cells use energy to ___________ and repair injured parts.
b. Cells for digestion need energy to digest __________ particles
c. Blood cells need energy to move chemicals to your ________________
4) Grow and Develop
a. _________________—becoming larger
b. ______________________—change that produces a more complex organism.
i. Ex. Acorn turns into an oak tree
5) Respond to their surroundings
a. React to changes in their _________________
b. _________________ (plural stimuli)—a change in an organism’s surroundings that causes the organism to
i. Ex. Changes in temperature, light, sound
c. _________________—an action or change in behavior. An organism reacts to a stimulus with a response.
i. Ex. When someone scares you (change of environment) you may scream, faint ( your response).
a. Reproduce—the ability to produce offspring similar to the _______________.
i. Robins produce _____________
ii. Sunflowers produce ______________ that develop into sunflowers
iii. Bacteria produce __________________ just like themselves.
B. Life Comes From ______________
New organisms arise from reproduction.
_______________________ generation—The mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources.
Ex. Experiments of Redi and Pasteur pg. 20, 21.
C. The Needs of Living Things
All living things must satisfy their _____________________ for energy, water, living space, and stable internal
a. Heterotroph--Animals need food as their energy source, but cannot make their own ____________
i. ____________ is energy source indirectly b/c they either eat autotrophs and obtain their energy or
consume other heterotrophs that eat autotrophs.
b. Autotroph—an organism which can make its own ___________
a. All living things need water to survive. It can ____________more chemicals than any other substance on
earth. Helps by:
i. Obtain chemicals from surroundings
ii. Break down _________
iv. Move substances within their bodies
3) Living Space
a. All organisms need a space to _________. A place to get food and water, and to find __________.
i. Plants only have so much space. Compete for sunlight/ space. Roots compete for water and
ii. Animals can move but _____________ living spaces with others or compete for area.
4) Stable Internal Conditions
a. Organisms must be able to keep the conditions ______________ their bodies constant.
b. Homeostasis—keeping the internal conditions stable despite the changes in an organism’s _____________
TEXTBOOK: From Bacteria to Plants Section 2 “The Origin of Life.”
I. The Origin of Life
A. Earth’s Early Atmosphere
1) Atmosphere was ________________ than today.
a. Nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane were most abundant ______________.
b. We couldn’t have survived b/c there was no ______________. However, it is believed that some life
forms did live on Earth about this time.
2) Today’s Atmosphere
a. Mainly _______________ and oxygen, smaller amounts of the other gases.
3) Life forms on Earth 3.6 billion years ago.
a. Scientists believe that early life forms arose on Earth. We can only hypothesize:
i. They did not need ____________ to survive.
ii. _______________ organisms.
iii. Probably lived in the ______________
B. Life’s Chemicals
a. Scientists believe that the first life forms did arise from ___________ materials, even if they don’t today.
b. An experiment was conducted where scientist recreated the conditions of early earth. They added
_______________ to simulate lightning and found that there were small chemical units that could
possibly form carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids—the building blocks of ____________
C. The First Cells
c. How they started:
i. Scientists theorized that over time small chemical units of life formed gradually over millions of
years in Earth’s waters.
ii. Some formed together to form chemical building blocks that are found in cells.
iii. Some large chemicals accumulated and became the __________________.
d. __________________—are traces of ancient organisms that have been preserved in rock.
e. Fossils they have found _________________ their hypothesis about the beginning of life.
f. Heterotrophs and Autotrophs developed over time.
g. Autotrophs contributed to __________________ in the atmosphere.
Notes for __________________________________. Section 3 “Classifying Organisms.” Henley
I. Classifying Organisms
A. Why do Scientists Classify?
a. There are 2.5 million kinds of _________________ on Earth. (including plants, animals and bacteria)
b. Classification—the process of ___________________ things based on their similarities.
i. We classify music “rap, r&b, pop, _____________”
ii. We classify foods “dairy, meat, poultry, _____________, vegetables.”
B. Early Classification Systems
a. _________________—came up with the idea to use observations to classify animals by appearance,
iii. Walk, crawl, ________
C. The Classification System of Linnaeus
Used _____________________ as the basis of his system.
Binomial nomenclature—each organism was given a ________ part name. Made of a genus and species name
that identifies a certain organism.
o Genus—_____ part of name. A classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms.
o Species—_______part of name. A group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile
offspring in nature.
o __________—genus and species names are in Latin language. This was the language all scientists
o Italics and Capitalization—the complete scientific name is written in _________. The genus name is
capitalized while the species name begins with a small letter.
o Example: Felis domesticus—house cat/ domestic cat
a. 7 Levels of Classification
o Organisms are grouped by their shared characteristics. First put in a broad group and then moved into
more specific groups
i. Kingdom—broadest level of organization
vii. Species—can produce fertile offspring in nature.
o The more classification levels that two animals share, the more characteristics they have in common.
D. Evolution and Classification
a. Charles ______________ published a theory about how species change over time.
b. It is proven that species can change over time (adaptations). Ex. Humans get ________, birds beak gets
c. It is not proven that organisms can change into other ______________, ex. A monkey into a person
d. _________________—the process by which species gradually change over time.
E. Classification Today
a. Theory is that species are similar because they share a common _________________
b. Species with similar evolutionary histories are classified more closely together.
i. Get information about how species used to be from ___________
ii. Compare body structures and _______________ makeup to fossils.
c. Compare body structures to other ___________
d. Compare early development of different organisms. Ex. Humans and rabbits go through similar stages in
their development before ______________. This means they may share evolutionary history.
e. Primarily rely on info about the chemical makeup of cells to determine evolutionary history. The more
closely related the 2 species, the more similar the __________________ that make up their cells are.
F. Using the Classification System
a. _____________ Key—a series of paired statements that describe the physical characteristics of different
TEXTBOOK: From Bacteria to Plants. Section 4 “The 6 Kingdoms.”
I. The 6 Kingdoms
Organisms are placed into kingdoms based on their type of ________, their ability to make _________ , and the
number of _____________ in their bodies.
o ________________—organisms whose cells lack a nucleus
Nucleus—dense area in a cell that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct
the cell’s activities. Nucleic acids are scattered throughout the cell. (Bacteria.)
o ________________—organisms with cells that contain nucleus. Their chemical instructions are in the
A. Archaebacteria—means “__________ bacteria”
a. Unicellular bacteria
b. _________________ or heterotrophic
c. Live in places without _____________ (ocean floor, salty water, hot springs, and your intestines!)
d. Prokaryotes—(no nucleus)
a. Can be found in ____________
b. Unicellular bacteria
c. Autotrophic or ______________
d. Most are helpful, some cause things like __________ throat
a. Slime molds
b. Autotrophic or heterotrophic
c. Most _________________
d. Some multicellular, sea weed
e. Eukaryotes—(have _________)
a. Mushrooms, molds and mildew
b. Most are Multicellular eukaryotes
c. Yeast is unicellular eukaryotes
d. Most found on ________, a few in fresh water
e. Heterotrophs—feed on _____________ organisms
a. Dandelions, mosses, tomatoes
b. Multicellular eukaryotes
d. Some produce flowers some do not
e. Can be __________or grow tall like a sequoia __________
a. Dogs, _______, rabbits
b. Multicellular eukaryotes.