Types of variation

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Types of variation

  1. 1. EXERCISE 1 July 3, 2013TYPES OF VARIATION
  2. 2. Differentiate the types of variations Illustrate the variations noted in the specimen and, Appreciate the beauty and wonders of the things around brought by the types of variations OBJECTIVES
  3. 3.  variation  basic quality of an organism  phenotype  an individual’s observable trait (height, eye color, and blood type)  genotype  genetic contribution of the phenotype; a collection of genes; a combination of alleles for a particular gene
  4. 4. GENOTYPIC VARIANCE variation in phenotype caused by genetic make-up  additive variance (deviation from mean phenotype due to inheritance of a particular allele; average differences)  dominance variance (expression is not equal)  epistatic variance (interaction with alleles but associated with different loci) ENVIRONMENTAL VARIANCE  specific environmental variance (deviation from mean due to envt conditions uniquely experienced by individual)  general environmental variance (non-genetic sources experienced by multiple individuals in population)  genotype by environment interaction (unique or diff responses of genetic lines to GEV) MAJOR CAUSES OF VARIATION
  5. 5.  In a CORN, genes A and B control the yield of the corn.  A – 2 corns a – 1 corn  B – 6 corns b – 3 corns  each allele will contribute to the yield of the corn AaBb X AaBb  AABB - 16 (2+2+6+6) AABb - 13 AABb - 13  AaBB - 15 Aabb - 9 AaBb - 12  aaBB - 14 aabb - 8 aaBb - 11 ADDITIVE VARIANCE
  6. 6.  A plant produces white flowers if its genotypes are A1A1 and red flowers if its genotypes are A2A2  we would assume that A1A2 leads to pink flower but in dominance variance there is NO MIDPOINT  If A2 is dominant, A1A2 would produce red flowers DOMINANCE VARIANCE
  7. 7.  In the same flower, a B1 gene produces pigment whereas a B2 gene does not produce any pigment (flower appears white)  A2A2B1B1 – red flower  A1A1B2B2 – white flower  A2A2B2B2 – white flower EPISTATIC VARIANCE
  8. 8.  5 pcs common fruit belonging to same species  5 pcs mayana, San Francisco, or Duranta leaves  5 pcs flowers of any plant species  2 groups of 5 invertebrates  Drawing materials and coloring pens  ruler MATERIALS
  9. 9. A. Variation in plants Examine the 5 fruits, the 5 leaves and the 5 flowers of the plant specimens that you brought. Note the variations in size, shape, color, and their other features. Illustrate and list down at least 5 variations that you have observed in each of the specimens. Compute for the total magnification of each specimen. PROCEDURE
  10. 10.  B. Variations in animals  Do the same in your animal specimens. Observe not only its morphological or anatomical variations but also their similarities and differences physiologically, behaviorally and sexually.  Compute for the total magnification of the specimen.  All drawings must be of 50 mm. in length and in width. Computations about reduction and magnification must be included. Determine if the specimen is magnified or reduced. PROCEDURE
  11. 11.  Name Date  Course/Yr/Section Types of Variation A. In Plants 1. Fruits of (illustrations) Similarities Differences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. FORMAT
  12. 12. Types of Variation 2. Leaves of (illustrations) Similarities Differences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. Computations of magnification: FORMAT
  13. 13. Types of Variation 3. Leaves of (illustrations) Similarities Differences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. Computations of magnification: FORMAT
  14. 14. Types of Variation B. In animals 1. (Common name: _________) (illustrations) Similarities Differences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. Computations of magnification: FORMAT
  15. 15. Types of Variation B. In animals 2. (Common name: _________) (illustrations) Similarities Differences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. Computations of magnification: FORMAT
  16. 16.  1. What is variation. Give its importance.  2. What are the possible causes of variations? Give specific examples.  3. How would you know or identify if the cause of variation is genetic, environmental, or both?  4. Classify these variations as to “species characteristics” or “individual characteristics”. Thorns in the stalk of the rose flower Body size of ants Color of apple skin Color mosaic in San Francisco leaf Number of body segments in worm QUESTIONS
  17. 17.  Make a survey of at least ten 2nd or 3rd year college students.  Note their sex, age, height, weight, and thumbprint.  Fill out Table 1  With the guide, classify the different surveyed thumbprints.  Summarize the data gathered on age, height and weight and complete Table 2  Make a list of twenty (20) human traits and classify them as to morphological, physiological, sexual or behavioral variations. Fill out Table 3. CONT. HUMAN VARIATIONS
  18. 18. FINGER PRINT CLASSIFICATION
  19. 19.  Start collecting wild-type fruit flies  Place banana or its peel in a jar and expose near a garbage can.  Observe frequently until enough fruit flies are trapped in the jar. Cover with paper and poke the paper with pin (enough to produce air circulation) Secure the paper with rubber band. Do not keep in locker or expose in direct sunlight. Keep in room temperature.  Keep collecting for culturing. REMINDERS
  20. 20.  Bring:  Samples of the fruit fly.  Hand lens  cotton balls  scissor  scotch tape  face mask NEXT MEETING

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